Session 11 Vocabulary

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1 English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI] Session 11 Vocabulary

2 A quick review of Session 10 What are collocations and why are they useful? Groups or chunks of words Learning words in chunks helps with making our English look and sound natural. Name at least two types of collocation: adverb + adjective adjective + noun noun + noun noun + verb verb + noun verb + preposition

3 By the end of this session you will be able to identify incorrect colligations (grammar patterns)

4 Grammar patterns: Colligation Some grammatical structures go together. This is a similar idea to collocation, which refers to words that go together. Do the following examples look correct? The teacher asked us to sign out of Facebook. We started laugh and tried to finding the sign out button.

5 Grammar patterns: Colligation Some grammatical structures go together. This is a similar idea to collocation, which refers to words that go together. The correct forms: The teacher asked us to sign out of Facebook. We started laughing and tried to find the sign out button.

6 Verb patterns Verbs have particular patterns of words after them. These patterns help to make our use of English look and sound natural. Let s now look at some common patterns.

7 Four different types of processes A British linguist (Halliday, 1985) developed a useful way of classifying verbs, adapted here for simplicity: Action [doing] Mental [sensing] Saying Relational [being/ having]

8 verb + to + infinitive Notice the pattern with mental and saying processes. Among other uses, this pattern can be connected with: - plans and decisions - decide to do sth - expectations - want to do sth - promises and refusals - offer to do sth We decided to go out for dinner. I want to go out for dinner. He offered to make dinner.

9 verb + object + to + infinitive This pattern often follows causative verbs. For example: - advise sb to do sth - encourage sb to do sth - persuade sb to do sth - teach sb to do sth The tutor advised us to review chapter four. The teacher encouraged us to use our initiative. He persuaded me to buy a smartphone. I taught myself to drive.

10 For example: verb + object + bare infinitive - have sb do sth We had IT Support fix the network. - let sb do sth The teacher let us go early. But: - make sb do sth - help sb do sth - help sb to do sth The teacher made us stay late. Quentin helped me understand the problem. Quentin helped me to understand the problem. Both patterns are correct.

11 verb + ing Among other uses, this pattern can be connected with: - saying and mental processes - suggest doing sth He suggested going out for dinner. - consider being sth She considered being a teacher. - liking and disliking - enjoy doing sth - phrasal verbs - put off doing sth I enjoy trying all kinds of food. We put off going to the new restaurant because I had food poisoning.

12 verb + object + ing For example: - appreciate sb doing sth I appreciate you coming on time. - involve sb doing sth The job will involve you travelling often. - prevent sb doing sth The teacher prevented us using Facebook. - remember sb doing sth I can t remember her attending that class.

13 verb + object + ing Sensing verbs (feel, hear, see ) can have two patterns. A bare infinitive suggests an event is completed: - see sb do sth An ing form suggests an event is in progress: - see sb doing sth Try to think of another example We saw Michael talk to Janet. I saw Michael talking to Janet.

14 verb + infinitive / ing Sometimes this makes no difference to the meaning: - start to do sth - start doing sth Sometimes it makes a small difference: - like to do sth - like doing sth Sometimes it makes a big difference: - stop to do sth a good habit enjoy I ve started to learn kung fu. I ve started learning kung fu. I like to do the housework before the weekend. I like playing football with my friends. I stopped to watch the news. stopped doing something else in order to watch the news - stop doing sth I stopped watching the news. stopped watching the news in order to do something else

15 verb + bare infinitive This pattern follows modal verbs. For example: - can do sth She can speak four languages. - might do sth He might be late for the meeting. - must do sth You must listen carefully. - will do sth I will say this only once.

16 verb + that + clause This pattern follows saying processes. For example: - argue that + clause - claim that + clause - state that + clause - suggest that + clause Duffy (2011) argues that Facebook can connect students with teachers. Junco (2012) claims that Facebook negatively affects student GPA. Gilster (1997) states that students need to learn how to evaluate information. McCarthy (2013) suggests that students can discuss and critique via Facebook.

17 preposition + ing Prepositions (in, for, with ) are followed by ing forms. verb + preposition + ing: - argue against doing sth The students argued against logging out of Facebook. verb + preposition + object + ing: - object to sb doing sth verb + object + preposition + ing: - accuse sb of doing sth The teacher objected to the students arguing about this. The students accused the teacher of being antisocial.

18 infinitive of purpose For example: We worked hard to pass the exam. To miss the traffic, you have to leave before 7am. You ve got to be in it to win it.

19 As usual we can use an advanced learner s dictionary to find out which pattern/patterns a verb has. An example from the online Macmillan dictionary

20

21 Advanced learner s dictionaries Collocation information is also provided in this type of dictionary. Cambridge: Collins Cobuild: Longman: Macmillan: Oxford:

22 The teacher told to listen carefully. Right or wrong? We planned presenting for 10 minutes. I am enjoying studying at AUT. I look forward to hear from you. The students congratulated on a getting top marks. Oh no! I ve forgotten paying the rent. The evidence suggests to students should use Facebook. I would coming to the party but I ought to study. You really should stop to smoke. tell sb to do sth plan to do sth look forward to doing sth forget doing sth = you did it, but can t remember it congratulate sb on doing sth forget to do sth = you didn t do it at all suggest + that + clause modal verb + bare infinitive stop doing sth = cease an activity I would like to state that to achieve top marks, you need to work hard.

23 Verb pattern lists: Useful resources Exercises:

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