38. Consider the following reaction that occurs in a breathalyzer: 2Cr 2 O 7

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1 Electrochemistry Multiple Choice January Consider the following redox reaction: 2MnO ClO H 2 O 3ClO MnO 2 + 2OH - The reducing agent is A. H 2 O B. ClO 3 - C. MnO 2 D. MnO Consider the following reaction that occurs in a breathalyzer: 2Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + 16H + (aq) + 3C 2 H 5 OH (g) 4Cr 3+ (aq) + 11H 2 O (l) + 3CH 3 COOH (aq) Which atom undergoes an increase in oxidation number? A. carbon B. oxygen C. hydrogen D. chromium 39. Which of the following is the strongest reducing agent? A. Al B. Cu C. Zn D. Mg 40. Which of the following reactions is spontaneous at standard conditions? A. Pb + Cu 2+ Cu + Pb 2+ B. H 2 + Mg 2+ Mg + 2H + C. Br 2 + 2Cl - Cl 2 + 2Br - D. 2Ag + Cu 2+ Cu + 2Ag Consider the following redox reaction: 3ClO - 2 2ClO Cl - The reduction half-reaction that occurs is (basic) A. ClO H 2 O + 4e - Cl - + 4OH - B. ClO H 2 O Cl - + 4OH - + 4e - C. ClO OH - + 2e - ClO H 2 O D. ClO OH - ClO H 2 O + 2e -

2 42. Vanadium metal, V, reacts spontaneously with Cd 2+, but not with Ti 2+. Based on these results, the order of oxidizing agents, from strongest to weakest, is A. Cd 2+, V 2+, Ti 2+ B. V 2+, Ti 2+, Cd 2+ C. Ti 2+, Cd 2+, V 2+ D. Ti 2+, V 2+, Cd Consider the following electrochemical cell: In this operating electrochemical cell, A. electrons flow toward the Cu and the Cu 2+ ions migrate toward the Zn. B. electrons flow toward the Cu and the Zn 2+ ions migrate toward the Cu. C. electrons flow toward the Zn and the Cu 2+ ions migrate toward the Zn. D. electrons flow toward the Zn and the Zn 2+ ions migrate toward the Cu.

3 44. Which of the following affects the potentials of electrochemical cells? A. I and II only. B. II and III only. C. I and III only. D. I, II and III. 45. In the rusting of iron, the reduction reaction that occurs is A. Fe Fe e - B. Fe e - Fe C. 2H 2 O O 2 + 4H + + 4e - D. O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4e - 4OH During a cathodic protection, the sacrificial anode A. accepts electrons from the protected metal. B. reacts spontaneously with the protected metal. C. oxidizes more readily than the protected metal. D. causes the protected metal to become an anode. 47. During the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of KI, what substance is formed at the cathode? A. iodine B. oxygen C. hydrogen D. potassium 48. When electroplating an iron medallion with nickel, A. the medallion is an anode. B. the cathode is pure nickel. C. the solution contains Ni 2+. D. the anode reaction is Ni e Ni

4 April Which of the following represents the formation of a stronger acid as a result of oxidation? A. H 2 SO 3 H 2 S B. HClO 4 HCl C. H 2 SO 3 H 2 SO 4 D. HCO 3 - H 2 CO Chlorine has an oxidation number of +5 in A. NaClO B. NaClO 2 C. NaClO 3 D. NaClO Consider the following: The nitrogen atom in each NO 2 NO 2 N 2 O 3 A. loses one electron. B. gains one electron. C. loses two electrons. D. gains two electrons. 40. Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent? - A. BrO 3 - B. ClO 4 2- C. S 2 O 8 2- D. Cr 2 O Consider the following half-reaction: 1 AsH 3 + H 2 O H 3 AsO 3 +? H + + e - When this half-reaction equation is balanced, the coefficient for H + is A. 2 B. 3 C. 6 D. 9

5 42. When a strip of zinc is placed in a 1.0M copper (II) chloride solution, A. no change occurs. B. the [Cl ] increases. C. the [Cu 2+ ] increases. D. the [Zn 2+ ] increases. 43. Consider the following electrochemical cell: What changes occur when the cell is in operation?

6 44. A redox titration is performed in order to determine the [H 2 O 2 ]. Which of the following would not be a suitable reagent to use? A. acidified IO 3 -- B. acidified SO 4 2- C. acidified MnO 4 - D. acidified Cr 2 O Ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, is oxidized by an acidified dichromate solution according to the following equation: 2Cr 2 O H + + 3C 2 H 5 OH 4Cr H 2 O + 3CH 3 COOH The E for the reaction above is 2.98V. The E for the oxidation of ethanol is A. 0.52V B. 1.23V C. 1.75V D. 2.98V 46. Which of the following must be present to produce rust by the corrosion of iron? A. I only B. II only C. I and II only D. I, II and III 47. Why can an object not be plated with magnesium using 1.0M MgI 2? A. Water is a stronger reducing agent than I B. Water is a stronger oxidizing agent than I C. Water is a stronger reducing agent than Mg 2+ D. Water is a stronger oxidizing agent than Mg In the electrolysis of 1.0M Na 2 SO 4, what is formed at the cathode? A. O 2 B. H 2 C. H 2 SO 3 D. S 2 O 8 2-

7 June Which of the following is capable of acting both as an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent? A. H + B. Na + C. Sn 2+ D. MnO Consider the following redox reaction: C 2 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O The substance undergoing reduction is A. O 2 B. CO 2 C. H 2 O D. C 6 H 12 O The oxidation number of P in H 4 P 2 O 7 is A. -10 B. -5 C. +5 D A solution containing an unknown cation reacts spontaneously with both zinc and copper. The unknown cation is A. 1.0M H + B. 1.0M Ag + C. 1.0M Sr 2+ D. 1.0M Mn Which of the following half-reactions is balanced? A. CIO - + H 2 O +e - Cl 2 + 2OH - B. 2CIO - + H 2 O +2e - Cl 2 + 3OH - C. 2CIO - + 2H 2 O +2e - Cl 2 + 4OH - D. 2CIO - + 2H 2 O Cl 2 + 4OH - + 2e -

8 42. Which of the following is a spontaneous redox reaction? A. Ag + + I - AgI B. Ag + + Fe 2+ Ag + Fe 3+ C. 3Ag + + Au 3Ag + Au 3+ D. 2Ag + + Ni 2+ 2Ag + Ni 43. Salting of roads during the winter increases the corrosion of cars. This is because the salt A. reacts with the iron. B. provides an electrolyte. C. acts as a reducing agent. D. acts as an oxidizing agent. 44. Which of the following will not react spontaneously with 1.0M HCl? A. tin B. lithium C. mercury D. aluminum 45. Consider the following electrochemical cell: The half-reaction that occurs at the anode is A. Ni Ni e - B. Ni e - Ni C. Cu Cu e - D. Cu e - Cu

9 46. Which of the following can be produced by electrolysis from a 1.0M aqueous solution containing its ion? A. nickel B. sodium C. aluminum D. magnesium 47. In the electrolysis of molten ZnCl 2 using carbon electrodes, the reaction that occurs at the anode is A. Zn Zn e - B. Zn e - Zn C. 2Cl - Cl 2 + 2e - D. Cl 2 + 2e - 2Cl In order for an electrolytic cell to operate, it must have A. a voltmeter. B. a salt bridge. C. a power supply. D. an aqueous solution. August The following reaction represents the process used to produce iron from iron (III) oxide: Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO 2 What is the reducing agent in this process? A. Fe B. CO C. CO 2 D. Fe 2 O Consider the following reaction: 2HNO 2 + 2I - + 2H + 2NO + I 2 + 2H 2 O The oxidation number for each nitrogen atom A. increases by 1 B. increases by 2 C. decreases by 1 D. decreases by 2

10 40. Which of the following reactions is spontaneous? A. 2I - + Ag Ag + + I 2 B. Co 2+ + Cu Co + Cu 2+ C. Cu 2+ + Pb Pb 2+ + Cu D. Ni Ag 2Ag + + Ni 41. Consider the following redox reaction for a lead-acid storage cell: Pb + PbO 2 + 4H + + 2SO 4 2-2PbSO 4 + 2H 2 O The balanced, reduction half-reaction is A. Pb + SO4 2- PbSO 4 + 2e - B. Pb + 2H + + SO4 2- PbSO 4 + H 2 O + 2e - C. PbO 2 + 4H + + SO e - PbSO4 + 2H 2 O D. PbO 2 + SO H 2 O + 2e - PbSO 4 + 4OH - Use the following diagram to answer questions 42 and Which of the following statements apply to this electrochemical cell? A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II and III

11 43. At equilibrium, the voltage of the cell above is A V B V C V D V 44. Consider the following reaction: Cd 2+ (aq) + Zn (s) Cd (s) + Zn 2+ (aq) The potential for the reaction is +0.36V. What is the reduction potential for the cadmium ion? A V B V C V D V 45. Which of the following involves a non-spontaneous redox reaction? A. fuel cell B. electroplating C. redox titration D. carbon dry cell 46. Consider the following redox reaction: 2MnO H + + 5Sn 2+ 2Mn H 2 O + 5Sn 4+ In a redox titration, mol of KMnO 4 reacts completely with a solution of Sn(NO 3 ) 2. How many moles of Sn(NO 3 ) 2 were present in the solution? A mol B mol C mol D mol

12 47. What substances are formed at the anode and cathode during electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, NaCl (l)? 48. What is the minimum voltage required to form nickel from an aqueous solution of NiI 2 using inert electrodes? A. 0.26V C. 0.54V B. 0.28V D. 0.80V January Which of the following represents a redox reaction? A. CaCO3 CaO + CO 2 B. SiCl 4 + 2Mg Si + 2MgCl 2 C. 2NaOH + H 2 SO 4 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 D. AgBr + 2S 2 O 3 2- Ag(S 2 O 3 ) Br Consider the following reaction: TiCl 4 + O 2 TiO 2 + 2Cl 2 Each oxygen atom is A. reduced and loses 2e - B. reduced and gains 2e - C. oxidized and loses 2e - D. oxidized and gains 2e When NO 2 acts as a reducing agent, a possible product is A. NO B. N 2 O C. N 2 O 4 D. N 2 O 5

13 41. Which of the following 1.0M solutions will react spontaneously with lead? A. KCl B. CuCl 2 C. ZnCl 2 D. MgCl Consider the following redox reaction: I 2 + 2S 2 O 3 2- S 4 O I - In a titration, 40.00mL of Na 2 S 2 O 3 is needed to react completely with 4.0 X 10-3 mol I 2. What is the concentration of Na 2 S 2 O 3? A. 0.10M B. 0.16M C. 0.20M D. 0.32M 43. In an operating electrochemical cell the function of a salt bridge is to A. allow hydrolysis to occur. B. allow a non-spontaneous reaction to occur. C. permit the migration of ions within the cell. D. transfer electrons from the cathode to the anode. Use the following diagram to answer questions 44 and 45.

14 44. As the cell operates, electrons flow toward A. the Pb electrode, where Pb is oxidized. B. the Cd electrode, where Cd is oxidized. C. the Pb electrode, where Pb 2+ is reduced. D. the Cd electrode, where Cd 2+ is reduced. 45. The E value for the reduction of Cd 2+ is A. 0.40V B. 0.27V C V D V 46. The following reaction occurs in an electrochemical cell: 3Cu Cr 2Cr Cu The E for the cell is A. 0.40V C. 1.08V B. 0.75V D. 2.50V 47. During the corrosion of magnesium, the anode reaction is A. Mg Mg e - B. Mg e - Mg C. 4OH - O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4e - D. O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4e - 4OH A molten binary salt, ZnCl 2, undergoes electrolysis. The cathode reaction is A. Zn Zn e - B. 2Cl - Cl 2 + 2e - C. Cl 2 + 2e - 2Cl - D. Zn e - Zn April Manganese has an oxidation number of +4 in A. MnO B. MnO 2 C. Mn 2 O 3 D. Mn 2 O 7

15 39. In which reaction is nitrogen reduced? A. 2NO + O2 2NO 2 B. 4NH 3 + 5O 2 4NO + 6H 2 O C. Cu NO 2 + 2H 2 O Cu + 4H + + 2NO 3 - D. 4Zn + 10H + + NO 3-4Zn 2+ + NH H 2 O 40. An oxidizing agent will cause which of the following changes? A. PtO 2 PtO B. PtO 3 PtO 2 C. Pt(OH) 2 Pt D. Pt(OH) 2 2+ PtO Consider the overall reaction of the rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery: NiO 2(s) + Cd (s) + 2H 2 O (l) Ni(OH) 2(s) + Cd(OH) 2 (s) Which of the following occurs at the anode as the reaction proceeds? A. Cd loses 2e - and forms Cd(OH) 2 (s) B. Cd gains 2e - and forms Cd(OH) 2 (s) C. NiO 2 loses 2e - and forms Ni(OH) 2 (s) D. NiO 2 gains 2e - and forms Ni(OH) 2 (s) 42. Which of the following will oxidize Fe 2+? A. I 2 (s) B. Ni (s) C. Zn (s) D. Br 2(l) 43. Consider the following half-reaction in a basic solution: Ag 2 O 3 AgO (basic) The balanced half-reaction is A. Ag 2 O 3 + 4H + + 4e - AgO + 2H 2 O B. Ag 2 O 3 + 2H + + 2e - 2AgO + H 2 O C. Ag 2 O 3 + H 2 O + 2e - 2AgO + 2OH - D. Ag 2 O 3 + 2H 2 O + 4e - AgO + 4OH The concentration of Fe 2+ (aq) can be determined by a redox titration using A. KBr B. SnCl 2 C. KMnO 4 (basic) D. KBrO 3 (acidic)

16 45. Consider the following electrochemical cell: Which of the following occurs as the cell operates? A. Zinc electrode is reduced and increases in mass. B. Zinc electrode is reduced and decreases in mass. C. Zinc electrode is oxidized and increases in mass. D. Zinc electrode is oxidized and decreases in mass. 46. Which of the following reactants would produce an E of +0.63V? A. Ag + + I 2 B. Pb 2+ + Zn C. Mg 2+ + Ca D. Zn 2+ + Mn 47. The process of applying an electric current through a cell to produce a chemical change is called A. corrosion. B. ionization. C. hydrolysis. D. electrolysis

17 48. Consider the following electrolytic cell: The cathode reaction is A. 2I - I 2 + 2e - B. Mg e - Mg C. H 2 O ½O 2 + 2H + + 2e - D. 2H 2 O + 2e - H 2 + 2OH - June A substance that is reduced during a redox reaction A. loses mass. B. is the anode. C. is the reducing agent. D. is the oxidizing agent. 39. The oxidation number of As in H 4 As 2 O 7 is A. +4 B. +5 C. +9 D. +10

18 40. In a reaction, the oxidation number of Cr decreases by 3. This indicates that Cr is A. reduced. B. oxidized. C. neutralized. D. a reducing agent. 41. Consider the following redox reaction: C 2 H 5 OH + 2Cr 2 O H + 2CO 2 + 4Cr H 2 O Each carbon atom loses A. 2 electrons B. 4 electrons C. 6 electrons D. 12 electrons 42. In which of the following 1.0M solutions will both ions react spontaneously with tin? A. Ag + and Cu 2+ B. Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ C. Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ D. Mg 2+ and Zn Consider the following half-reaction: Bi 2 O 4 BiO + The balanced equation for this half-reaction is (acidic) A. Bi 2 O 4 + 6H + + 5e - BiO + + 3H 2 O B. Bi 2 O 4 + 8H + + 6e - 2BiO + + 4H 2 O C. Bi 2 O 4 + 4H + + 2e - 2BiO + + 2H 2 O D. Bi 2 O 4 + 4H + + 3e - 2BiO + + 2H 2 O 44. To determine the concentration of Fe 2+ (aq) by a redox titration, we could use an acidified standard solution of A. Sn 2+ B. Pb 2+ C. HCl D. H 2 O 2

19 45. Consider the following redox reactions: What is the E for Nb e - Nb? 2Ag+ + Cd 2Ag + Cd2+ E = 1.20V 3Cd Nb 2Nb Cd E =0.70V A. 1.90V C. 0.50V B. 1.10V D. 0.40V 46. Consider the overall reaction for the rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery: Cd + NiO 2 + 2H 2 O Cd(OH) 2 + Ni(OH) 2 Which of the following occurs at the cathode as the reaction proceeds? A. Cd loses 2e - and Cd(OH) 2 forms B. Cd gains 2e - and Cd(OH) 2 forms C. NiO 2 loses 2e - and Ni(OH) 2 forms D. NiO 2 gains 2e - and Ni(OH) 2 forms 47. Consider the following diagram of a piece of iron, cathodically protected by magnesium: What is happening during this process? A. Iron acts as the anode and water is oxidized. B. Iron acts as the cathode and oxygen is reduced. C. Magnesium acts as the anode and iron is oxidized. D. Magnesium acts as the cathode and iron is reduced.

20 48. Consider the following operating cell: Which of the following describes the cell above? August A chemical process involving the loss of electrons is a definition of A. oxidation. B. reduction. C. galvanization. D. cathodic protection.

21 38. Which of the following is not a redox reaction? A. 2Mg + O 2 2MgO B. SO 3 + H 2 SO 4 H 2 S 2 O 7 C. CuS + 2O 2 + C Cu + SO 2 + CO 2 D. 4Ag + 2H 2 S + O 2 2Ag 2 S + 2H 2 O 39. A reducing agent will cause which of the following changes? A. ClO 3 - ClO 2 B. NO 2 - N 2 O 4 C. H 3 PO 3 H 3 PO 4 D. HS 2 O 4 - H 2 SO The oxidation number of zinc in a reaction increases by 2. This indicates that A. zinc is reduced and loses 2 electrons. B. zinc is reduced and gains 2 electrons. C. zinc is oxidized and loses 2 electrons. D. zinc is oxidized and gains 2 electrons. 41. Which metal will react spontaneously with water? A. Ca B. Ni C. Pb D. Hg 42. Consider the following redox reaction which occurs in a lead-acid storage cell: PbO 2(s) + Pb (s) + 2H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2PbSO 4(s) + 2H 2 O (s) The balanced reduction half-reaction is A. Pb Pb e - B. Pb + SO 4 2- PbSO 4 + 2e - C. 2H 2 SO 4 + 2Pb + 2e - 2PbSO 4 + 2H 2 O D. PbO 2 + 4H + + SO e - PbSO 4 + 2H 2 O 43. Consider the following redox reactions: HClO + I - HIO + Cl - E = +0.49V HClO + Br - HBrO + Cl - E = +0.15V The relative strength of the oxidizing agents from strongest to weakest is A. HIO > HBrO > HClO B. HClO > HIO > HBrO C. HBrO >HIO > HClO D. HClO > HBrO > HIO

22 44. Consider the following diagram of a fuel cell in which H 2 and O 2 combine to produce H 2 O under basic conditions: The reaction at the anode is A. 2H + + 2e - H 2 B. ½ O 2 + 2H + + 2e - H 2 O C. 4OH - O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4e - D. H 2 + 2OH - 2H 2 O + 2e -

23 45. As the cell operates, observations include 46. What is the cell potential, E, for this cell? A V B V C V D V

24 47. Consider the following electrolytic cell: In the cell above, A. I - migrates to the anode and gains electrons. B. I - migrates to the cathode and loses electrons. C. Na + migrates to the anode and loses electrons. D. Na + migrates to the cathode and gains electrons. 48. Which of the following are necessary for electroplating to occur using an electrolytic cell? A. I and II only. B. I and III only. C. II and III only. D. I, II, and III.

25 January Which of the following represents a redox reaction? A. C + O 2 CO 2 B. H 2 O + SO 2 H 2 SO 3 C. H 3 O + +OH - 2H 2 O D. NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO The oxidation number of each chromium atom in Cr 2 O7 2- is A. +5 B. +6 C. +7 D List the ions Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ in order from strongest to weakest oxidizing agents. A. Zn 2+ > Co 2+ > Cu 2+ B. Co 2+ > Cu 2+ > Zn 2+ C. Cu 2+ > Zn 2+ > Co 2+ D. Cu 2+ > Co 2+ > Zn A piece of Cu reacts spontaneously with 1.0M Pd 2+ because A. Cu is a weaker reducing agent than Pd and E > 0. B. Cu is a weaker reducing agent than Pd and E < 0. C. Cu is a stronger reducing agent than Pd and E > 0. D. Cu is a stronger reducing agent than Pd and E < Which two species will not react spontaneously at standard conditions? A. Co with Cl 2 B. Cu with Ag + C. Ag with Zn 2+ D. Mg with Cr When a piece of Ag is placed in 1.0M NiCl 2, A. the [Cl - ] increases. B. the [Ag + ] decreases. C. the [Ni 2+ ] decreases. D. no change occurs.

26 44. Which of the following represents the relationship between [NO 3 - ] and the mass of the Cu electrode in the complete cell as it operates? 45. The E for the above cell is A Volts B Volts C Volts D Volts

27 46. Which of the following is correct for an electrolytic cell? 47. Which of the following will inhibit the corrosion of iron? A. high [O 2(aq) ] B. wet conditions C. coating with zinc D. increasing the temperature 48. The products of the electrolysis of molten MgCl 2 using inert electrodes are A. hydrogen and oxygen. B. hydrogen and chlorine. C. magnesium and oxygen. D. magnesium and chlorine. April Consider the following reaction: Zn (s) + 2H + (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) The species being oxidized is A. H 2 B. H + C. Zn D. Zn When SO 4 2- reacts to form S 2 O 6 2-, the sulphur atoms A. lose electrons and are reduced. B. gain electrons and are reduced. C. lose electrons and are oxidized. D. gain electrons and are oxidized.

28 40. Which of the following is a list of metals in order from strongest to weakest reducing agents? A. Au > Ni > Rb B. Ni > Au > Rb C. Ni > Rb > Au D. Rb > Ni > Au 41. Consider the following spontaneous reaction: Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2(g) Which of the following statement is correct? A. Mg is a weaker reducing agent than H 2 B. Mg is a weaker reducing agent than H + C. Mg is a stronger reducing agent than H 2 D. Mg is a stronger reducing agent than H Which of the following will not react spontaneously with H 2 O at standard conditions? A. F 2 B. Ca C. Na D. Sn 43. When a piece of Cu is placed in 1.0M AgNO 3, A. the [Ag + ] increases. B. the [Cu 2+ ] increases. C. the [NO 3 - ] decreases. D. no change occurs.

29 44. Which of the following diagrams represents the relationship between [Ni 2+ ] and the mass of the Cu electrode as the cell above is in operation? 45. The E for the above cell is A volts B volts C volts D volts

30 46. Which of the following describes an electrochemical cell? 47. Which of the following aqueous solutions should not be used as an electrolyte in an electrolytic cell? A. 1.0M KOH B. 1.0M H 2 SO 4 C. 1.0M CuSO 4 D. 1.0M C 6 H 12 O When 1.0M Na 2 SO 4 is electrolyzed, the solution near the anode becomes A. basic and bubbles form. B. acidic and bubbles form. C. basic and no bubbles form. D. acidic and no bubbles form. June Which of the following represents a redox reaction? A. H 2 + I 2 2HI B. HCl + NH 3 NH 4 Cl C. H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 CO 3 D. 2NaI + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 PbI 2 + 2NaNO In an experiment, Ag + reacts spontaneously with Ru but not with Pd. The relative strength of the metals from strongest to weakest reducing agent is A. Ag > Ru > Pd B. Pd > Ag > Ru C. Ru > Ag > Pd D. Ru > Pd > Ag

31 40. A piece of Ag does not react spontaneously with 1.0M Ti 2+ because A. Ag + is a weaker reducing agent than Ti 2+ B. Ag + is a weaker oxidizing agent than Ti 2+ C. Ag + is a stronger reducing agent than Ti 2+ D. Ag + is a stronger oxidizing agent than Ti Which of the following will react spontaneously with Ag 2 S at standard conditions? A. Al B. Au C. Co D. Pb 42. When a piece of Cu is placed in 1.0M HNO 3, A. the [H + ] increases. B. the [Cu 2+ ] decreases. C. the [NO 3 - ] decreases. D. no change occurs. 43. When MnO 2 changes to Mn 2 O 3 in an alkaline battery, manganese atoms A. lose electrons and are reduced. B. gain electrons and are reduced. C. lose electrons and are oxidized. D. gain electrons and are oxidized.

32 44. Which of the following diagrams represents the relationship between the mass of the Cu electrode and the mass of the Ag electrode as the cell is in operation? 45. The E for the above cell is A Volts B Volts C Volts D Volts

33 46. The value of E for a cell can be used to determine A. rate. B. spontaneity. C. temperature. D. activation energy. 47. How is the formation of rust on an iron can inhibited by a tin coating? A. The tin is a sacrificial anode. B. The tin cathodically protects the iron. C. The tin is a weaker reducing agent than iron. D. The tin keeps the oxygen away from the iron. 48. The electrolysis of 1.0M CuF 2 using inert electrodes will produce A. copper and oxygen. B. copper and fluorine. C. hydrogen and oxygen. D. hydrogen and fluorine. August Consider the following spontaneous reaction: 2Al (s) + 3Cu 2+ (aq) 2Al 3+ (aq) + 3Cu (s) In this reaction, the oxidizing agent is A. Al B. Cu C. Al 3+ D. Cu Bromine has an oxidation number of +3 in A. KBrO B. KBrO 2 C. KBrO 3 D. KBrO 4

34 40. In an experiment, Te reacts spontaneously with Ag + but not with Ti 2+. The relative strength of oxidizing agents from strongest to weakest is A. Ag + > Te 4+ > Ti 2+ B. Ag + > Ti 2+ > Te 4+ C. Te 4+ > Ti 2+ > Ag + D. Ti 2+ > Te 4+ > Ag A piece of Au does not react spontaneously with 1.0M HCl. Which of the following statements is true? A. Au is a weaker reducing agent than H 2 B. Au is a stronger reducing agent than H 2 C. Au is a weaker oxidizing agent than H + D. Au is a stronger oxidizing agent than H Which two species will react spontaneously with each other at standard conditions? A. Cl 2 and Br - B. Zn and Al 3+ C. Au and Sn 2+ D. I 2 and SO What occurs when a piece of Zn is placed in 1.0M Cu(NO 3 ) 2? A. [Cu 2+ ] decreases B. [Zn 2+ ] decreases C. [NO 3 - ] increases D. no change occurs

35 44. Which of the following diagrams represents the relationship between [Zn 2+ ] and [Ni 2+ ] as the cell is in operation?

36 45. The E for the cell in the diagram is A Volts C Volts B Volts D Volts 46. Which of the following does not affect the cell potential? A. [Ni 2+ ] C. temperature B. [Zn 2+ ] D. surface area of the electrodes 47. What type of ions move toward each electrode in an electrolytic cell? 48. The electrolysis of 1.0M NaI using inert electrodes will produce A. sodium and iodine. C. hydrogen and iodine. B. sodium and oxygen. D. hydrogen and oxygen. January A reducing agent A. loses electrons and is reduced. B. gains electrons and is reduced. C. loses electrons and is oxidized. D. gains electrons and is oxidized. 39. Which of the following could be produced by the reduction of NO 2? A. NO B. N 2 O 4 C. N 2 O 5 D. HNO 3

37 40. Consider the following redox equation: 3NO + SO Fe H 2 O FeS + 3NO H + Which of the following is being oxidized? A. NO B. Fe 3+ C. H 2 O D. SO What is the oxidation number of Cr in Cr 2 O 7 2-? A. +6 B. +7 C. +12 D Which of the following represents a spontaneous redox reaction? A. 2Br - + Hg 2+ Br 2 + Hg B. Cu + Sn 4+ Cu 2+ + Sn 2+ C. HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O D. AuCl Ag Au + 4Cl - + 3Ag Which of the following is the balanced half-reaction for N 2 O NH 3 OH + (acidic) A. N 2 O + 4H + + 3e - NH 3 OH + B. N 2 O + 3H + + H 2 O NH 3 OH+ + 2e - C. N 2 O + 6H + + H 2 O 2NH 3 OH+ + 4e - D. N 2 O + 6H + + H 2 O + 4e - 2NH 3 OH + Use the following diagram to answer questions 44 to 46.

38 44. Which material could be used as the cathode to produce an E cell = V? A. Pb B. Co C. Ag D. MnO2 45. In what directions do the electrons and cations move? Direction of Electrons Direction of Cations A. Toward the cathode Toward the anode B. Toward the cathode Toward the cathode C. Toward the anode Toward the anode D. Toward the anode Toward the cathode 46. The concentration of Cu 2+ in the copper half-cell will A. increase as Cu loses electrons and is reduced. B. increase as Cu loses electrons and is oxidized. C. decrease as Cu gains electrons and is reduced. D. decrease as Cu gains electrons and is oxidized. 47. Which of the following metals could be used to cathodically protect iron? A. tin B. lead C. zinc D. copper 48. Which of the following is formed at the anode during the electrolysis of 1.0M KF? A. K B. F 2 C. H 2 D. O 2 April Which of the following describes a strong oxidizing agent? A. a substance which loses electrons readily B. a substance which gains electrons readily C. a substance which has a large increase in oxidation number D. a substance which has a small increase in oxidation number

39 39. Consider the following unbalanced redox reacton: Sn 2+ + MnO 4 - Sn 4+ + Mn 2+ Which of the following describes the change in Sn 2+? A. loses electrons and is reduced B. gains electrons and is reduced C. loses electrons and is oxidized D. gains electrons and is oxidized 40. A solution containing Pd 2+ reacts spontaneously with Ga to produce Pd and Ga 3+. However, a solution containing Pd 2+ does not react with Pt. The metals, in order of Increasing strength as reducing agents, are A. Pt < Pd < Ga B. Pt < Ga < Pd C. Ga < Pt < Pd D. Ga < Pd < Pt 41. Which of the following can act as an oxidizing agent, but not as a reducing agent? A. Cr B. Cl - C. Cu + D. Na Solid copper forms spontaneously in the following reaction: Based on this observation, Cu 2+ is a A. weaker reducing agent than V 2+ B. weaker oxidizing agent than V 2+ C. stronger reducing agent than V 2+ D. stronger oxidizing agent than V 2+ V + Cu 2+ Cu + V Which of the following could be used to determine the [Fe 2+ ] by a redox titration? A. I2 B. Cl- C. Cu 2+ D. MnO 4 - (acidified)

40 Use the following diagram to answer questions 44, 45 and What happens to the lead electrode? A. It loses mass as it is reduced. B. It gains mass as it is reduced. C. It loses mass as it is oxidized. D. It gains mass as it is oxidized. 45. As the cell operates, what happens to the ions in the salt bridge? A. K + and NO 3 - will both migrate toward the Pb half-cell. B. K + and NO 3 - will both migrate toward the Cu half-cell. C. K + will migrate toward the Cu half-cell and NO 3 - will migrate toward the Pb half-cell. D. K + will migrate toward the Pb half-cell and NO 3 - will migrate toward the Cu half-cell. 46. What is the initial cell voltage? A V B V C V D V

41 47. Consider the following: I. Electrolysis of water II. Electroplating of copper III. Rusting of iron Which of the above involve non-spontaneous redox reactions? A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II and III 48. A copper spoon was electroplated with silver. Which of the following reactions occurred at the cathode during electroplating? A. Ag Ag + + e - B. Ag + + e - Ag C. Cu Cu e - D. Cu e - Cu June Which of the following is the strongest reducing agent? A. H 2 S B. H 2 O C. H 2 Se D. H 2 Te 39. Consider the following unbalanced half-reaction: The oxidation number of Se A. increases as it undergoes oxidation. B. increases as it undergoes reduction. C. decreases as it undergoes oxidation. D. decreases as it undergoes reduction. H 2 SeO 3 Se

42 40. Which of the following will react spontaneously with Br 2 but not with I 2? A. F - B. Cr 2+ C. Fe 2+ D. Mn Consider the following: What is true for this reaction? Sn Cl - Sn 2+ + Cl 2 A. E cell = V and it is spontaneous. B. E cell = V and it is spontaneous. C. E cell = V and it is non-spontaneous. D. E cell = V and it is non-spontaneous. 42. What is the function of the salt bridge in an electrochemical cell? A. It provides a path for electrons. B. It maintains electrical neutrality in each half cell. C. It allows the anode to become positively charged. D. It allows the cathode to become negatively charged. Use the following diagram to answer questions 43, 44 and 45.

43 43. In the above electrochemical cell, how do the mass of the anode and the [Ag + ] change as the cell operates? Mass of the Anode [Ag + ] A. Decreases Increases B. Increases Increases C. Decreases Decreases D. No change decreases 44. What is the overall cell reaction? A. 2Ag + Sn 2+ Sn + 2Ag + B. 2Ag + Sn Sn Ag + C. 2Ag + + Sn 2+ Sn + 2Ag D. 2Ag + + Sn Sn Ag 45. What is the value of E for the cell? A V B V C V D V 46. Consider the following equation: Cd I - Cd + I 2 E cell = V What is E for the reduction of Cd 2+? A V B V C V D V 47. Which of the following describes an operating electrochemical cell? E Type of Reaction Direction of Electron Flow A. Positive Spontaneous adnoe to cathode B. Negative Spontaneous Cathode to anode C. Positive Non-spontaneous Anode to cathode D. negative Non-spontaneous Cathode to anode

44 48. A copper spoon is plated with silver in an electrolytic cell. What is the reaction at the anode? A. Ag Ag + + e - B. Ag + + e - Ag C. Cu Cu e - D. Cu e - Cu August An oxidizing agent is A. reduced as it loses electrons. B. reduced as it gains electrons. C. oxidized as it loses electrons. D. oxidized as it gains electrons. 39. Consider the following spontaneous reaction: What happens in this reaction? A. Rb is reduced. B. Rb gains electrons. C. Ga 3+ loses electrons. D. Ga 3+ acts as an oxidizing agent. Ga Rb 3Rb + + Ga

45 40. What is the oxidation number of S in S 2 O 6 2-? A. +3 B. +5 C. +6 D Which of the following is the weakest oxidizing agnet? A. Cl 2 B. Al 3+ C. Sn 2+ D. acidified Cr 2 O Which of the following could react spontaneously with Ag metal? A. Cl- B. Fe 2+ C. acidified SO 4 2- D. acidified NO Which of the following could be titrated using acidified MnO 4 - ions? A. Na + B. IO 3 - C. SO 4 2- D. H 2 O 2 Use the following diagram to answer questions 44 and 45.

46 44. What happens to the zinc electrode? A. Mass increases as it is reduced. B. Mass decreases as it is reduced. C. Mass increases as it is oxidized. D. Mass decreases as it is oxidized. 45. Calculate the E for the above cell. A V B V C V D V 46. What happens to iron as it corrodes? A. It loses electrons and is reduced. B. It gains electrons and is reduced. C. It loses electrons and is oxidized. D. It gains electrons and is oxidized. Use the following diagram to answer questions 47 and What reaction occurs at the cathode? A. 2I - I 2 + 2e - B. Cu e - Cu C. H 2 O 1/2O 2 + 2H + + 2e - D. 2H 2 O + 2e - H 2 + 2OH -

47 48. What happens to the [I - ] in the operating cell? A. [I - ] increases overall. B. [I - ] decreases overall. C. [I - ] remains constant overall. D. [I - ] decreases near the anode and increases near the cathode. January Consider the following equation: 16H + + 2MnO C 2 O CO 2 + 2Mn H 2 O Identify the chemical species which is reduced. A. H + B. Mn 2+ C. MnO 4 - D. C 2 O Consider the following equation: Which of the following is correct? A. Oxygen is reduced. B. Arsenic is oxidized. C. Zinc is the oxidizing agent D. The reaction is a redox reaction. H 3 AsO 4 + 4Zn + 8H + AsH 3 + 4Zn H 2 O 40. What is the oxidation number of iron in magnetite, Fe 3 O 4? A. +4/3 B. +2 C. +8/3 C. +3

48 41. Consider the following spontaneous reactions: Which is the strongest oxidizing agent? A. Cd 2+ B. Ce 3+ C. Np 3+ D. Pd 2+ 3Cd Np 3Cd + 2Np 3+ Cd + Pd 2+ Pd + Cd 2+ Np 3+ + Ce Np + Ce The volumetric analysis of hydrogen peroxide is often carried out by titrating with aqueous KMnO 4 in an acidic solution. The unbalanced formula equation for the reaction is: H 2 O 2 + KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4 K 2 SO 4 + MnSO 4 + H 2 O + O 2 Which of the following is the correct set of balancing coefficients? A. 1,1,1,1,1,1,1 B. 1,2,3,1,2,4,3 C. 2,5,3,2,1,8,5 D. 5,2,3,1,2,8,5 43. Which of the following would not be founding all electrochemical cells? A. ions B. an anode C. a cathode D. two beakers Use the following diagram to answer questions 44 and 45.

49 44. As this cell operates, the cations move towards the A. Pb electrode and the electrode gains mass. B. Pd electrode and the electrode loses mass. C. Zn electrode and the electrode gains mass. D. Zn electrode and the electrode loses mass. 45. As the cell operates, the electrons flow towards the A. Zn electrode and the cell voltage increases over time. B. Pb electrode and the cell voltage decreases over time. C. Zn electrode and the cell voltage decreases over time. D. Pb electrode and the cell voltage remains constant over time. 46. Consider the following electrochemical cell: What is the E for this cell? A V B V C V D V

50 47. An aqueous solution of CuSO 4 is electrolyzed using copper electrodes. Which of the following would correctly describe the changes in the mass of each electrode and the [Cu 2+ ] in solution? Mass of Anode Mass of Cathode [Cu 2+ ] A. increases increases increases B. increases decreases stays the same C. decreases increases stays the same D. decreases decreases increases 48. Which of the following are produced at the anode and cathode in the elctrolysis of aqueous potassium sulfate using carbon electrodes? Anode Cathode A. Potassium Oxygen B. Hydrogen Oxygen C. Oxygen Hydrogen D. Sulfur Potassium April The equation for the decomposition of nitrous acid is Which of the following is correct? A. This is a redox reaction. B. This is an acid-base reaction. C. This is a reduction half equation. D. This is an oxidation half equation. 3HNO 2 2NO + HNO 3 + H 2 O 39. An equation for the rusting of iron is shown below: Which of the following is false? A. This is a redox reaction. B. O 2 is the oxidizing agent. C. Metallic iron is reduced to Fe 3+. D. Metallic iron is the reducing agent. 4Fe + 3O 2 2Fe 2 O 3

51 40. In which of the following chemical changes will there be an oxidation number change of +3? A. Cr 3+ Cr 2+ B. ClO - ClO 2 - C. Cr 3+ Cr 2 O 7 2- D. Mn 2+ MnO Which of the following ions can be reduced by Pb (s) under standard conditions? A. Cu + B. Cr 3+ C. Sn 2+ D. Ca Consider the following equation for the combustion of ethane: 2C 2 H 6 + 7O 2 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O The change in oxidation number for carbon is equivalent to A. 1 electron lost. B. 7 electrons lost. C. 1 electron gained. D. 7 electrons gained. 43. Consider the diagram below:

52 Identify the cathode half reaction. A. H 2 2H + + 2e - B. 2H + + 2e - H 2 C. Au e - Au D. Co e - Co 44. As a standard Zn / Ag electrochemical cell operates, in which direction do anions move and how does the mass of the cathode change? Anion Direction Mass of Cathode A. Towards Zn electrode Increases B. Towards Ag electrode Increases C. Towards Zn electrode Decreases D. Towards Ag electrode Decreases 45. What is the standard cell potential for the following reaction: A V B V C V D V 2Cr (s) + 3Cu 2+ 2Cr Cu (s) 46. Consider the following: 2Cr 2+ + Tl 3+ 2Cr 3+ + Tl + E = V Identify the standard potential for the half-cell reaction: A V B V C V D V Tl + Tl e -

53 47. The electrolysis of aqueous Rb 2 SO 4 solution using carbon electrodes produces changes in the solution around the electrodes. How will the ph change around the anode and the cathode? ph around the Anode ph around the Cathode A. Increase Increase B. Decrease Decrease C. Increase Decrease D. decrease increase 48. The same amount of electricity (same number of moles of electrons) is used to carry out the electrolysis of PdCl 2(aq) and AgNO 3(aq) solutions in separate cells. The masses of Pd and Ag produced were measured and compared. Which of the following is true about the mass Pd produced? A. The mass of Pd produced is not related to the mass of Ag. B. The mass of Pd produced is approximately half that of Ag. C. The mass of Pd produced is approximately twice that of Ag. D. The mass of Pd produced is approximately the same as that of Ag. June Which of the following represents an oxidation? A. 2H + + S H 2 S B. 2SO 4 2- S 2 O 8 2- C. Na + + Cl - NaCl D. SO 2 + H 2 O 2H + + SO Identify the oxidation number for manganese in MnO 4 -. A. -7 B. +7 C. +8 D Which of the following is more difficult to reduce than the H + (aq) ion? A. I 2 B. Ag + C. Zn 2+ D. Cu 2+

54 41. Nitric oxide (NO) can be prepard by the oxidation of Cu with NO 3 - in acidic solution. Copper is oxidized to Cu 2+ and NO 3 - is reduced to NO. Which of the following equations correctly describes this process? A. Cu + NO H + Cu 2+ + NO + 2H 2 O B. Cu + NO H + Cu 2+ + NO 2 + H 2 O C. Cu + 4NO H + Cu NO 2 + 2H 2 O D. 3Cu + 2NO H + 3Cu NO + 4H 2 O 42. Acidified potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution is often used in redox titrations. Permanganate reacts with Sn 2+ as follows: 2MNO Sn H + 2MN Sn H 2 O A 10.0mL solution containing Sn 2+ is titrated with 19.3 ml of 0.10 M KMnO 4. What is the [Sn 2+ ] in the solution? A M B M C M D M 43. Given the following half-cell reactions: PbO 2 + 4H + + SO e - PdSO 4 + 2H 2 O PbSO 4 + 2e - Pb + SO 4 2- E = V E = V Which of the following best describes the overall reaction and the standard cell voltage in a lead acid storage battery? A. Pb + 2H 2 O PbO 2 + 4H + + 4e - E cell = B. PbO 2 + 4H + + 4e - Pb + 2H 2 O E cell = C. Pb + PbO 2 + 2SO H + 2PbSO 4 + 2H 2 O E cell = D. 2PbSO 4 + 2H 2 O Pb + PbO 2 + 2SO H + E cell = +2.05

55 44. Consider the following electrochemical cell: What is the anode half-reation? A. Ag Ag + + e - B. Ag + + e - Ag C. Zn Zn e - D. Zn e - Zn 45. Consider the following cell:

56 What is the value of the standard cell potential? A V B V C V D V 46. Two separate reactions involved in the refining of copper ore are: Reaction I 2Cu 2 S + 3O 2 2Cu 2 O + 2SO 2 Reaction II Cu 2 S + 2Cu 2 O 6Cu + SO 2 What happens to the copper ions during this process? A. They are reduced in Reaction I. B. They are reduced in Reaction II. C. They are oxidized in Reaction I. D. They are oxidized in Reaction II. 47. Why is aluminum a good choice for the manufacture of outdoor structures? A. Pure aluminum is easily reduced. B. Pure aluminum is not easily oxidized. C. Pure aluminum is easily reduced, but forms a protective coating. D. Pure aluminum is easily oxidized, but forms a protective coating. 48. Which of the following are produced at the anode and the cathode during the electrolysis of aqueous calcium iodide using carbon electrodes? Anode Cathode A. Iodine Calcium B. Hydrogen Oxygen C. Oxygen Hydrogen D. Iodine Hydrogen August Which equation represents a redox reaction? A. C + O 2 CO 2 B. NH 3 + HCl NH 4 Cl C. 2CrO H + Cr 2 O H 2 O D. CaCO 3 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + CO 2 + H 2 O

57 39. What is a typical characteristic of a strong oxidizing agent? A. It is readily oxidized. B. It easily loses electrons. C. It has a negative oxidation number. D. It has a positive reduction potential. 40. When U 3 O 8 (pitchblende) is dissolved in nitric acid, it changes into UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (uranyl nitrate). What is the change in oxidation number for uranium? 41. The metals Hg, Cd, Ga and Pd react as follows: 3Pd Ga 2Ga Pd Cd + Ga 3+ no reaction Hg 2+ + Pd Pd 2+ + Hg Which of the following metals is the strongest reducing agent? A. Pd B. Ga C. Cd D. Hg 42. Which of the following metals can be oxidized by 1.0M Fe 2+? A. Sn B. Co C. Cr D. Ag

58 Use the following diagram to answer questions 43 to What is the equation for the half-reaction that occurs at the cathode? A. Ag Ag + + e - B. Ag + + e - Ag C. Zn Zn e - D. Zn e - Zn 44. What happens to the mass of each electrode as the cell operates? A. Ag (s) increases, Zn (s) increases B. Ag (s) decreases, Zn (s) decreases C. Ag (s) decreases, Zn (s) increases D. Ag (s) increases, Zn (s) decreases 45. Which of the following is correct? Electrons Flow Towards Anions Move Towards A. Zn Zn B. Zn Ag C. Ag Zn D. Ag Ag

59 46. Consider the following diagram: Identify the anode reaction for the cell shown in the diagram. A. H 2 2H + + 2e - B. Co Co e - C. Co e - Co D. MnO H + + 5e - Mn H 2 O 47. Consider the following cell: What is the initial cell voltage? A V B V C V D V

60 48. Which of the following are produced at the anode and the cathode in the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride using platinum inert electrodes? Anode Cathode A. oxygen hydrogen B. hydrogen oxygen C. chlorine lithium D. lithium chlorine

61 Electrochemistry Multiple Choices Answers January 1999 April 1999 June 1999 August B 37 C 37 C 37 D 38 A 38 C 38 A 38 B 39 D 39 B 39 C 39 C 40 A 40 C 40 B 40 C 41 A 41 C 41 C 41 C 42 A 42 D 42 B 42 D 43 B 43 A 43 B 43 B 44 D 44 B 44 C 44 B 45 D 45 C 45 A 45 B 46 C 46 C 46 A 46 C 47 C 47 D 47 C 47 D 48 C 48 B 48 C 48 D January 2000 April 2000 June 2000 August B 38 B 38 D 37 A 39 B 39 D 39 B 38 B 40 D 40 D 40 A 39 A 41 B 41 A 41 C 40 C 42 C 42 D 42 A 41 A 43 C 43 C 43 C 42 D 44 C 44 D 44 D 43 D 45 A 45 D 45 B 44 D 46 C 46 B 46 D 45 B 47 A 47 D 47 B 46 C 48 D 48 D 48 A 47 D 48 D January 2001 April 2001 June 2001 August A 38 C 38 A 38 D 39 B 39 B 39 C 39 B 40 D 40 D 40 D 40 A 41 C 41 C 41 A 41 A 42 C 42 D 42 C 42 A 43 D 43 B 43 B 43 A 44 B 44 A 44 A 44 C 45 D 45 D 45 C 45 C 46 D 46 A 46 B 46 D 47 C 47 D 47 D 47 A 48 D 48 B 48 A 48 C

62 January 2002 April 2002 June 2002 August C 38 B 38 D 38 B 39 A 39 C 39 D 39 D 40 A 40 A 40 C 40 B 41 A 41 D 41 C 41 B 42 D 42 D 42 B 42 D 43 D 43 D 43 C 43 D 44 C 44 C 44 D 44 D 45 B 45 C 45 D 45 C 46 B 46 D 46 A 46 C 47 C 47 A 47 A 47 B 48 D 48 B 48 A 48 B January 2003 April 2003 June 2003 August C 38 A 38 B 38 A 39 D 39 C 39 B 39 D 40 C 40 C 40 C 40 B 41 D 41 A 41 D 41 B 42 D 42 B 42 D 42 C 43 D 43 B 43 C 43 B 44 A 44 A 44 C 44 D 45 B 45 C 45 B 45 C 46 D 46 A 46 B 46 B 47 C 47 D 47 D 47 B 48 C 48 B 48 D 48 C

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