# Grade 4: Whole Number Place Values. A Set of Related Tasks and Lesson Guides

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1 Grade 4: Whole Number Place Values A Set of Related Tasks and Lesson Guides

8 Tasks Standards Alignment Task 4.NBT.A.1 4.NBT.A.2 4.NBT.A.3 MP 1 MP 2 MP 3 MP 4 MP 5 MP 6 MP 7 MP 8 Task 1 Pennies for the Garden Task 2 Numbers Big and Small Task 3 Tall Towers Task 4 Mighty Mountains Solidifying Understanding Task 5 Park Patrons Task 6 Big Bell Task 7 Marble Mayhem Task 8 County Populations Solidifying Understanding The Standards for Mathematical Practice 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Introduction 8

9 Name Task 1: Pennies for the Garden Meadow View Elementary School is having a fundraiser to support a new garden project. Jill found 47 pennies around her house to donate. The entire 4 th Grade brought in over 1,000 times that amount. a) About how many pennies did the 4 th Grade donate for the garden project? How do you know? b) The 5 th Grade brought in 43,209 pennies. Write the number of pennies donated from the 5 th Grade in expanded form. Task 1 9

11 decimal to the right, the original value is multiplied by 10. Those students might explain the answer by saying that moving the decimal place three spaces to the right multiplies the value of the original number by 1,000 to make 47,000. What does the word about mean in the problem? Suppose the number of pennies was 10 times Jill s original 47. What would be the value of that number? Other students may show their reasoning by using a place value chart like the one below. This shows the change in value with the arrows. Ten thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones b) 43,209=(4 x 10,000) + (3 x 1,000) + (2 x 100) + (9 x 1) Students may include (0 x 10), which does not change the value and is acceptable. Possible Student Misconceptions Students may have difficulty understanding a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For part a), students using the strategy of moving the decimal to right 3 spaces to show 1,000 times 47 pennies may incorrectly place the original decimal point in 47. Assessing Questions: Why did you choose to use multiplication? Why did you choose to use addition? How did you select the factor to multiply by each digit in the original number? How would writing a zero at the end of the standard form number change your answer in expanded form? Would your answer still be correct without the plus signs? Advancing Questions: Can you read this number aloud? What is the value of the 4 in 43,209? The 3? The 2? The 9? What does the zero in the number mean? Can you use a model to build 20? (20 is Build a set of 2 and repeat it 10 times.) Can you use a model to build 200? (Build a set of 20 and repeat it 10 times.) Can you relate these models to the place value chart? Where is the decimal in 47? How do you know? How does the value change to move the decimal point to.47? How does the value change to move the decimal point to 4.7? Task 1 11

13 Name Task 2: Numbers Big and Small Sawyer and Olivia have a set of number cards like those below. They are taking turns giving each other challenges with the cards. a) Solve Sawyer s challenge to make the largest whole number possible using all 6 cards. Explain your reasoning. b) Solve Olivia s challenge to make the smallest whole number possible using all 6 cards. Explain your reasoning. Task 2 13

14 Tennessee Department of Education: Lesson Guide 2 Task 2: Numbers Big and Small 4 th Grade Sawyer and Olivia have a set of number cards like those below. They are taking turns giving each other challenges with the cards. a) Solve Sawyer s challenge to make the largest whole number possible using all 6 cards. Explain your reasoning. b) Solve Olivia s challenge to make the smallest whole number possible using all 6 cards. Explain your reasoning. Teacher Notes: This task can be adapted by varying the quantity and/or value of number cards based on the abilities of students. Teachers may also choose to add other criteria for the challenges in a) and b) such as requiring the target number to be odd, even, or between specific numbers. Tennessee State Standards for Mathematical Tennessee State Standards for Mathematical Content 4.NBT.A.1 Recognize that in a multi- digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. 4.NBT.A.2 Read and write multi- digit whole numbers using base- ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi- digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. Practice 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Essential Understandings: For any number, the place of a digit tells how many ones, tens, hundreds, and so forth are represented by that digit. Each place value to the left of another is ten times greater than the one to the right (e.g., 100 = 10 x 10). Mathematical explanations can be given using words, objects, pictures, numbers, or equations. Explore Phase Possible Solution Paths a) The largest whole number possible is 654,321. Since a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right the digits should be written in order of their value from the largest to the smallest place value location. Assessing Questions: How did you decide what the largest number possible was? Is there any way to make a larger number? Advancing Questions: Which digit has the greatest value? Which digit has the smallest value? How do the values of numbers change as you move to the left in place value location? How do the values of numbers change as you Task 2 14

16 Discuss/Analyze Whole Group Questions Since one of the essential understandings of this task (and arc) pertains to the variety and richness of possible mathematical explanations, the whole group discussion should highlight different strategies used to solve the problem and to explain reasoning. For any number, the place of a digit tells how many ones, tens, hundreds, and so forth are represented by that digit. How did you know how to make the largest 6- digit number? What are the values of each digit in that number? How did you know how to make the smallest 6- digit number? What are the values of each digit in that number? Each place value to the left of another is ten times greater than the one to the right (e.g., 100 = 10 x 10). Why does it matter which order the digits are in when determining the value of the multi- digit whole number? Mathematical explanations can be given using words, objects, pictures, numbers, or equations. What advice would you give to a student who is struggling to read multi- digit whole numbers? Task 2 16

17 Name Task 3: Tall Towers The United States of America has many tall buildings. The Key Tower in Cleveland is 947 feet tall. The Willis Tower in Chicago is 1,450 feet tall. a) Which building is the tallest? How do you know? b) How many times larger is the digit 4 in the height of the Willis Tower than the digit 4 in the height of the Key Tower? Can you demonstrate your reasoning? Task 3 17

19 value chart so that corresponding place value locations are lined up vertically. Beginning with the largest place value location, Willis Tower has a 1 in the thousands place, while Key Tower does not have a digit in the thousands place. Could writing the numbers in expanded form help in comparing them? Why or why not? Represented with base ten blocks: Key Tower = 947 Willis Tower = 1,450 Beginning with the largest block, the thousands, students can visually see that Willis Tower has 1 thousands block, while Key Tower does not have any thousands blocks. b) Students should explain that the digit 4 in the height of thse Willis Tower is 10 times larger than the digit 4 in the height of the Key Tower. Students should recognize that a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. The 4 in the Willis Tower is in the hundreds place. By moving one place value location Task 3 Assessing Questions: How did you find your answer? Why did you choose to use a place value chart? Why did you choose to use base ten blocks? What are the values of each type of base ten block that you used? How does moving one place to the left change 19

20 to the right, the 4 in the Key Tower is in the tens place. Represented with a place value chart: Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Willis Tower Key Tower " Represented with base ten blocks: The 4 in the Willis Tower has a value of 400. the value of the same digit in a multi- digit number? How does moving one place to the right change the value of the same digit in a multi- digit number? Advancing Questions: Can you read the numbers aloud? Which place value is the 4 in each value? Can you represent what each 4 represents with base ten blocks? Could writing the numbers in expanded form help in comparing them? Why or why not? The 4 in the Key Tower has a value of 40. Students can visually see the higher value of the 4 in the Willis Tower and that each base ten flat is worth ten times the value of each base ten rod. Possible Student Misconceptions Students may think the first digit of a multi- digit number indicates the greatness of its value. For example, with the numbers 947 and 1,450 students may focus on the first digit instead of the number as a whole. Students may have difficulty understanding a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. Entry/Extensions If students can t get started. Task 3 Can you use a place value chart to vertically line up the numbers being compared? Can you build the numbers being compared using base ten blocks? Can you use a model to build 20? Can you use a model to build 200? Can you relate these models to the place value chart? Can you read each number aloud? How does the name of the number give us clues to the value of the number? 20

21 What is the value of the 9 in 947? the 4? the 7? What is the value of the 1 in 1450? the 4? the 5? the 0? Can you use each digit s value to compare the numbers? How does moving two places to the left change the value of the same digit in a multi- digit number? How does moving two places to the right change the value of the same digit in a multi- digit number? If students finish early. Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago is 1,389 ft. tall, while Aon Centre in Chicago is 1,136 ft. tall. How many times larger is the 3 in the Trump Tower than the 3 in Aon Centre? Can you challenge a partner with a similar problem about tall buildings in Tennessee? Discuss/Analyze Whole Group Questions Since one of the essential understandings of this task (and arc) pertains to the variety and richness of possible mathematical explanations, the whole group discussion should highlight different strategies used to solve the problem and to explain reasoning. For any number, the place of a digit tells how many ones, tens, hundreds, and so forth are represented by that digit. What effect does the location of a digit have on the value of the digit? Which number is larger: 380 or 38? How do you know? Why? What conclusions can you make about the places within our base ten number system? Each place value to the left of another is ten times greater than the one to the right (e.g., 100 = 10 x 10). What can you conclude about the value of a digit in the ones place compared to the value of the same digit in the tens place? What can you conclude about the value of a digit in the tens place compared to the value of the same digit in the hundreds place? What can you conclude about the value of a digit in the hundreds place compared to the value of the same digit in the thousands place? How does moving one place to the left change the value of the same digit in a multi- digit number? How does moving one place to the right change the value of the same digit in a multi- digit number? How does this relate to division? Mathematical explanations can be given using words, objects, pictures, numbers, or equations. How did you choose to represent your reasoning in this task? Task 3 21

22 Name Task 4: Mighty Mountains The table below lists the heights and locations of the second and third tallest mountains in the world. Mountain Location Height Aconcagua South America 22,837 ft. Mount McKinley North America 20,320 ft. a) Which mountain is taller? Explain your reasoning. b) Use symbols to compare the heights of the mountains. c) Describe and compare the value of the digit 3 in each mountain height. d) Write the heights in expanded form. How does this help you to compare them? Task 4 22

24 Represented with a place value chart: Ten Thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Aconcagua Mount McKinley !! Can you place both numbers in a place value chart? What is the largest place value for both numbers? Which place is the largest place value that contains different digits? Both mountain heights should be written in the place value chart so that corresponding place value locations are lined up vertically. Represented on a number line: The blue arrow points to the approximate location of 20,320 to represent the height of Mount McKinley. The red arrow points to the approximate location of 22,837 to represent the height of Aconcagua. Numbers located to the right on a numberline are larger than numbers to the left demonstrating that Aconcagua is taller than Mount McKinley. b) After completing part a), students should be aware than Aconcagua is taller than Mount McKinley. Using their heights for the numbers, either inequality below is an acceptable answer. Task 4 20,320 < 22,837 or 22,837 > 20,320 c) The 3 in Aconcagua s height of 22,837 is in the tens place, so it represents 30. The 3 in Mount McKinley s height of 20,320 is in the hundreds Assessing Questions: How did you decide which symbol to use? How did you decide which number to write first and last? Could you write this another way? Advancing Questions: Which symbols could you use to compare numbers? Could you use an equal sign in this comparison? Why or why not? Which number is the largest? Assessing Questions: How do you know the value of the digit 3 in each mountain height? 24

25 d) Task 4 place, so it represents 300. The digit 3 has a larger value in Mount McKinley s height than Aconcagua s height, since 300 > 30 or 30 < ,837 = (2 x 10,000) + (2 x 1,000) + (8 x 100) + (3 x 10) ,320 = (2 x 10,000) + (0 x 1,000) + (3 x 100) + (2 x 10) + 0 Writing multi- digit numbers in expanded form shows the face value of a digit multiplied by its place value or power of ten. Expanded form helps to compare multi- digit whole numbers by showing the value of each digit for easy comparison. Possible Student Misconceptions In the number 20,320, students may not realize the zeros are place holders. Entry/Extensions If students can t get started. If students finish early. Which 3 digit has a greater value in the mountain heights? Which 3 digit has a lesser value in the mountain heights? Can you explain how the same digit can have different values? Advancing Questions: In what place value is the 3 in each mountain s height? Is there a symbol that you could use in this comparison? Could you use an equal sign in this comparison? Why or why not? Assessing Questions: How did you select the factor to multiply by each digit in the standard form number? Can you explain how the standard form relates to the expanded form? Why are plus signs needed when writing numbers in expanded form? Suppose both numbers had another zero at the end. How would this change the expanded form? Advancing Questions: Can you read the numbers aloud? What is the value of the 2 in 22, 837? The 2 nd 2? The 8? The 3? The 7? What does the first 0 from the right represent in 20,320? What does the last 0 from the right represent in 20,320? Does it change the value of 20,320 if either or both 0s are removed? Can you read each number to me? Can you place these numbers on a number line? Can you place these numbers in a place value chart? What symbols are used to compare two numbers? Can you write the expanded form for 476? Mount Everest is the Earth s highest mountain, with a peak at 29,029 ft. Can you use symbols to compare its height to the height of Aconcagua? Can you write Mount Everest s height in expanded form? 25

26 Discuss/Analyze Whole Group Questions Since one of the essential understandings of this task (and arc) pertains to the variety and richness of possible mathematical explanations, the whole group discussion should highlight different strategies used to solve the problem and to explain reasoning. For any number, the place of a digit tells how many ones, tens, hundreds, and so forth are represented by that digit. Why did you choose to use a place value chart? Why did you choose to use a number line? How can place value understanding help us with comparing, ordering, and rounding? Each place value to the left of another is ten times greater than the one to the right (e.g., 100 = 10 x 10). How do you know the value of the digit 3 in each mountain height? Which 3 digit has a greater value in the mountain heights? Which 3 digit has a lesser value in the mountain heights? Mathematical explanations can be given using words, objects, pictures, numbers, or equations. How can numbers be expressed, ordered, and compared? What symbols can I use to compare numbers? The value of the digits can be added together to find the value of the number. What is the expanded form of 22,837? Can you explain how the standard form relates to the expanded form? Why are plus signs needed when writing numbers in expanded form? Task 4 26

27 Name Task 5: Park Patrons The United States of America has many national parks that draw thousands of visitors each year. The table below shows the number of visitors for three national parks in Wind Cave Mammoth Cave Canyonlands 538,394 visitors 483,319 visitors 473,773 visitors a) Gianna said, When I round all these numbers, I get the same number. Zachary said, I disagree. I get all different numbers. Can they both be correct? Explain your reasoning. b) Round each number to the hundred thousands place. Explain your reasoning. Task 5 27

28 Tennessee Department of Education: Lesson Guide 5 Task 5: Park Patrons 4 th Grade The United States of America has many national parks that draw thousands of visitors each year. The table below shows the number of visitors for three national parks in Wind Cave Mammoth Cave Canyonlands 538,394 visitors 483,319 visitors 473,773 visitors a) Gianna said, When I round all these numbers, I get the same number. Zachary said, I disagree. I get all different numbers. Can they both be correct? Explain your reasoning. b) Round each number to the hundred thousands place. Explain your reasoning. Teacher Notes: If this task is too difficult for some students, consider using smaller numbers. Teachers can use the language close to and closest to as they interact with students to help them understand rounding as a useful and natural activity. Emphasize that only the digit to the right of the place being rounded to is used to make the decision whether to round up or to round down. Some discussion of how to treat the rounding process when the digit to the right is a 5 will be necessary. Task 5 Tennessee State Standards for Mathematical Content 4.NBT.A.2 Read and write multi- digit whole numbers using base- ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi- digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 4.NBT.A.3 Use place value understanding to round multi- digit whole numbers to any place. Tennessee State Standards for Mathematical Practice 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Essential Understandings: For any number, the place of a digit tells how many ones, tens, hundreds, and so forth are represented by that digit. Mathematical explanations can be given using words, objects, pictures, numbers, or equations. Rounding whole numbers is a process for finding the multiple of 10, 100, and so on closest to a given number. Explore Phase Possible Solution Paths a) Gianna is correct that all of these numbers round to 500,000 when they are rounded to the highest place value. Zachary is correct that all of these numbers round to different numbers when they are rounded to places other than the highest place value. Assessing Questions: How do you know that Gianna is correct in saying that all these numbers round to the same number? How do you know that Zachary is correct in saying that all these numbers round to different 28

29 Gianna s reasoning is demonstrated in the explanation for part a). Answers may vary for Zachary, but the same reasoning can be used to explain Zachary s answer. For example, he could round to ten thousands by changing the values on the number line to 530,000 and 540,000 for Wind Cave; 480,000 and 490,000 for Mammoth Cave; and 470,000 and 480,000 for Canyonlands Wind Cave rounds to 540,000 numbers? How is it possible that both Gianna and Zachary are correct when their answers are different? Advancing Questions: Can you think of 2 different 3- digit numbers that would round to the same number when rounded to the hundreds place and the tens place? Can you think of 2 different 4- digit numbers that would round to the same number when rounded to the thousands place, the hundreds place, and the tens place? Mammoth Cave rounds to 480,000 Canyonlands rounds to 470,000 b) Students should round each number to 500,000, as shown in the table below. Wind Cave 538,394 visitors 500,000 Mammoth Cave 483,319 visitors 500,000 Canyonlands 473,773 visitors 500,000 Task 5 Assessing Questions: How did you decide that 538,394 rounded to 500,000? How did you decide that 483,319 rounded to 500,000? How did you decide that 473,773 rounded to 500,000? 29

30 To help students understand rounding, they can think about zooming out on a number line between 400,000 and 500,000 for Mammoth Cave and Canyonlands or between 500,000 and 600,000 for Wind Cave. What is the highest number possible that would round to 500,000, when rounding to the highest place value? What is the smallest number possible that would round to 500,000, when rounding to the highest place value? Advancing Questions: How would you round 16 to the nearest tens place? 14? 15? How do you know to round up or down? What words can you use to express the idea behind rounding? (Close to) Which digit should I look at to round 538,394 to the nearest hundred thousand? 483,319? 473,773? This visual helps to explain why the traditional procedure works. If the value to the right of the place being considered is less than 5, the number is rounded down. If the value to the right of the place being considered is greater than or equal to 5, the number is rounded up. Wind Cave Task 5 30

31 Mammoth Cave Canyonlands Possible Student Misconceptions Students misapply the rule for rounding down and actually lower the value of the digit in the designated place. Example: When asked to round to the nearest ten thousand, students round the number 762,398 to 750,000 or 752,398. Students misapply the rule for rounding up and change the digit in the designated place while leaving digits in smaller places as they are. Example: Students round 127,884 to 128,884 (nearest thousand). Entry/Extensions If students can t get started. If students finish early. Task 5 In the following number, what are the possible values when rounding to the thousands place: 86,214? How do you know? Can you explain on a number line? In the following number, what are the possible values when rounding to the thousands place: 31,927? How do you know? Can you explain on a number line? Is 2 closer to 0 or to 10? How do you know? Is 6 closer to 0 or to 10? How do you know? Does 5 round to 0 or to 10? How do you know? Can you read this number orally: 394? When asked to round 394 to the largest place value, which digit is being rounded? What are the options for that digit? Which place value location helps you decide how to round? Is there a tool that might help you to solve this problem? Can you round all these numbers to the tens place? 31

32 Can you round all these numbers to the hundreds place? Can you round all these numbers to the thousands place? Can you find another national park that has an annual number of visitors that would round to 500,000? Discuss/Analyze Whole Group Questions Since one of the essential understandings of this task (and arc) pertains to the variety and richness of possible mathematical explanations, the whole group discussion should highlight different strategies used to solve the problem and to explain reasoning. For any number, the place of a digit tells how many ones, tens, hundreds, and so forth are represented by that digit. How can place value understanding help us with comparing, ordering, and rounding? Mathematical explanations can be given using words, objects, pictures, numbers, or equations. How did you choose to show your reasoning about rounding? Explain. Rounding whole numbers is a process for finding the multiple of 10, 100, and so on closest to a given number. How do you know that Gianna is correct in saying that all these numbers round to the same number? How do you know that Zachary is correct in saying that all these numbers round to different numbers? What is the highest number possible that would round to 500,000, when rounding to the highest place value? What is the smallest number possible that would round to 500,000, when rounding to the highest place value? What do we get when we round 25 to the nearest ten? Why? Is 25 closer to 30 or 20? (Neither. It s right in the middle.) Why do you think it rounds to 30? (It s a mathematical convention.) These questions can stimulate a discussion of where some of our rules come from. Task 5 32

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