FIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "FIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses"

Transcription

1 8 48 Glycerin at 40 C with r 1252 kg/m 3 and m 0.27 kg/m s is flowing through a 4-cm-diameter horizontal smooth pipe with an average velocity of 3.5 m/s. Determine the pressure drop per 10 m of the pipe Reconsider Prob Using EES (or other) software, investigate the effect of the pipe diameter on the pressure drop for the same constant flow rate. Let the pipe diameter vary from 1 to 10 cm in increments of 1 cm. Tabulate and plot the results, and draw conclusions. 8 50E Air at 1 atm and 60 F is flowing through a 1 ft 1ft square duct made of commercial steel at a rate of 1600 cfm. Determine the pressure drop and head loss per ft of the duct. 1 ft Air 1 ft 1600 ft 3 /min FIGURE P8 50E 8 51 Liquid ammonia at 20 C is flowing through a 30-m-long section of a 5-mm-diameter copper tube at a rate of 0.15 kg/s. Determine the pressure drop, the head loss, and the pumping power required to overcome the frictional losses in the tube. Answers: 4792 kpa, 734 m, 1.08 kw 8 52 Water (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) flows through a 0.01-m-diameter pipe. The flow is steady, laminar, and fully developed. In this exercise, you will use CFD to calculate the Darcy friction factor f for fully developed laminar pipe flow, and compare to the analytical value obtained with the exact equation f = 64/Re. Run FlowLab with template Pipe_1D_Reynolds. Vary the Reynolds number from 100 to 2000, and record average velocity V and pressure gradient dp/dx for each case. From these data, calculate f and compare with the analytical value. Is there good agreement? Discuss In this exercise, we examine fully developed turbulent flow through a rough pipe. Run FlowLab with template Pipe_turbulent_rough. Run several cases, each with a diffferent value of normalized pipe roughness, e/d, but at the same Reynolds number. Calculate and tabulate Darcy friction factor f as a function of normalized toughness parameter e/d. Compare f with that predicted by the Colebrook equation for fully developed turbulent pipe flow in rough pipes. Discuss. Minor Losses 8 54C What is minor loss in pipe flow? How is the minor loss coefficient K L defined? C Define equivalent length for minor loss in pipe flow. How is it related to the minor loss coefficient? 8 56C The effect of rounding of a pipe inlet on the loss coefficient is (a) negligible, (b) somewhat significant, or (c) very significant. 8 57C The effect of rounding of a pipe exit on the loss coefficient is (a) negligible, (b) somewhat significant, or (c) very significant. 8 58C Which has a greater minor loss coefficient during pipe flow: gradual expansion or gradual contraction? Why? 8 59C A piping system involves sharp turns, and thus large minor head losses. One way of reducing the head loss is to replace the sharp turns by circular elbows. What is another way? 8 60C During a retrofitting project of a fluid flow system to reduce the pumping power, it is proposed to install vanes into the miter elbows or to replace the sharp turns in 90 miter elbows by smooth curved bends. Which approach will result in a greater reduction in pumping power requirements? 8 61 Water is to be withdrawn from a 5-m-high water reservoir by drilling a 1.5-cm-diameter hole at the bottom surface. Disregarding the effect of the kinetic energy correction factor, determine the flow rate of water through the hole if (a) the entrance of the hole is well-rounded and (b) the entrance is sharp-edged A horizontal pipe has an abrupt expansion from D 1 8 cm to D 2 16 cm. The water velocity in the smaller section is 10 m/s and the flow is turbulent. The pressure in the smaller section is P kpa. Taking the kinetic energy correction factor to be 1.06 at both the inlet and the outlet, determine the downstream pressure P 2, and estimate the error that would have occurred if Bernoulli s equation had been used. Answers: 432 kpa, 25.0 kpa Water D 1 = 8 cm 10 m/s 410 kpa FIGURE P8 62 D 2 = 16 cm 8 63 Consider flow from a water reservoir through a circular hole of diameter D at the side wall at a vertical distance H from the free surface. The flow rate through an actual hole with a sharp-edged entrance (K L 0.5) is considerably less than the flow rate calculated assuming frictionless flow and thus zero loss for the hole. Disregarding the effect of the kinetic energy correction factor, obtain a relation for the equivalent diameter of the sharp-edged hole for use in frictionless flow relations.

2 406 INTERNAL FLOW D Frictionless flow FIGURE P8 63 Actual flow D equiv 8 64 Repeat Prob for a slightly rounded entrance (K L 0.12) Water (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) flows into a 0.10-m-long (L), 0.01-mdiameter (D) pipe. We are interested in the minor loss coefficient due to entrance effects, and we model the entrance region using CFD. At the inlet, the velocity is uniform, which leads to a very high wall shear stress near the entrance. The pipe is long enough that the flow becomes fully developed before the pipe outlet. The flow is steady and laminar. Run FlowLab with template Pipe_2D_developing at a Reynolds number of 150 and record the pressure change P/L. Use the following steps to calculate the minor loss coefficient: (i) Calculate (analytically) the pressure drop that would occur for this same pipe if it were fully developed over the entire length. (ii) Subtract this from the actual pressure drop calculated from the CFD output; the difference represents the extra pressure drop due to entrance effects. (iii) Convert the extra pressure drop to a minor loss coefficient and compare with the minor loss coefficients for different types of pipe inlets given in the text. Discuss your results Water (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) flows through a 0.01-m-diameter, 0.10-m-long will use CFD to predict the minor loss coefficient due to the entrance region in the pipe. Specifically, run FlowLab with template Pipe_3d_Reynolds at Re = 100; this template simulates fully developed flow in the pipe. Record dp/dx and calculate the total pressure drop P in the pipe. Repeat at the same Reynolds number with template Pipe_3d_developing, which solves for flow in the same pipe but with an entrance region uniform flow at the inlet. In this case, the output is P per meter. Calculate P for this case and subtract P of the fully developed case. The difference is the pressure drop due solely to entrance-length effects. Calculate the minor loss coefficient K L and discuss your results Water (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) flows through a 0.01-m-diameter, 0.10-m-long will use CFD to predict the minor loss coefficient due to a bump in the pipe (simulating debris build-up or a deposit of solid material on the inner pipe wall). Specifically, run FlowLab with template Pipe_3d_developing at Re = 100; this template simu- lates laminar flow in a pipe with a uniform velocity at the inlet. Record the pressure drop provided in the output as P per meter. Calculate P for this case. Repeat with template Pipe_3d_bump, which simulates the same flow in the same pipe but with a three-dimensional bump along the inner pipe wall. Calculate the pressure drop by plotting the pressure along the axis and subtracting the outlet pressure from the inlet pressure. Subtract P for the case without the bump from P for the case with the bump. The difference is the pressure drop due solely to the effect of the bump. Calculate the minor loss coefficient K L and discuss your results Water (r kg/m 3 and m will use CFD to compare the length of the entrance region at two different Reynolds numbers. The flow at the pipe inlet is uniform, and the pipe is sufficiently long for the flow to become fully developed by the outlet. Run FlowLab with template Pipe_3d_developing at Re 20. Plot velocity profiles (XY Plots, select the appropriate plot, and Plot). Create a hardcopy (file) and attach to your homework. Approximately how many pipe diameters does it take for the flow to become fully developed? Repeat for Re = 100 and discuss your results Water (r kg/m 3 and m will use CFD to compare the pressure drop down the pipe for two cases a clean pipe and a pipe with a bump (simulating debris build-up or a deposit of solid material on the inner pipe wall). The flow at the pipe inlet is uniform, and the pipe is sufficiently long for the flow to become fully developed by the outlet. Run FlowLab with template Pipe_3d_developing at Re 100. Plot P gage versus x (XY Plots, select the appropriate plot, and Plot). Write the data to a file. Repeat for the case with the bump using template Pipe_3d_bump, again running at Re = 100. Plot P gage versus x for the two cases on the same plot for direct comparison. Discuss and explain the results Water (r kg/m 3 and m will use CFD to compare velocity profiles down the pipe for two cases a clean pipe and a pipe with a bump (simulating debris build up or a deposit of solid material on the inner pipe wall). The flow at the pipe inlet is uniform, and the pipe is sufficiently long for the flow to become fully developed by the outlet. Run FlowLab with template Pipe_3d_developing at Re 50. Plot velocity profiles at various axial locations down the pipe (XY Plots, select the appropriate plot, and Plot). Repeat for the case with the bump using the template Pipe_ 3d_bump, again running at Re = 50. Compare the two plots and discuss your results Air (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) flows through a 1.00-m-diameter, 45.0-m-long pipe. The flow is turbulent, but steady in the mean. In this

3 exercise, you will use CFD to predict the minor loss coefficient due to the entrance region in the pipe. Specifically, run FlowLab with template Pipe_turbulent_developed at Re 10,000; this template simulates fully developed flow in the pipe. Plot the axial pressure distribution (XY Plots, select the appropriate plot, and Plot). Write the data to a file and record the inlet and outlet pressures; using these data, calculate the total pressure drop P in the pipe. Repeat at the same Reynolds number with template Pipe_turbulent_developing, which solves for flow in the same pipe but with an entrance region uniform flow at the inlet. Calculate P for this case and subtract P of the fully developed case. The difference is the pressure drop due solely to entrance length effects. Calculate minor loss coefficient K L and discuss your results. Piping Systems and Pump Selection 8 72C A person filling a bucket with water using a garden hose suddenly remembers that attaching a nozzle to the hose increases the discharge velocity of water and wonders if this increased velocity would decrease the filling time of the bucket. What do you think would be the effect of attaching a nozzle to the hose on the filling time: increase it, decrease it, or have no effect? Why? 8 73C Consider two identical 2-m-high open tanks filled with water on top of a 1-m-high table. The discharge valve of one of the tanks is connected to a hose whose other end is left open on the ground while the other tank does not have a hose connected to its discharge valve. Now the discharge valves of both tanks are opened. Disregarding any frictional loses in the hose, which tank do you think empties completely first? Why? 8 74C A piping system involves two pipes of different diameters (but of identical length, material, and roughness) connected in series. How would you compare the (a) flow rates and (b) pressure drops in these two pipes? 8 75C A piping system involves two pipes of different diameters (but of identical length, material, and roughness) connected in parallel. How would you compare the (a) flow rates and (b) pressure drops in these two pipes? 8 76C A piping system involves two pipes of identical diameters but of different lengths connected in parallel. How would you compare the pressure drops in these two pipes? 8 77C Water is pumped from a large lower reservoir to a higher reservoir. Someone claims that if the head loss is negligible, the required pump head is equal to the elevation difference between the free surfaces of the two reservoirs. Do you agree? 8 78C A piping system equipped with a pump is operating steadily. Explain how the operating point (the flow rate and the head loss) is established. 8 79C For a piping system, define the system curve, the characteristic curve, and the operating point on a head versus flow rate chart The water needs of a small farm are to be met by pumping water from a well that can supply water continuously at a rate of 4 L/s. The water level in the well is 20 m below the ground level, and water is to be pumped to a large tank on a hill, which is 58 m above the ground level of the well, using 5-cm internal diameter plastic pipes. The required length of piping is measured to be 420 m, and the total minor loss coefficient due to the use of elbows, vanes, etc. is estimated to be 12. Taking the efficiency of the pump to be 75 percent, determine the rated power of the pump that needs to be purchased, in kw. The density and viscosity of water at anticipated operation conditions are taken to be 1000 kg/m 3 and kg/m s, respectively. Is it wise to purchase a suitable pump that meets the total power requirements, or is it necessary to also pay particular attention to the large elevation head in this case? Explain. Answer: 6 kw 8 81E Water at 70 F flows by gravity from a large reservoir at a high elevation to a smaller one through a 90-ft-long, 2-in-diameter cast iron piping system that includes four standard flanged elbows, a well-rounded entrance, a sharp-edged exit, and a fully open gate valve. Taking the free surface of the lower reservoir as the reference level, determine the elevation z 1 of the higher reservoir for a flow rate of 10 ft 3 /min. Answer: 17.9 ft 8 82 A 2.4-m-diameter tank is initially filled with water 4 m above the center of a sharp-edged 10-cm-diameter orifice. The tank water surface is open to the atmosphere, and the orifice drains to the atmosphere. Neglecting the effect of the kinetic energy correction factor, calculate (a) the initial velocity from the tank and (b) the time required to empty the tank. Does the loss coefficient of the orifice cause a significant increase in the draining time of the tank? Water tank 2.4 m FIGURE P m Sharp-edged orifice 8 83 A 3-m-diameter tank is initially filled with water 2 m above the center of a sharp-edged 10-cm-diameter orifice. The tank water surface is open to the atmosphere, and the orifice drains to the atmosphere through a 100-m-long pipe. The friction coefficient of the pipe is taken to be and the effect of the kinetic energy correction factor can be neglected. Determine (a) the initial velocity from the tank and (b) the time required to empty the tank.

4 410 INTERNAL FLOW 8 99 Repeat Prob for cast iron pipes of the same diameter E A clothes dryer discharges air at 1 atm and 120 F at a rate of 1.2 ft 3 /s when its 5-in-diameter, well-rounded vent with negligible loss is not connected to any duct. Determine the flow rate when the vent is connected to a 15-ft-long, 5-indiameter duct made of galvanized iron, with three 90 flanged smooth bends. Take the friction factor of the duct to be 0.019, and assume the fan power input to remain constant. 3 cm and 5 cm. Water is to be pumped by a 68 percent efficient motor pump unit that draws 7 kw of electric power during operation. The minor losses and the head loss in the pipes that connect the parallel pipes to the two reservoirs are considered to be negligible. Determine the total flow rate between the reservoirs and the flow rates through each of the parallel pipes. Reservoir B z B = 9 m Hot air 3 cm 25 m Reservoir A z A = 2 m 5 cm Clothes drier FIGURE P8 100E 15 ft Gasoline (r 680 kg/m 3 and n m 2 /s) is transported at a rate of 400 L/s for a distance of 2 km. The surface roughness of the piping is 0.03 mm. If the head loss due to pipe friction is not to exceed 8 m, determine the minimum diameter of the pipe In large buildings, hot water in a water tank is circulated through a loop so that the user doesn t have to wait for all the water in long piping to drain before hot water starts coming out. A certain recirculating loop involves 40-m-long, 1.2-cm-diameter cast iron pipes with six 90 threaded smooth bends and two fully open gate valves. If the average flow velocity through the loop is 2 m/s, determine the required power input for the recirculating pump. Take the average water temperature to be 60 C and the efficiency of the pump to be 70 percent. Answer: kw Reconsider Prob Using EES (or other) software, investigate the effect of the average flow velocity on the power input to the recirculating pump. Let the velocity vary from 0 to 3 m/s in increments of 0.3 m/s. Tabulate and plot the results Repeat Prob for plastic (smooth) pipes Water at 20 C is to be pumped from a reservoir (z A 2 m) to another reservoir at a higher elevation (z B 9 m) through two 25-m-long plastic pipes connected in parallel. The diameters of the two pipes are 5 in Pump FIGURE P8 105 Flow Rate and Velocity Measurements 8 106C What are the primary considerations when selecting a flowmeter to measure the flow rate of a fluid? 8 107C Explain how flow rate is measured with a Pitot-static tube, and discuss its advantages and disadvantages with respect to cost, pressure drop, reliability, and accuracy C Explain how flow rate is measured with obstruction-type flowmeters. Compare orifice meters, flow nozzles, and Venturi meters with respect to cost, size, head loss, and accuracy C How do positive displacement flowmeters operate? Why are they commonly used to meter gasoline, water, and natural gas? 8 110C Explain how flow rate is measured with a turbine flowmeter, and discuss how they compare to other types of flowmeters with respect to cost, head loss, and accuracy C What is the operating principle of variable-area flowmeters (rotameters)? How do they compare to other types of flowmeters with respect to cost, head loss, and reliability? 8 112C What is the difference between the operating principles of thermal and laser Doppler anemometers? 8 113C What is the difference between laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV)? Air (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) flows over a d 5-mm-diameter Pitotstatic probe that is aligned directly into the flow. Your job is to determine how far (L) downstream from the nose to place the static pressure holes around the circumference of the

5 probe. Run FlowLab with template Pitot_static_position. This template calculates flow at 30 m/s over a Pitot-static probe and includes viscous losses. Vary the static pressure tap location from L/d = 0.5 to 20, and record the stagnation and static pressures as calculated on the surface of the Pitot-static probe for each case. Using the Bernoulli approximation, calculate the free-stream velocity based on these pressures, and compare with the known inlet velocity. At approximately what L/d is the error less than 1.5 percent? Discuss your results. 4 in 1.8 in 7 in Air (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) flows in a wind tunnel, and the wind tunnel speed is measured with a Pitot-static probe. For a certain run, the stagnation pressure is measured to be Pa gage and the static pressure is Pa gage. Calculate the wind-tunnel speed A Pitot-static probe is mounted in a 2.5-cm inner diameter pipe at a location where the local velocity is approximately equal to the average velocity. The oil in the pipe has density r 860 kg/m 3 and viscosity m kg/m s. The pressure difference is measured to be 95.8 Pa. Calculate the volume flow rate through the pipe in cubic meters per second Calculate the Reynolds number of the flow of Prob Is it laminar or turbulent? The flow rate of ammonia at 10 C (r kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) through a 3-cm-diameter pipe is to be measured with a 1.5-cm-diameter flow nozzle equipped with a differential pressure gage. If the gage reads a pressure differential of 6 kpa, determine the flow rate of ammonia through the pipe, and the average flow velocity The flow rate of water through a 10-cm-diameter pipe is to be determined by measuring the water velocity at several locations along a cross section. For the set of measurements given in the table, determine the flow rate. FIGURE P8 120E 8 121E Repeat Prob E for a differential height of 10 in The flow rate of water at 20 C (r 998 kg/m 3 and m kg/m s) through a 50-cm-diameter pipe is measured with an orifice meter with a 30-cm-diameter opening to be 250 L/s. Determine the pressure difference indicated by the orifice meter and the head loss A Venturi meter equipped with a differential pressure gage is used to measure the flow rate of water at 15 C (r kg/m 3 ) through a 5-cm-diameter horizontal pipe. The diameter of the Venturi neck is 3 cm, and the measured pressure drop is 5 kpa. Taking the discharge coefficient to be 0.98, determine the volume flow rate of water and the average velocity through the pipe. Answers: 2.35 L/s and 1.20 m/s 5 cm 3 cm r, cm V, m/s E An orifice with a 1.8-in-diameter opening is used to measure the mass flow rate of water at 60 F (r lbm/ft 3 and m lbm/ft s) through a horizontal 4-in-diameter pipe. A mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure difference across the orifice. If the differential height of the manometer is 7 in, determine the volume flow rate of water through the pipe, the average velocity, and the head loss caused by the orifice meter. FIGURE P8 123 P Differential pressure gage Reconsider Prob Letting the pressure drop vary from 1 kpa to 10 kpa, evaluate the flow rate at intervals of 1 kpa, and plot it against the pressure drop The mass flow rate of air at 20 C (r kg/m 3 ) through a 18-cm-diameter duct is measured with a Venturi

E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review. Fluid Mechanics. M. A. Boles, PhD. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review. Fluid Mechanics. M. A. Boles, PhD. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review Fluid Mechanics By M. A. Boles, PhD Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering North Carolina State University Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy 1. A block

More information

hose-to-hose coupling pump-to-hose coupling

hose-to-hose coupling pump-to-hose coupling pipe_02 A homeowner plans to pump water from a stream in their backyard to water their lawn. A schematic of the pipe system is shown in the figure. 3 m 1 m inlet pipe-to-pump coupling stream re-entrant

More information

Practice Problems on Pumps. Answer(s): Q 2 = 1850 gpm H 2 = 41.7 ft W = 24.1 hp. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 16 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 29

Practice Problems on Pumps. Answer(s): Q 2 = 1850 gpm H 2 = 41.7 ft W = 24.1 hp. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 16 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 29 _02 A centrifugal with a 12 in. diameter impeller requires a power input of 60 hp when the flowrate is 3200 gpm against a 60 ft head. The impeller is changed to one with a 10 in. diameter. Determine the

More information

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks

More information

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

More information

Fluid Mechanics Definitions

Fluid Mechanics Definitions Definitions 9-1a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V $0& #V ) Specific Gravity

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 7. General Energy Equation

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

More information

Experiment 3 Pipe Friction

Experiment 3 Pipe Friction EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A cross-sectional

More information

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness

More information

Practice Problems on Bernoulli s Equation. V car. Answer(s): p p p V. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Sep 15

Practice Problems on Bernoulli s Equation. V car. Answer(s): p p p V. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Sep 15 bernoulli_0 A person holds their hand out of a car window while driving through still air at a speed of V car. What is the maximum pressure on the person s hand? V car 0 max car p p p V C. Wassgren, Purdue

More information

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 4 Integral Formulation of Fluid Flow

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 4 Integral Formulation of Fluid Flow ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 4 Integral Formulation of Fluid Flow These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey

More information

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

More information

h b b h Q u da u 1 1 dy dz u 1 dy 1 dz u b h b h

h b b h Q u da u 1 1 dy dz u 1 dy 1 dz u b h b h P3.18 An incompressible fluid flows steadily through the rectangular duct in the figure. The exit velocity profile is given by u umax(1 y /b )(1 z /h ). (a) Does this profile satisfy the correct boundary

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE MEASUREMENTS WITH FLOW METERS

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE MEASUREMENTS WITH FLOW METERS UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 3211-4211 MEASUREMENTS WITH FLOW METERS OBJECTIVE The purpose of this experiment is to calculate the coefficient of discharge from

More information

CHME 302 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABOATORY-I EXPERIMENT 302-1 FLOW MEASUREMENT TEST

CHME 302 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABOATORY-I EXPERIMENT 302-1 FLOW MEASUREMENT TEST CHME 302 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABOATORY-I EXPERIMENT 302-1 FLOW MEASUREMENT TEST OBJECTIVE The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate the working principles of four most common devices used to measure

More information

These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.

These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide. Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers

More information

Hydraulic losses in pipes

Hydraulic losses in pipes Hydraulic losses in pipes Henryk Kudela Contents 1 Viscous flows in pipes 1 1.1 Moody Chart.................................... 2 1.2 Types of Fluid Flow Problems........................... 5 1.3 Minor

More information

CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT

CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT Rev 8/15 AW/GW CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT The objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with several types of flow-measuring devices commonly used in the laboratory

More information

Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow

Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow October 2013 Presented by Molly Skorpik - 2013 Montana Association of Dam and Canal Systems Conference Irrigation Training and Research Center

More information

Figure 1. Head losses in a pipe

Figure 1. Head losses in a pipe 53:071 Principles of Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment #1 ENERGY AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES IN WATER PIPE SYSTEMS Principle The energy of a real fluid decreases as it moves through a pipe. The energy budget

More information

Pressure drop in pipes...

Pressure drop in pipes... Pressure drop in pipes... PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS Pressure drop or head loss, occurs in all piping systems because of elevation changes, turbulence caused by abrupt changes in direction, and friction

More information

FLUID MECHANICS. Problem 2: Consider a water at 20 0 C flows between two parallel fixed plates.

FLUID MECHANICS. Problem 2: Consider a water at 20 0 C flows between two parallel fixed plates. FLUID MECHANICS Problem 1: Pressures are sometimes determined by measuring the height of a column of liquid in a vertical tube. What diameter of clean glass tubing is required so that the rise of water

More information

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc. 1 Centrifugal Pump- Definition Centrifugal Pump can be defined as a mechanical device used to transfer liquid of various types. As

More information

Performance 4. Fluid Statics, Dynamics, and Airspeed Indicators

Performance 4. Fluid Statics, Dynamics, and Airspeed Indicators Performance 4. Fluid Statics, Dynamics, and Airspeed Indicators From our previous brief encounter with fluid mechanics we developed two equations: the one-dimensional continuity equation, and the differential

More information

Viscous Flow in Pipes

Viscous Flow in Pipes Viscous Flow in Pipes Excerpted from supplemental materials of Prof. Kuang-An Chang, Dept. of Civil Engin., Texas A&M Univ., for his spring 2008 course CVEN 311, Fluid Dynamics. (See a related handout

More information

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS AIR HANDLING & MEASUREMENT. Air Velocity/Volume Measurement

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS AIR HANDLING & MEASUREMENT. Air Velocity/Volume Measurement 3-06 INTRODUCTION INDUSTRIAL PROCESS AIR HANDLING & MEASUREMENT Air Velocity/Volume Measurement The movement of air is a factor in almost all modern industrial facilities. Industrial air movement is usually

More information

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today

More information

Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any

Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass

More information

Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow

Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Lab Page ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Spring Quarter 00 Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow Objectives: a) Calibrate a pressure transducer and two different flowmeters (paddlewheel

More information

Effects of Beta Ratio and Reynold s Number on Coefficient of Discharge of Orifice Meter

Effects of Beta Ratio and Reynold s Number on Coefficient of Discharge of Orifice Meter J Agric Rural Dev 7(&2), 5-56, June 29 ISSN 8-86 K wl I cj x Dbœqb zj Available online at http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/jard JARD Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development Effects of Beta Ratio

More information

Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Fluids. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Fluids 13-1 Phases of Matter The three common phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has a definite shape and size. A liquid has a fixed volume but can be any shape. A gas can

More information

Experiment (13): Flow channel

Experiment (13): Flow channel Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and

More information

Chapter Six. Non-Newtonian Liquid

Chapter Six. Non-Newtonian Liquid Chapter Six Non-Newtonian Liquid For many fluids a plot of shear stress against shear rate does not give a straight line. These are so-called Non-Newtonian Fluids. Plots of shear stress against shear rate

More information

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

More information

Transient Mass Transfer

Transient Mass Transfer Lecture T1 Transient Mass Transfer Up to now, we have considered either processes applied to closed systems or processes involving steady-state flows. In this lecture we turn our attention to transient

More information

Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process.

Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process. Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN-978-0-07-352932-5, 2008 Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical

More information

XI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA

XI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A

More information

Fig 9.1 Illustration of fully developed flow along a pipe

Fig 9.1 Illustration of fully developed flow along a pipe 9. FRICTION LOSS ALONG A PIPE Introduction In hydraulic engineering practice, it is frequently necessary to estimate the head loss incurred by a fluid as it flows along a pipeline. For example, it may

More information

CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK PART - A

CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK PART - A CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART - A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density

More information

Chapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS

Chapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright

More information

oil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1

oil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 14 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

More information

Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus

Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus Kathleen Lifer, Ryan Oberst, Benjamin Wibberley Ohio Northern University Ada, OH 45810 Email: b-wibberley@onu.edu Abstract The objective of this project was to develop

More information

Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic energy).

Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic energy). HYDRAULIC MACHINES Used to convert between hydraulic and mechanical energies. Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic

More information

Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc.

Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc. ASGMT / Averaging Pitot Tube Flow Measurement Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc. Averaging Pitot Tube Meters Introduction

More information

Students Manual for the Exam

Students Manual for the Exam Students Manual for the Exam General Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Discipline - March 2014 - COPYRIGHT NOTICE COPYRIGHTS 2013 NATIONAL CENTER FOR ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION (QIYAS) UNLESS

More information

SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING

SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING APPENDIX A (IFGS) SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (This appendix is informative and is not part of the code.) A.1 General. To determine the size of piping used in a gas piping system, the following

More information

4.What is the appropriate dimensionless parameter to use in comparing flow types? YOUR ANSWER: The Reynolds Number, Re.

4.What is the appropriate dimensionless parameter to use in comparing flow types? YOUR ANSWER: The Reynolds Number, Re. CHAPTER 08 1. What is most likely to be the main driving force in pipe flow? A. Gravity B. A pressure gradient C. Vacuum 2.What is a general description of the flow rate in laminar flow? A. Small B. Large

More information

Airflow through Mine Openings and Ducts Chapter 5

Airflow through Mine Openings and Ducts Chapter 5 Airflow through Mine Openings and Ducts Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Airflow Ventilation the application of the principles of fluid mechanics & thermodynamics to the flow of air in underground openings Fluid

More information

Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume

Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume Closed systems: The mass of the system remain constant during a process. Control volumes: Mass can cross the boundaries,

More information

AP2 Fluids. Kinetic Energy (A) stays the same stays the same (B) increases increases (C) stays the same increases (D) increases stays the same

AP2 Fluids. Kinetic Energy (A) stays the same stays the same (B) increases increases (C) stays the same increases (D) increases stays the same A cart full of water travels horizontally on a frictionless track with initial velocity v. As shown in the diagram, in the back wall of the cart there is a small opening near the bottom of the wall that

More information

This chapter deals with three equations commonly used in fluid mechanics:

This chapter deals with three equations commonly used in fluid mechanics: MASS, BERNOULLI, AND ENERGY EQUATIONS CHAPTER 5 This chapter deals with three equations commonly used in fluid mechanics: the mass, Bernoulli, and energy equations. The mass equation is an expression of

More information

1. (Problem 8.23 in the Book)

1. (Problem 8.23 in the Book) 1. (Problem 8.23 in the Book) SOLUTION Schematic An experimental nuclear core simulation apparatus consists of a long thin-walled metallic tube of diameter D and length L, which is electrically heated

More information

HOW TO MEASURE PRESSURE HOW TO MEASURE FLOW

HOW TO MEASURE PRESSURE HOW TO MEASURE FLOW HOW TO MEASURE PRESSURE HOW TO MEASURE FLOW by G.J.Matthews Airflow Developments Limited HOW TO MEASURE PRESSURE. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES. Due to the depth of the earth s atmosphere the air around us exerts

More information

Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties

Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Fluids (Liquids or gases) which a substance deforms continuously, or flows, when subjected to shearing forces. If a fluid is at rest, there are no shearing forces

More information

Module 2 : Convection. Lecture 20a : Illustrative examples

Module 2 : Convection. Lecture 20a : Illustrative examples Module 2 : Convection Lecture 20a : Illustrative examples Objectives In this class: Examples will be taken where the concepts discussed for heat transfer for tubular geometries in earlier classes will

More information

Minor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves,

Minor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves, Lecture 10 Minor Losses & Pressure Requirements I. Minor Losses Minor (or fitting, or local ) hydraulic losses along pipes can often be estimated as a function of the velocity head of the water within

More information

Basics and Concepts. 2.1 Introduction Force, Weight, and Mass Density Specific Gravity Pressure...

Basics and Concepts. 2.1 Introduction Force, Weight, and Mass Density Specific Gravity Pressure... 2 Fluids Basics and Concepts TOPIC PAGE 2.1 Introduction... 22 2.2 Force, Weight, and Mass... 22 2.3 Density... 23 2.4 Specific Gravity... 23 2.5 Pressure... 23 2.6 Temperature... 25 2.7 Viscosity... 26

More information

Outdated Publication, for historical use. CAUTION: Recommendations in this publication may be obsolete.

Outdated Publication, for historical use. CAUTION: Recommendations in this publication may be obsolete. IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT S E R I E S Irrigation Water Measurement Danny H. Rogers Extension Agricultural Engineer Richard D. Black Extension Agricultural Engineers Cooperative Extension Service Kansas State

More information

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2010 INTERNAL FLOW HASAN HACIŞEVKİ

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2010 INTERNAL FLOW HASAN HACIŞEVKİ Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Chapter 8 INTERNAL FLOW Lecture slides by HASAN HACIŞEVKİ Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22 BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

More information

Air Flow Measurements

Air Flow Measurements ME-EM 30 ENERGY LABORATORY Air Flow Measurements Pitot Static Tube A slender tube aligned with the flow can measure local velocity by means of pressure differences. It has sidewall holes to measure the

More information

The Most General Applications of Bernoulli s Equation

The Most General Applications of Bernoulli s Equation The Most General Applications of Bernoulli s Equation Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Torricelli s Theorem [link] shows water gushing from a large tube through a dam. What is its speed as it emerges? Interestingly,

More information

When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.

When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs

More information

C. starting positive displacement pumps with the discharge valve closed.

C. starting positive displacement pumps with the discharge valve closed. KNOWLEDGE: K1.04 [3.4/3.6] P78 The possibility of water hammer in a liquid system is minimized by... A. maintaining temperature above the saturation temperature. B. starting centrifugal pumps with the

More information

Chapter 15. FLUIDS. 15.1. What volume does 0.4 kg of alcohol occupy? What is the weight of this volume? m m 0.4 kg. ρ = = ; ρ = 5.

Chapter 15. FLUIDS. 15.1. What volume does 0.4 kg of alcohol occupy? What is the weight of this volume? m m 0.4 kg. ρ = = ; ρ = 5. Chapter 15. FLUIDS Density 15.1. What volume does 0.4 kg of alcohol occupy? What is the weight of this volume? m m 0.4 kg ρ = ; = = ; = 5.06 x 10-4 m ρ 790 kg/m W = D = ρg = 790 kg/m )(9.8 m/s )(5.06 x

More information

Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel

Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel 2-7 December 27 Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel M.G. Pullinger and J.E. Sargison School of Engineering University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 71 AUSTRALIA Abstract Computational

More information

Practice Problems on Conservation of Energy. heat loss of 50,000 kj/hr. house maintained at 22 C

Practice Problems on Conservation of Energy. heat loss of 50,000 kj/hr. house maintained at 22 C COE_10 A passive solar house that is losing heat to the outdoors at an average rate of 50,000 kj/hr is maintained at 22 C at all times during a winter night for 10 hr. The house is to be heated by 50 glass

More information

ANALYSIS OF FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS D. Bhandari 1, Dr. S. Singh 2

ANALYSIS OF FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS D. Bhandari 1, Dr. S. Singh 2 ANALYSIS OF FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS D. Bhandari 1, Dr. S. Singh 2 1 M. Tech Scholar, 2 Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bipin

More information

du u U 0 U dy y b 0 b

du u U 0 U dy y b 0 b BASIC CONCEPTS/DEFINITIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (by Marios M. Fyrillas) 1. Density (πυκνότητα) Symbol: 3 Units of measure: kg / m Equation: m ( m mass, V volume) V. Pressure (πίεση) Alternative definition:

More information

UNIT Engineering: Measurement Technology Flow (SCQF level 6)

UNIT Engineering: Measurement Technology Flow (SCQF level 6) National Unit Specification: general information CODE H0W6 12 SUMMARY This Unit can be delivered as part of a National Qualification Group Award but can also be taken as a free-standing Unit. This Unit

More information

F mg (10.1 kg)(9.80 m/s ) m

F mg (10.1 kg)(9.80 m/s ) m Week 9 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

More information

14-1. Fluids in Motion There are two types of fluid motion called laminar flow and turbulent flow.

14-1. Fluids in Motion There are two types of fluid motion called laminar flow and turbulent flow. Fluid Dynamics Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 15, except 15.6 To complete our study of fluids we now examine fluids in motion. For the most part the study of fluids in motion was put into an organized

More information

Pressure Measurements

Pressure Measurements Pressure Measurements Measurable pressures Absolute pressure Gage pressure Differential pressure Atmospheric/barometric pressure Static pressure Total Pressure Pressure Measurement Mechanical Pressure

More information

Understanding Pressure and Pressure Measurement

Understanding Pressure and Pressure Measurement Freescale Semiconductor Application Note Rev 1, 05/2005 Understanding Pressure and Pressure Measurement by: David Heeley Sensor Products Division, Phoenix, Arizona INTRODUCTION Fluid systems, pressure

More information

Min-218 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow

Min-218 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow Excerpt from "Chap 3: Principles of Airflow," Practical Mine Ventilation Engineerg to be Pubished by Intertec Micromedia Publishing Company, Chicago, IL in March 1999. 1. Definition of A Fluid A fluid

More information

Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids. Flow in Pipes

Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids. Flow in Pipes Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids Flow in Pipes 2 Now we will move from the purely theoretical discussion of nondimensional parameters to a topic with a bit more that you can see and feel

More information

Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA. Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME. Capacities Specific Programme

Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA. Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME. Capacities Specific Programme Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME Capacities Specific Programme Research Infrastructures Integrating Activity - Combination of

More information

A Spreadsheet Program for the Calculation of Piping Systems and the Selection of Pumps

A Spreadsheet Program for the Calculation of Piping Systems and the Selection of Pumps Session 1633 A Spreadsheet Program for the Calculation of Piping Systems and the Selection of Pumps Craig W. Somerton Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University I. Introduction An

More information

Basic Fluid Mechanics. Prof. Young I Cho

Basic Fluid Mechanics. Prof. Young I Cho Basic Fluid Mechanics MEM 220 Prof. Young I Cho Summer 2009 Chapter 1 Introduction What is fluid? Give some examples of fluids. Examples of gases: Examples of liquids: What is fluid mechanics? Mechanics

More information

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation.

More information

pumping liquids JET PUMP TECHNICAL DATA

pumping liquids JET PUMP TECHNICAL DATA Section 000 Bulletin 00 Issued 5/87 Replaces /8 JET PUMP TECHNICAL DATA pumping liquids This technical bulletin includes general information about Penberthy Jet Pumps plus specific details for selecting

More information

Fluid Mechanics. Fluid Statics [3-1] Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri. [3] Fall 2010 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [3-1] Fluid Statics

Fluid Mechanics. Fluid Statics [3-1] Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri. [3] Fall 2010 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [3-1] Fluid Statics 1 Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics [3-1] Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri Fluid Pressure Fluid pressure is the normal force exerted by the fluid per unit area at some location within the fluid Fluid pressure has the

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS

HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS Multi-Fin flue technology Flue damper saves energy Electronic controls HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS Dependability The Rheem heavy duty gas range is the work horse of the industry having proved itself over many

More information

ERBIL PLOYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ERBIL TECHNICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE. Fluid Mechanics. Lecture 3 - Solved Examples (7 examples) - Home works

ERBIL PLOYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ERBIL TECHNICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE. Fluid Mechanics. Lecture 3 - Solved Examples (7 examples) - Home works ERBIL PLOYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ERBIL TECHNICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE Fluid Mechanics Lecture 3 - Solved Examples (7 examples) - Home works By Dr. Fahid Abbas Tofiq 1 Example 1: A plate 0.025 mm distant from

More information

Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide

Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Activities for Unit 1 Basic Hydraulics Activity 1.1: Convert 45 psi to feet of head. 45 psis x 1 ft. = 103.8 ft 0.433 psi Activity 1.2: Determine

More information

For Water to Move a driving force is needed

For Water to Move a driving force is needed RECALL FIRST CLASS: Q K Head Difference Area Distance between Heads Q 0.01 cm 0.19 m 6cm 0.75cm 1 liter 86400sec 1.17 liter ~ 1 liter sec 0.63 m 1000cm 3 day day day constant head 0.4 m 0.1 m FINE SAND

More information

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 6 PERFORMANCE TEST OF AN IMPULSE TURBINE

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 6 PERFORMANCE TEST OF AN IMPULSE TURBINE EXPERIMENT NUMBER 6 PERFORMANCE TEST OF AN IMPULSE TURBINE OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this experiment is to determine the characteristics of a small impulse turbine and to compare these characteristics

More information

CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1. This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in

CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1. This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1 2.1 Introduction and Objective This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in the teaching flume and to utilize the common

More information

11. IMPACT OF A JET. Introduction

11. IMPACT OF A JET. Introduction 11. IMPACT OF A JET Introduction Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power. In the type of water turbine referred to as a Pelton wheel, one or more water jets are directed tangentially

More information

17. Pipe flow V ( )

17. Pipe flow V ( ) 17. Pipe flow V (11.5-11.7) Pump types Pump systems Pumps in series and in parallel Exercises: D35-36, and D38 Pump types centrifugal pump VVR 120 Fluid Mechanics Pump types axial flow pumps VVR 120 Fluid

More information

AC : OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A PUMP AND PIPING SYSTEM

AC : OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A PUMP AND PIPING SYSTEM AC 2011-2498: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A PUMP AND PIPING SYSTEM Curtis Brackett, Bradley University I am a senior mechanical engineering major at Bradley University in Peoria, IL. I am originally from Aurora,

More information

Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window Ahsan Iqbal #1, Alireza Afshari #2, Per Heiselberg *3, Anders Høj **4 # Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research

More information

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES 4.0 PUMP CLASSES Pumps may be classified in two general types, dynamic and positive displacement. Positive displacement pumps

More information

Pump Selection and Sizing (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE)

Pump Selection and Sizing (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE) Guidelines for Processing Plant Page : 1 of 51 Rev 01 Feb 2007 Rev 02 Feb 2009 Rev 03 KLM Technology #03-12 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor Bahru. (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE)

More information

PART IB EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING. SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENT T2 LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) PIPE FLOW

PART IB EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING. SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENT T2 LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) PIPE FLOW PART IB EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENT T2 LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) (SHORT) PIPE FLOW OBJECTIVES increased. 1) To note the changes in

More information