Oxidation Reactions. NC State University. Burning magnesium to make magnesium oxide. Theory behind the observations. Formation of water

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1 Oxidation Reactions Burning magnesium to make magnesium oxide Theory behind the observations Formation of water NC State University

2 Burning magnesium metal Magnesium is a metal. It conducts electricity and it Can be bent to form shapes like other metals. Unlike many metals we know (iron, copper, silver etc.), magnesium will burn in air. Magnesium strip

3 Burning magnesium metal We can light magnesium strip with a match. Burning is combustion: chemical combination with oxygen. Mg + O MgO

4 Chemical reaction When magnesium burns it forms an oxide. Since it combines with oxygen gas, which is O 2 we really need to write: 2 Mg + O 2 2MgO

5 Why does magnesium burn? Atoms are most stable if they have a filled shell of electrons. The filled shells occur at the following numbers of electrons 2, 10, 18, 36. Where do these numbers come from?

6 The Periodic Table of the Elements

7 Atomic orbitals d p s

8 Atomic Energy Levels The atomic energy levels come from the quantum Mechanical solution for an atom Hydrogen, H

9 The Periodic Table of the Elements

10 Atomic Energy Levels Helium has a filled shell. It is non-reactive Helium, He

11 The Periodic Table of the Elements

12 Atomic Energy Levels We start filling the second shell. Lithium can obtain a filled shell by giving up one electron. Li Li + + e Lithium, Li 1

13 The Periodic Table of the Elements

14 Atomic Energy Levels Beryllium can obtain a filled shell by giving up two electrons. Be Be e Beryllium, Be 1

15 The Periodic Table of the Elements

16 Atomic Energy Levels At boron we begin filling the p-orbitals. Boron can obtain a filled shell by giving away three electrons. 3 2 Boron, B 1

17 The Periodic Table of the Elements

18 Atomic Energy Levels Carbon has two p-electrons. It can obtain a filled shell by bonding to four other atoms. 3 2 Carbon, C 1

19 The Periodic Table of the Elements

20 Atomic Energy Levels Nitrogen can either give up three electrons or gain three electrons to get a filled shell. 3 2 Nitrogen, N 1

21 The Periodic Table of the Elements

22 Atomic Energy Levels Oxygen can gain two electrons to obtain a filled shell. O + 2 e - O Oxygen, O 1

23 The Periodic Table of the Elements

24 Atomic Energy Levels Oxygen can gain two electrons to obtain a filled shell. F + e - F Fluorine, F 1

25 The Periodic Table of the Elements

26 Atomic Energy Levels Neon has a filled shell and it is non-reactive. It is a gas (also called a noble gas). Note that neon has 10 electrons total Neon, Ne

27 The Periodic Table of the Elements

28 Atomic Energy Levels Jumping ahead we can see that the next filled shell will occur for argon with 18 electrons. 3 Argon, Ar 2 1

29 The Periodic Table of the Elements

30 Atomic Energy Levels Sodium is in the same column as lithium. It has one electron more than a filled shell. It will easily give up an electron. Na Na + + e - 3 Sodium, Na 2 1

31 The Periodic Table of the Elements

32 Atomic Energy Levels Magnesium will be obtain a filled shell if it gives away two electrons. Mg Mg e - 3 Magnesium, Mg 2 1

33 The Periodic Table of the Elements

34 Chemical Reactivity Based on the shell concept for atoms we can see that magnesium and oxygen can both reach a filled shell if Mg gives electrons to O. Mg Mg e - O + 2 e - O 2- Mg + O Mg 2+ + O 2- MgO When this sharing of electrons occurs a chemical bond is made and the atoms combine to form a molecule. In this case the bond is called ionic.

35 Ionic Bonding To form a filled shell we can think of magnesium giving two electrons to oxygen. Magnesium starts with ten outershell electrons and oxygen starts with six. When Mg gives 2 electrons to O we end up with 8 electrons on each. Mg + O Mg O

36 Covalent Bonds Hydrogen wants to gain one electron to form a filled shell. Hydrogen can also give away an electron to form the ion H +. Lose electron: H H + + e - Gain electron: H + e - H - (hydrogen ion) (hydride ion) Hydrogen can also share an electron. H + H H H The combination of two hydrogen atoms makes diatomic hydrogen gas.

37 Covalent Bonds The combination of two hydrogen atoms is written as: 2 H H 2 Hydrogen can combine with oxygen to make water. H + O + H H O H 2 H + O H 2 O or 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O

38 Making Hydrogen (H 2 ) We can make hydrogen using water and magnesium. Mg + H 2 O MgO + H 2 We can break this up into steps. Mg Mg e - H 2 O O H + 2 H e - H 2

39 Using the dot formula H O H H + O + H Mg + O Mg O H + H H H

40 The experiment Empty balloon Stop cock Pear-shaped flask

41 The experiment Add magnesium and water

42 The experiment Bubbles form and the solution heats. These are signs that a reaction is occuring.

43 The experiment The balloon begins to inflate. Bubbles form and the solution heats. These are signs that a reaction is occurring.

44 The experiment H 2 The balloon fills with hydrogen gas.

45 The experiment H 2 Close the stop cock to keep the gas in the balloon. Then separate the reaction flask.

46 The experiment H 2 Close the stop cock to keep the gas in the balloon. Then separate the reaction flask.

47 The experiment H 2 Bring up a match.

48 The experiment Boom The hydrogen gas explodes.

49 What happened to the H 2? Hydrogen can combine with oxygen. This is an oxidation reaction also known as combustion of H 2. The chemical reaction is: 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O We have already seen that hydrogen will share Electrons with oxygen. Both atoms move to a lower energy state by sharing electrons. When hydrogen and oxygen combine a lot of heat is released.

Lithium Atomic number: 3 Atomic weight: 7 State of matter: solid Protons: 3 Neutrons (usually): 4 Electrons: 3 Number of electron shells:

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