Migrating Non-Oracle Databases to Oracle

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2 Migrating Non-Oracle Databases to Oracle

3 Craig Silveira Principal Sales Consultant North American Strategic Accounts

4 Customers who migrated UBS PaineWebber looking to move off Sybase altogether due to concerns about company. POC showed our capabilities and they are now migrating other applications. Bank of America Credit Risk looking to perform consolidation and replatforming of db systems. POC showed 2X perf gain with no special tuning and on smaller hardware. Bank of America Trade Flow Management wanted to move off Sybase due to strategic direction. Performed migration themselves. Performance better. Now migrating more apps MetLife consolidated a DB2 MF and Sybase db into Oracle. Went live and experiencing better than ever expected performance.

5 Database Architecture Comparison Database Instance Tablespace Tablespace Tablespace System Tablespace Server Database Database Database Master Database

6 RDBMS Implementation Similarities Similar Schema Objects (tables, views) Similar Data types Referential Integrity Check Constraints / Rules Transaction Support Triggers and Stored Sub Programs SQL Access to System Catalogs

7 Oracle Migration Workbench

8 Oracle Migration Workbench Wizard-driven tool Migrates from: MS SQL Server 6.5 and 7.0, 2000 Informix Dynamic Server 7.3, 9.1,9.2,9.3,9.4 Sybase Adaptive Server 11, 12 MS Access 2.0, 95, 97 MySQL on NT and Linux IBM UDB v6, 7.1, 7.2 and DB2/400 Supports database (schema & data) Supports triggers & stored procedures

9 Features Visual representation of the source database and its Oracle equivalent Migration analysis Summary report Contextual log messages

10 Features Multiple databases are consolidated into one database Automatically resolve conflicts Table name collisions Oracle reserved words

11 Features Data migration Default mappings to CLOBs/BLOBs Single table data migration Offline data loading SQL*Loader BCP

12 SYSNAME VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL Schema Conversion Sql Server Oracle TEXT(n) LONG or CLOB IMAGE(n) LONG RAW, BLOB or BFILE BINARY(n) RAW(n) VARBINARY(n) VARCHAR2(n) DATETIME DATE SMALLDATETIME DATE(With Check Constraint) MONEY NUMBER(19,4) SMALLMONEY NUMBER(10,4) TIMESTAMP NUMBER

13 Features Parser Single-object parse Parse options Color-coded editor Temporary tables

14 Conversion Architecture ODBC Connection Oracle Oracle Workbench Repository Sql Server Schema Data Oracle Source DB Utilities Flat File Data Oracle SQL*Loader

15 Migration Process Capture Load the Source Model Create the Oracle Model Customize Modify objects to produce the desired content and structure of your new Oracle database Migrate Migrate to the Oracle database

16 Capture Load the Source Model ODBC/JDBC driver used to extract schema information Schema information loaded into the Workbench Repository No data transferred Create the Oracle Model Data type mappings Parser

17 Customize Source Model customization Modify data type mappings Delete objects Edit text (stored procedures, triggers & views) Edit parse options

18 Customize Oracle Model customization Delete/rename objects Edit creation options Tablespaces Users Tables and indexes Edit text (stored procedures, triggers & views)

19 Migrate Creation of the users and their tables Data migration Through the Migration Workbench JDBC/ODBC Offline data loading BCP/SQL*Loader Creation of remaining schema objects

20 Database Migration Database Migration has the following activities Schema & Data Conversion Application Procedure Conversion Handling special cases which require manual intervention

21 Technical Database Migration Issues Data Access - Differences SQL Differences MS and Oracle have some differences in SQL syntax. Client side will need re-coding if an issue Client-Side Applications Most MS Applications use ODBC so limited changes should be required unless passthrough has been used.

22 Technical Database Migration Issues Utilities - Differences Bulk Loading Sql Server uses BCP which serves as both a bulk loader and a restoration tool. An API can be called from C programs Oracle has SQL*Loader serving as bulk loader. - Use Import/Export for data backup/restoration. - For bulk loading from a C program, use array feature of precompilers or OCI. - SQL*Loader API in Oracle8i and Array Interface.

23 Stored Procedure Migration Issues Manual Tasks

24 Sub Programs Migration Issues Temporary Tables T-SQL Issues Resultsets from Stored Sub Programs Dynamic T-SQL Error Handling SQL Issues DDL/DML Datetime Data type required to millisecond Sybase specific functions

25 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues Temporary Tables Sql Server uses temporary tables for: Query simplification and Result accumulation Oracle does not need temporary tables in most cases The Oracle optimizer can deal with complex queries, so a re-write can avoid a temporary table. Oracle8i provides support for temporary tables

26 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues Resultsets from stored sub programs Sql Server automatically puts resultsets in stream Returns stream of data and Multiple resultsets are possible Oracle provides cursor variables Client receives cv which is a handle to serverside memory resident cursor Can pass cv to other clients or servers

27 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues Dynamic T-SQL Dynamic PL/SQL is supported by Oracle T-SQL Dynamic SQL calls converted to PL/SQL Dynamic SQL calls

28 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues Error handling: propagates errors back to client via global variable: All errors are passed back to the client needs to be checked regularly Oracle has exception handling in PL/SQL to deal with errors automatically: SQL statements are embedded in a PL/SQL block with optional EXCEPTION section Use EXCEPTION to trap exactly the error conditions you wish within Throw/Catch exception model Only un-handled exceptions propagate to higher levels

29 Stored Sub Programs Migration Issues SQL Issues DDL/DML Datetime Datatype required to millisecond MS Sybase-specific functions

30 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues DDL Statements Not allowed in PL/SQL Removed and converted by the workbench Run outside of PL/SQL stored sub program

31 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues DML Statements Update / Delete from Resolved by Workbench Select List Subqueries Partly resolved by Workbench Recode on complex cases

32 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues Datetime Data type required to millisecond Is it really required? Can be simulated by date columns together with a number column and a sequence A trigger could fill the milliseconds field with the sequence values

33 Stored Sub Program Migration Issues Specific Functions Functions such as reverse, case, and more can partly be converted to their counterparts in Oracle Other functions could be coded in PL/SQL, Java (8i) or via C Callouts

34 Reference Material Online Help Additional reference material in the Appendix Oracle Technology Network Reference Guides and FAQ Quick Tour and Online Demo Migration Workbench Helpdesk

35 Converting MAC AGENDA Database conversion Stored Procedure conversion Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Perl conversion

36 PHASE I - Using conversion utility Stored Procedure conversion 103 total stored procedures 16 stored procedures were modified by tool to not include creation of temporary table. The Oracle ddl syntax was moved to another file. 9 stored procedures/functions needed manual conversion 2 stored procedures need to have the Sybase source modified because of a SELECT FOR READ ONLY statement or a UPDATE FROM statement 9 stored procedures were looked over due to the fact that Oracle currently does not support milliseconds

37 PHASE II - Compilation Errors encountered during this phase include: object does not exist: if a stored procedure references a table or stored procedure that doesn t exist, then you get this error resolve by making sure you create the referenced object In MAC, a Sybase function, PATINDEX is used which doesn t exist in Oracle resolved by creating a function with the same name that uses Oracle built in functions to achieve same results only affected one stored procedure

38 PHASE II - Compilation Errors encountered during this phase include: In MAC, a Sybase function, RAND is used which doesn t exist in Oracle resolved by replacing with Oracle package, DBMS_RANDOM. This package has functions that perform same operations as RAND only affected one stored procedure

39 PHASE III - making changes due to Perl requirements 56 stored procedures/functions needed to be modified to exclude references to REF CURSORS change was to comment out code and remove declarations same 56 stored procedures were modified to include a INSERT INTO GLOBAL_RESULTSET table resulted in addition of a loop with the insert statement NOTE: OraPerl does not support REF CURSORS at this time. If this was C/C++, VB or PB, this step would not be necessary

40 PHASE IV - Execution/runtime testing Errors encountered during runtime: The columns usr_uunm_i, usr_uunm_chng_i and usr_grp_mmbrp_i are defined as CHAR in Sybase. When migrated to Oracle, they were created as CHARs in Oracle. This caused problems because of the difference between Oracle CHAR and Sybase CHAR. During the conversion process, it would have been easy to change the CHAR column definition to VARCHAR2 We resolved by changing the column definition afterwards with our ALTER TABLE statement.

41 PHASE IV - Execution/runtime testing Errors encountered during runtime: Return codes in Sybase differ from those in Oracle When no data is returned from a query, Sybase returns a 0. Oracle returns a 100. resolution was easy, when we found where this happened, we just added an IF statement that changed the code from 100 to 0. Only affected 3 stored procedures Sybase and Oracle handle queries that assign values to a variable using a SELECT statement differently

42 PHASE IV - Execution/runtime testing Errors encountered during runtime: In Sybase, if more than one record is returned, it assigns the last value to the variable In Oracle, you get an error To resolve, you need to know what is trying to be accomplished - In one case, the SELECT was only trying to see if a record existed. In this case, Oracle can just append an additional condition : WHERE rownum =1 - In another case, Sybase was actually looking for the last value returned. In this case, we replaced the query with a cursor that retrieved all of the records then pulled out the appropriate data only affect two stored procedures

43 Perl conversion Perl needed to be modified in the following ways: add subroutine to set Oracle environment to user_subs.pl ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_USERID TWO_TASK NLS_DATE_FORMAT use (Oracle) DBI; change way stored procedure/function is called: SybPerl : $sql = exec proc_name(); OraPerl: $sql = begin proc_name(); end;

44 Perl conversion Perl needed to be modified in the following ways cont : change way stored procedure/function is called: SybPerl : $sql = exec proc_name(); OraPerl: $sql = declare x number; begin x := proc_name(); end;

45 Perl conversion Perl needed to be modified in the following ways cont : OraPerl and SybPerl retrieve data from stored procedures very differently Oracle generally uses REF CURSORS to return result sets to a calling application OraPerl currently does not have proven REF CURSOR support Therefore, a workaround was employed.

46 Perl conversion Perl needed to be modified in the following ways cont : The workaround is as follows: Stored procedures that return results sets were modified to insert the results into temporary table The calling perl script was then modified to select the data from the temporary table and display the data in the browser Functions returned a status. This was checked just to see if the operation was successful or not. We took this status and inserted into another temporary table that was queried to see if the function executed successfully or not

47 Perl conversion 37 total perl scripts ONLY 28 needed to be modified 20 were modified to include &set_oracle_env 17 were modified to include correct oracle syntax for executing a stored procedure or function 20 were modified to include the insert into global_status table 7 were modified to have select from global_resultset table

48 Presentation Map Purpose of Pilot Application X Pilot - Oracle Application X Pilot - IBM Application Y Pilot - Oracle Application Y Pilot - IBM Application Y Pilot - Benchmark Results

49 Application X Overview Application X is a front-office system for trading in fixed-income securities Since Application X is a large and complex application, it was not possible to migrate it in its entirety within the limited scope of this project A subset of stored procedures and tables was targeted for conversion/migration Focus was the set of stored procedures which creates a repo ticket in Application X The migration effort included 95 tables, their associated indexes, rules, and defaults 89 stored procedures and 5 triggers 1 Open Server Registered Procedure call

50 Application X - Migration Effort by Oracle Oracle uses a proprietary migration toolkit which: Reads the Sybase database system tables to extract schema information The extracted schema information is stored in a series of flat files These flat files are loaded in an Oracle staging database A set of scripts is run against the staging database to generate the DDL to recreate the tables in Oracle A set of scripts is generated to bcp data out of Sybase An additional set of scripts is generated to load the data into Oracle using Oracle s SQL*Loader utility The tool is capable of extracting rules, defaults, and constraints but not views; views require manual conversion

51 Application X - Migration Effort by Oracle Oracle s toolkit converts almost all datatypes with the exception of: MONEY is converted to NUMBER Oracle s date format is DD-MON-YY Can display different date formats using TO_DATE() or TO_CHAR() Can configure the default date display format in the init.ora file via the nls_date_format = MM/DD/YYYY parameter Sybase s DATETIME and SMALLDATETIME include milliseconds, Oracle s DATE datatype does not Oracle8i will apparently store up to nanoseconds If milliseconds are needed currently, another column must be manually added to the table and mask when loading data via SQL*Loader

52 Items Requiring Resolution During Migration Oracle stored procedures only allow select into All select statements are converted to referential cursors

53 Items Requiring Resolution During Migration Rules and Defaults Oracle does not support rules, and instead follows the ANSI standard for Declarative Constraints Rules are converted to declarative constraints Defaults are converted to declarative defaults An interesting case came up that Oracle was able to handle seamlessly... Several rules in the Application X application were created and subsequently renamed Thus, the object names in Application X..sysobjects differed from the text stored in Application X..syscomments Since Oracle converts rules to constraints, the conversion tool parses out the variable operator constant expression in syscomments and ignores the rule name

54 Items Requiring Resolution During Migration Rules and Defaults, cont d An interesting case came up that Oracle was able to handle seamlessly, cont d Since the conversion tool ignored the rule name, it was able to generate the constraint correctly One Application X table actually had values that violated rules! Oracle s converted constraints successfully rejected those rows when attempting to load the data from a bcp file

55 Items Requiring Resolution During Migration Indexes Oracle requires each Index name be unique Several indexes in Application X had the same name Oracle s toolkit converts the index names to tablename_indexname Oracle does not have a concept of a clustered index Clustered indexes are created as standard Oracle B-Tree indexes T-SQL functions - manual Oracle does not support Sybase s system functions Need to be written as Oracle functions For example, suser_name() can be

56 Items Requiring Resolution During Migration Set rowcount n Oracle does not support the Sybase set rowcount n command Cursors are set up to loop through n iterations Temporary tables - manual Oracle does not have temporary tables, as per Sybase Oracle8i is supposed to introduce temporary tables To resolve this, the migration tool created permanent tables with a column for session id Each user inserts their rows with a unique identifying session id to prevent each other from writing and reading others rows The Session Id was retrieved from the system catalog table V$SESSION

57 Items Requiring Resolution During Migration Identity Columns Oracle s analogous feature to identity columns is Sequence CREATE SEQUENCE empseq INCREMENT BY 1 The sequence value can be retrieved retrieved via SQL SELECT empseq.currval FROM EMPLOYEE; Character Length Mismatch - manual A variable defined as VARCHAR2(15) and inserted to a column defined as CHAR(10) generates an error Column definition needed to be expanded to CHAR(15) ALTER TABLE tab_name MODIFY (col VARCHAR2(15));

58 Application X Migration Oracle s effort can be broken down as follows: 4 people for one week migrating the database and all stored procedures including Sybase T-SQL conversion to Oracle PL/SQL and error handling 1 person for two weeks correcting syntax and debugging the converted stored procedures 2 people for one day to demo the migrated application and ensure that final results were as expected

59 Improving the Application If we were not to do a straight conversion: Leverage PL/SQL more: package specs, record/object-types, Java business logic Introduce asynchronous processing (AQ) Move Perl to Servlet/JSP/XML architecture and separate out presentation layer Look at LDAP, PKI, single sign-on, other directory-related technologies

60 Improving the Process TQM: Maintain conversion metrics, project plans, and other documentation to help others at PaineWebber leverage the MAC conversion experience Open-source: Set-up a common Web-site for other application developers and system/database administrators to access and improve conversion code/scripts

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