Gas Turbine cycles and Propulsion system. Sarika Goel 3 rd year,chemical Engineering, IIT Delhi Guide : Prof. Gautam Biswas & Prof. S.

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1 Gas Turbine cycles and Propulsion system Sarika Goel 3 rd year,chemical Engineering, IIT Delhi Guide : Prof. Gautam Biswas & Prof. S. Sarkar

2 Outline Introduction- Gas turbine cycles Applications of gas turbines Brayton cycle and its analysis Improvements in brayton cycle Irreversibilities involved in analysis Types of Jet engine and thrust calculations Conclusions

3 Introduction Gas turbine cycles

4 Schematic diagram of Gas turbine

5 Components of gas turbines Inlet : Determine the amount of air flow into an engine Suck in as much of the air coming towards it as possible Compressor : Used to squeeze the air, or to increase the pressure of the air flow

6 Combustor: Air is mixed with a highly flammable fuel and ignited hot, high pressure air exiting the burner becomes the primary source of the exhaust gases Turbine: High pressure gases drop in pressure The velocity of the flow increases

7 Nozzle : The exhaust gases continue to increase their velocity

8 Pressure variation intake compressor condensor turbine nozzle

9 Temperature variation intake compressor condenser turbine nozzle

10 Uses of Gas Turbine cycles Electric power generation Aircraft propulsion and Jet Engine applications

11 Electric power generation Closed cycle Some work is used to drive the compressor and rest is used for power generation

12 Jet engine Operate on Newton's third law Jet sucks air into the front, squeezes it, ignites it with fuel and finally after exit comes out as exhaust The same opposite force pushes the jet forward as that of the exhaust

13 Brayton cycle (closed) Reversible processes Isentropic compression Constant P heat addition Constant P heat rejection Isentropic expansion

14 Air standard cycle Brayton cycle

15 Why go for Brayton cycle? To find the upper limit of performance of individual components

16 Brayton cycle

17 Brayton cycle analysis Efficiency: η = w q net in Net work: w net = w turb w comp

18 Efficiency: in net q w η = ) h (h ) h (h ) h (h = ) h (h ) h (h η = Assumption of cold air conditions : ) T (T c T ) (T c p 1 4 p η = ( ) ( ) 1 T T 1 T T T T η = Isentropic relationships: T T p p k k = ; T T p p p p k k k k = =

19 P 2 r p = pressure ratio = = P1 P P 3 4 Relation of temperature ratios to the pressure ratio: T T 2 1 = r ( k 1) p k = T T 3 4 So, efficiency : η = 1 1 r p ( k 1) k

20 Efficiency with pressure ratio As the pressure ratio rises, the efficiency also rises.

21 Specific work output : w net = w turb w comp w net = (h3 h 4) (h 2 h1) W W

22 Net work with pressure ratio For fixed values of Tmin and Tmax, the net work of the Brayton cycle first increases with the pressure ratio,reaches a maximum and finally decreases.

23 Improvements in Brayton cycle Exhaust heat exchanger Inter-cooling Reheating

24 Cycle with Exhaust Heat Exchange

25

26 Efficiency is more The specific output does not change

27 Gas Turbine Cycle with Reheat

28 The specific work output The heat supplied to the cycle Thus, the cycle efficiency Increase in work output

29 Specific work output increases Efficiency decreases

30 Gas Turbine Cycle with Inter-cooling

31 Specific work output = Heat supplied = Thus,

32 Specific output of the plant increases Efficiency decreases

33 Multiple inter-cooling and reheating Compression and expansion processes tend to be isothermal Efficiency approaches to Carnot cycle

34 Actual Gas Turbine Cycle Efficiency of the compression and expansion processes Pressure losses Incomplete heat exchange in the regenerator Mechanical losses due to bearings auxiliary etc Variation of Specific heat of the working fluid with temperature Variable mass flow throughout the cycle

35 Effect of irreversibilities on cycle

36 Types of jet engines Turbojet Turboprop Turbofan Ramjet

37 Turboprop engine Most gas is expanded in turbine to drive the compressor and propeller Used only for low speed aircraft like cargo planes because propellers become less efficient as the speed of the aircraft increases.

38 Turbofan Engine Turbofan gets some of its thrust from the core and some from the fan They produce high thrust and are good fuel efficient

39 Thrust calculations

40 Turbojet thrust

41 Turboprop thrust

42 Turbofan thrust

43 Conclusions Brayton cycle is an important tool to analyze the aircraft propulsion and power generation in a plant. Heat exchanger increases the efficiency. Intercooling and reheating increases the work output. Turboprop is used for low velocity applications and turbofan is used for high velocity applications.

44 Thank you

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