Cells Need to Exchange Materials with the Extracellular Fluid. Membrane Transport. Plasma Membrane. Cells Must Control Movements of Materials

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1 Membrane Transport Chapter 6 Cells Need to Exchange Materials with the Extracellular Fluid Take in nutrients O 2 energy substrates building materials cofactors Dispose of wastes CO 2 Urea Cells Must Control Movements of Materials Need to maintain complexity inside the cell Must regulate type and amount of material entering and leaving the cell Plasma Membrane Selectively Permeable some materials can pass readily, others cannot Membrane Permeability Size the smaller the particle, the more permeable small molecules (O 2, CO 2,H 2 O) can large molecules (protein, DNA) cannot Lipid Solubility YES: non-polar molecules (O 2, cholesterol), NO: charged atoms/molecules (Na +, Cl -, HCO 3- ), large polar molecules (glucose) Membrane Transport Requires: 1. Permeability of the membrane 2. A driving force Passive Transport movement of particles along a gradient does not require energy expenditure Active Transport movement of particles against a gradient requires energy expenditure 1

2 Some Important Terms Solution mixture of two(+) substances that is uniform at the molecular level Solute particles (molecules or ions) present in a solution Solvent phase (generally a liquid) in which particles are dissolved (H 2 O) Concentration amt. solute dissolved in a given volume of solution or solvent Passive Membrane Transport Simple Diffusion movement of particles along a concentration gradient Osmosis diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane Facilitated Diffusion movement of particles along a concentration gradient through a carrier protein Diffusion Diffusion and Concentration Molecules and ions in a solution are in a constant state of motion Tend to diffuse - become evenly dispersed throughout the solution Diffusion = movement of particles in a solution due to random thermal motion Solute particles diffuse from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration Down a concentration gradient (high low) Continues until equilibrium is reached Gas Diffusion in Cells Diffusion and Ions Ions = charged particles Like charges repel, opposites attract Differences in charge between two areas = electrical gradient Ions move along an electrical gradient until charges are balanced 2

3 Diffusion and Ions Diffusion and Ions Membrane impermeable to (-) NOTE: Electrical equilibrium may require movement against the concentration gradient Electrochemical Gradient Net movement of ions due to the combined effects of the electrical gradient and the concentration gradient Equilibrium may be achieved across a membrane at a point of unequal concentrations and charges Diffusion and Membrane Transport Lipid bilayer determines what substances can readily pass through the membrane if bilayer is permeable, substance can diffuse through if bilayer is impermeable, no diffusion even if gradient exists Diffusion and Membrane Transport Substances to which the membrane is impermeable must pass via alternate means Facilitated Diffusion - movement across the cell membrane through a carrier protein Channel Proteins - allow flow of ions across the cell membrane Both allow regulation of flow Factors Affecting Rate of Diffusion magnitude of the gradient gradient, rate permeability of the membrane to the substance permeability, rate temperature of the solution temperature, rate the surface area of the membrane through which diffusion is taking place SA, rate 3

4 Osmosis Net diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane diffusion of the solvent, not the solute Osmosis For osmosis to occur: 1. the membrane must be permeable to water and impermeable to at least one of the solutes in the solution 2. there must be a difference in solute concentration between the two sides of the membrane Osmotic Pressure Osmotic Pressure Osmosis results in changes in volume on either side of the membrane Changes in volume could be stopped by applying an equal and opposite force would effectively stop osmosis Osmotic pressure = amount of pressure that would have to be exerted in order to prevent osmosis measure of how strongly a solution draws water into itself [solute], osmotic pressure of the solution Facilitated Diffusion Many molecules large and/or polar molecules are needed for metabolism cannot pass through lipid bilayer Shuttled across membrane by carrier proteins Facilitated diffusion carrier-mediated transport along the conc. gradient no energy expended by the cell Properties of Carrier Proteins in Facilitated Diffusion Specificity transport only one or a few different substances possess special bind sites Saturation limited rate of transport at high concentrations no further increase in transport rate will accompany increases in the conc. gradient Reversible - direction of movement across membrane is influenced by solute concentration If [Solute] out > [Solute] in mvmt is from out in If [Solute] in > [Solute] out mvmt is from in out If [Solute] out = [Solute] in net diffusion = 0 4

5 Active Membrane Transport Requires energy expenditure by the cell (use of ATP) Active Carrier Mediated Transport - use membrane proteins to move materials against a gradient Vesicular Transport - move large amounts of material into and out of the cell Active Carrier-Mediated Transport A carrier-mediated transport system that moves a substance against its EC gradient across a cell membrane requires ATP usage pumps substances from low to high concentrations Example: Ca 2+ pump Ca 2+ binds to protein ATP breakdown causes protein to change shape AND affinity for Ca 2+ Ca + ejected on opposite side of the membrane Example: Na + / K + pump Pumps Na + out and K + in 3 Na + out per 2 K + in Generates concentration gradients Generates electrical gradient ACMT vs. Facilitated Diffusion Similarities Carrier Protein Mediated Exhibit Chemical Specificity Differences ACMT requires energy (ATP) Binding affinity of carrier changes in ACMT does not change for facilitated diffusion - gradient determines net movement Types of Active Carrier- Mediated Transport Primary Active Transport hydrolysis (breakdown) of ATP directly required for the function of the carrier e.g. Ca 2+ pump, Na + /K + pump 5

6 Types of Active Carrier- Mediated Transport Secondary Active Transport (Coupled Transport) energy needed for movement of a substance against gradient is provided by the movement of another substance along its gradient Example: Na + -glucose cotransport indirectly requires ATP via Na + /K + pump (establishes gradient) Vesicular Transport Transport of vesicle contents across cell membranes bulk transport - move large amounts of material very large molecules can be moved this way Two types of movement 1. exocytosis - movement of material out of the cell hormones, neurotransmitters, etc. 2. endocytosis - movement of material into the cell cellular debris, bacteria, etc. 6

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