# Hydraulics Guide. Table 1: Conveyance Factors (English Units)... 7 Table 2: Conveyance Factors (Metric Units)... 8

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1 Table of Contents 1.1 Index of Tables Index of Figures Overview of Hydraulic Considerations Discharge Curves Conveyance Method Flow Velocity Considerations Pressure Situations Culvert Considerations Example Problems Example 1 Using Conveyance Factors Example Velocity Calculation Example 3 Using Discharge Curves Index of Tables Table 1: Conveyance Factors (English Units)... 7 Table : Conveyance Factors (Metric Units) Index of Figures Figure 1 : Discharge Curves for Prinsco s dual wall pipe products - GOLDFLO & ECOFLO Figure : Discharge Curves for Prinsco s single wall product - GOLDLINE... 4 Page 1 of 11

2 1.3 Overview of Hydraulic Considerations Selecting the appropriate pipe size for a gravity flow application is essential for ensuring long, trouble free service from a drainage system. This may seem like a daunting task; however, this selection process is simplified with the use of the Manning s formula. The Manning s formula is an open channel flow equation that is widely used throughout the drainage industry. There are two basic design methods that are based on Manning s formula that can be used to size the corrugated polyethylene pipe. The first method uses discharge curves which allow the sizing of pipe diameters through the use of graphs. Once the design flow and slope are established, a graph can be used to find the recommended pipe size. Each HDPE product, whether it is single or dual wall pipe, has its own curve based on its Manning s n value, or roughness coefficient. It is important to consider pipe connections, bends and the collection of sediment and debris in the pipes will reduce the hydraulic efficiency ultimately lowering the actual flow capacity. These factors should be considered before the selecting a final pipe size. The second method involves the use of conveyance factors. Conveyance factors are determined by combining all of the coefficients and constants in the Manning s equation down to a single factor. This method typically produces more than one appropriate pipe size which will allow the user to determine the most cost effective solution. The velocity conditions should also be considered before the final selection of pipe. Higher velocities will help keep sediment and debris from collecting in the pipe which will in turn reduce the maintenance requirements and ensure the hydraulic function of the pipe throughout its design life. However, these velocities must be kept below the maximum limits for the pipe. 1.4 Discharge Curves The mathematical relationship between the flow capacity, slope, and Manning s n values are often shown graphically through discharge curves. These curves allow for the selection of an adequate Prinsco pipe under gravity flow steady state conditions. Discharge curves for Prinsco s pipe are shown in Figures 1 &. It is noted that an example problem using the discharge curves to properly size Prinsco pipe is shown in example problem 3 below. Page of 11

3 Figure 1 : Discharge Curves for Prinsco s dual wall pipe products - GOLDFLO & ECOFLO 100 Notes: Flow rates are based on a design Manning s n of 0.01 Solid lines indicate the pipe diameter. Dashed lines indicate the approximate flow velocity. Pipe slope is measured in feet of invert elevation per 100 feet of pipe run. 1% = 0.01 feet/foot 1 cfs = gpm Page 3 of 11

4 Figure : Discharge Curves for Prinsco s single wall product - GOLDLINE Note: Flow rates are based on Manning s n values found in Table 1. Solid lines indicate the pipe diameters. Dashed lines indicated the approximate flow velocity. Pipe slope is measured in feet drop of invert elevation per 100 feet of pipe run. 1% = 0.01 feet/foot 1 cfs = gpm Page 4 of 11

5 1.5 Conveyance Method The conveyance method provides a simplified approach of selecting a variety of pipe options to satisfy a project s flow requirements. This approach utilizes a simplified version of the Manning s equation as shown Equations 1 and 1(a). This equation is used with the assumption that the pipe is flowing full which allows for an accurate yet simple calculation. Q = 1 (1.486)(A)(R3)(S) n Equation 1 Where: Q = pipe capacity (cfs) n = Manning s n value (unitless) A = cross-sectional flow area of the pipe (ft ) R = hydraulic radius (ft): R = A/P P = wetted perimeter (ft); pipe inside circumference for full flowing pipe conditions S = pipe slope (feet/foot) Or, in metric units: Q = 1 (A)(R3)(S) n Equation 1(a) Where: Q = pipe capacity (m 3 /s) n = Manning s n value (unitless) A = cross-sectional flow area of the pipe (m ) R = hydraulic radius (m): R = A/P P = wetted perimeter (m); pipe inside circumference for full flowing pipe conditions S = pipe slope (m/m) For a specific full-flowing installation, the parameters n, A, and R are easily defined constants. The flowcarrying ability or conveyance factor (k), of the pipe can then be defined as show in Equations and (a). Page 5 of 11

6 k = (1.486)(A)(R3) n Equation Or, in metric units: k = (A)(R3) n Equation (a) By substitution, the Manning s formula can then be reduced to the following equation. Q = ks 1 Equation 3 By solving for the conveyance factor (k), Equation 3 can also be written as shown in Equation 4. k = Q S1 Equation 4 Direct substitution of design conditions into Equation 4 will determine the minimum conveyance factor allowed. Use table 1 or 1(a) as a guide for selecting a Prinsco pipe having a conveyance factor of at least the value calculated. With background knowledge of Manning s n values, appropriate values can be chosen for different materials. For pipes of the same diameter, Manning s n will be the only factor that has an effect on conveyance and, therefore, capacity. In a comparison of identical field conditions, conveyance has a direct relationship to capacity. An example of this is if the slope is held constant, doubling the conveyance would double the pipe s capacity. Sample problems involving the conveyance factors are shown and explained in the example problems section. Page 6 of 11

7 Table 1: Conveyance Factors (English Units) Design Manning's n Values for Prinsco HDPE Pipe Product Diameter Design Manning's "n" Value GOLDFLO, GOLDFLO WT, ECOFLO 100 4"-60" 0.01 GOLDLINE 3"-6" " " "-15" Conveyance Factors (k) for Corrugated HDPE Pipe Flowing Full (English Units) Manning's "n" Values Dia (in.) Area (sq.ft.) Source: Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (000) Hydraulic Considerations for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Conveyance Equation: k = Q S1 or Q = ks 1 Page 7 of 11

8 Table : Conveyance Factors (Metric Units) Design Manning's n Values for Prinsco Thermoplastic Pipe Product Diameter Design Manning's "n" Value GOLDFLO, GOLDFLO WT, ECOFLO mm 0.01 GOLDLINE mm mm mm mm Conveyance Factors (k) for Corrugated HDPE Pipe Flowing Full (Metric Units) Manning's "n" Values Dia (mm) Area (sq.m) Source: Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (000) Hydraulic Considerations for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Conveyance Equation: k = Q or Q = ks 1 S1 Page 8 of 11

9 1.6 Flow Velocity Considerations The buildup of sediment and debris can reduce the capacity of a pipe. In some situations, this buildup can render the pipe useless until it is cleaned out. This process is time consuming and expensive, therefore preventative measures should be taken during the design process. One way to counteract this buildup is to impose a minimum, or self-cleansing, velocity. The pipe flow velocity can be increased by either increasing the slope of the pipe or by decreasing the pipe diameter. This should not be done without first reviewing the site conditions and requirements. However, by using a corrugated HDPE pipe with a smooth interior instead of other pipe materials, a smaller diameter pipe can be selected without affecting the capacities or slope of the pipeline. The velocity (V) in feet per second of full flowing pipes can be approximated by using the equation: V = Q A Equation 5 Where: Q = pipe capacity (cfs) A = cross sectional flow area of the pipe (ft ) A minimum velocity of 3 feet per second (fps) is commonly used throughout the industry for storm water applications. For drainage pipes, such as those used in agricultural applications, a minimum of 0.5 fps is recommended for drains not subjected to fine sands or silt and a minimum velocity of 1.4 fps for drains that have the potential for soil infiltration. Maximum velocity should also be considered through the design to ensure long, trouble free service of the pipe. High flow velocities, greater than 1 fps, can be lessened by reducing the slope of the pipe or by selecting a larger diameter pipe. High velocities coupled with debris and sediment increase the possibility of causing durability issues due to abrasion; however HDPE pipes will resist these conditions better than many other pipe materials. High velocities at joints and fittings should also be considered. High velocities coupled with changes in the flow direction will exert added pressure on the fittings. Based on the bearing strength of the existing soil, thrust blocks or other devices may need to be used to counteract the added pressure. 1.7 Pressure Situations Prinsco pipe products are designed and tested specifically for gravity flow situations taking into consideration the condition of intermediate or temporary storm surge pressures. However the pipe is not rated for long-term pressure applications. Contact your local Prinsco representative with any questions regarding pressurized applications. Page 9 of 11

10 1.8 Culvert Considerations The discharge curves and conveyance methods described above are for fully developed flows. In many cases, culverts are inlet or outlet controlled. Therefore in the case of culverts, the discharge curves or the conveyance method cannot be the only consideration when sizing the culvert. For additional information contact your local Prinsco representative. 1.9 Example Problems The following example problems demonstrate the use of conveyance factors and discharge curves in sizing applications, basic velocity checks and optional designs. Example 1 Using Conveyance Factors Given: Field conditions require a flow capacity of.5 cfs and a slope of 0.5 drop in invert elevation per 100 feet of pipe run (i.e. 0.5% slope). Find: The suitable Prinsco pipe product providing the optimum hydraulic solution. Solution: Equation 4 can be used to determine the required conveyance for the given conditions. The slope should first be converted into the units of feet/foot as shown: 0.5 feet / 100 feet = 0.5% = ft/ft Note substitute the given values into Equation 4 as shown: k = Q S1 =.5 cfs 1 (0.005) = 35.4 Refer to Table 1 to select the pipe size with a minimum conveyance factor of 35.4 based on the appropriate Manning s n values. The most practical solutions are: 1 GOLDFLO or ECOFLO 100 pipe k = GOLDLINE pipe k = 46.7 The optimum hydraulic solution would be the pipe with conveyance factor greater than or equal to the calculated value. Both of these options will function in about the same manner, because their conveyances are close to that required. Final selection of pipe size and materials is made in Example. Page 10 of 11

11 Example Velocity Calculation The results from Example 1 can be substituted into Equation 5 as shown: V = Q A Area values taken from Table 1 =.5 cfs 0.79 ft = 3.16 fps Velocity for 1 GOLDFLO or ECOFLO 100 pipe =.5 cfs 1.3 ft =.03 fps Velocity for 15 GOLDLINE pipe Based on the velocities for the two pipe options, the 1 GOLDFLO or ECOFLO 100 pipe should be selected to attain a self-cleansing velocity. Example 3 Using Discharge Curves Given: Field conditions specify a pipe capacity of.5 cfs and a slope of 0.5%. Find: The suitable Prinsco pipe product providing the optimum hydraulic solution. Solution: Figures 1 & can be used to determine appropriate pipe size. The slope should first be converted into the units of feet/foot as shown: 0.5 feet/ 100 feet = 0.5% = ft/ft Figure 1 is used to select either a GOLDFLO or ECOFLO 100 pipe. The intersection of the 0.50% and.5 cfs is above the 10 line but below the 1 line. Therefore, the best selection would be the 1 GOLDFLO or ECOFLO 100 pipe. Figure is used to select the GOLDLINE pipe. The intersection of the 0.50% and.5 cfs is above the 1 line but below the 15 line. Therefore, the best selection would be the 15 GOLDLINE pipe. Final selection of the pipe can be completed as described in Example. Page 11 of 11

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