Unit 7 Lesson 2 The Republic and Roman Expansion

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1 Unit 7 Lesson 2 The Republic and Roman Expansion

2 Lesson 2 The Republic and Roman Expansion 1. checks and balances a. A government with three parts 2. civic duty b. The most powerful elected officials in Rome 3. consuls c. Held office for one year to prevent abuses of power 4. forum d. A council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advised the city s leaders 5. Latin e. The Roman language 6. Palatine Hill f. To prohibit actions by other government officials 7. Senate g. Responsibility to ensure the prosperity of the city 8. tribunes h. Keeps one part of a government from becoming too strong 9. tripartite i. Rome s public meeting place 10. veto j. Where Rome s richest people lived

3 Generalization: Conflict between social groups often results in new developments in governments. Big Idea Rome s tripartite government and written laws helped create a stable society.

4 Questions - explain How did the government keep tribunes from becoming too powerful? They were limited to serving for only one year drawing inferences Why did many people want a written law code? They did not want to be accused of breaking laws they didn t know existed - describe what kinds of activities took place in the Roman Forum? Religious ceremonies, speeches, social gatherings, shopping, gladiatorial combat

5 The Roman Republic - Etruscan Kings 616 to 509 BC - developed a Republic - patricians only ruled at first - plebeians demanded more rights BC became equal citizens - served on the Assembly of Tribes and the Assembly of Centuries - voted on issues and passed laws - draw conclusions how was civic duty demonstrated in Rome? People participated in government by attending meetings and voting; the wealthy felt it was their duty to serve.

6 Consuls - highest official usually 2 - elected by the assemblies for two years - enforced the laws - city administration - commanded the army in times of war

7 Magistrates - assisted the consuls - elected by Assembly of Centuries Praetors - judges

8 - elaborate how do The Senate you think the Roman - most powerful group Senate gained power? - consuls appointed 300 members for life - originally only patricians - later plebeians, but they just turned into patricians - proposed laws, foreign affairs and the money Tribunes - 10 men elected by the Assembly of Tribes to protect the rights of the plebeians - could veto decisions of the consuls and the senate - in theory, if not always in practice

9 Government of the Roman Republic Magistrates - Consuls led the government and army, judged court cases - Served for one year - Had power over all citizens, including other officials Senate - Advised the consuls - Served for life - Gained control of financial affairs Assemblies and Tribunes - Represented the common people, approved or rejected laws, declared war, elected magistrates - Roman citizens could take part in assemblies all their adult lives, tribunes served for one year - Could veto the decisions of consuls and other magistrates

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11 The Republic worked well for about 500 years - began to break down - civil wars caused by conflict between patricians and plebeians - changes added to these problems - expansion of the empire - need to govern different types of peoples

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13 Roman Law - the Twelve Tables - recorded law so that everyone could see them - children had to memorize them - incorporated the some of the ideas of conquered peoples - recorded their decisions to help in later cases - became the next step in the development of Law Codes Code of Hammurabi Twelve Tables - laws based on religion and morals

14 - draw conclusion- why did Romans want their laws written down? So people wouldn t be accused of breaking laws they didn t know existed - explain why did the Romans display the Law of the Twelve Tables in public place? So they would be accessible to everyone - make inferences despite the laws changing over time, how did the Law of the Twelve Tables remain important? It continues to be a symbol of how Roman society was governed by laws

15 Primary Source Law of the Twelve Tables The Law of the Twelve Tables governed many parts of Roman life. Some laws were written to protect the rights of all Romans. Others only protected the patricians. A Roman who did not appear before a government official when called or did not pay his debts could be arrested Women even as adults were legally considered to be children No one in Rome could be executed without a trial [from Table I] If anyone summons a man before the magistrate, he must go. If the man summoned does not go, let the one summoning him call the bystanders to witness and then take him by force. [from Table III] One who has confessed a debt, or against whom judgment has been pronounced shall have thirty days to pay it. After that forcible seizure of his person is allowed unless he pays the amount of the judgment. [from Table V] Females should remain in guardianship even when they have attained their majority. [from Table IX] Putting to death of any man, whosoever he might be, unconvinced is forbidden.

16 Roman Forum - heart of Rome - site of government buildings and temples - Twelve Tables posted there - popular meeting place for citizens - public speaking area - shop and merchants - early gladiator combats - public ceremonies - located between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills How was the Forum the heart of Roman society?. It was the location of important government buildings and temples. It was also a popular meeting place for citizens

17 Changes in power structure as Rome Expands - the more conflict with neighbors the larger and more skilled the army became - all male citizens (17 to 46) could be called to service - army leaders become more important and powerful in public affairs - Roman officials ruled conquered lands with the aid of the army - Latin became the main language - roads were built to connect the empire - Roman navy became the most powerful in the Mediterranean

18 The Punic Wars cause even greater expansion - against Carthage (Phoenician colony in North Africa) - fight for control of trade routes in the Mediterranean First Punic War - summarize what led to the beginning of the Punic Wars? Carthage sent armies into Sicily

19 Second Punic War -Dominated by Hannibal -- led armies into Italy from the north -- less men, but better general - destroyed an entire Roman army at the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC -Rome sent new general to face him -Cornelius Scipio -Drove Carthaginians out of Spain in 206 BC -Moved to Africa and attacked Carthage - Hannibal forced to return home to defend his city - defeated at battle of Zama in 202 BC -Renamed Scipio Africanus -- Hannibal flees to Asia where he dies

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25 Third Punic War -- Carthage was completely destroyed during the Third Punic War in 146 BC - Pergamon left to the Romans by its king in 133 BC

26 Roman victory gained Rome - Spain - Sicily - Sardinia - Corsica - coast of North Africa - built a new Carthage as a naval base - evaluate Some historians say that Rome and Carthage were destined to fight each other. Why do you think they say this?

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28 The Decline of the Republic mostly caused by Roman expansion - Patricians got richer - slaves and wealth poured in - gained more land and power - Plebeians got poorer - lost jobs to slaves - lost farms to patricians after returning from the wars - moved to the cities - became the unemployed mob - many sold their votes to politicians

29 Dealing with the plebeian problem - tried to buy them off - policy of Bread and Circuses - used by ambitious leaders for their own gain - led to civil wars - The people wanted peace and security - became willing to accept dictators - these became more permanent - ignored limits - many leaders began to rule by force - began killing each other

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