Year 7 History Spring 1: The Tudors

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1 Year 7 History Spring 1: The Tudors Name: Teacher:

2 Home Learning Task One: Match the key terms to the definitions and then use each of the term in sentences of your own. Key term Definition Pope Excommunicate heretic Stopping someone from belonging to or taking part in any services of the Church. Anyone who preaches something that is not in keeping with the teachings of the official Church. The name for the period in European history when some Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and formed their own Church. Reformation Protestant A Christian who does not follow Catholic traditions and beliefs. They were originally followers of Martin Luther and protested against the laws the German government tried to pass against them. The head of the Catholic Church and seen by Catholics as God s representative on earth. As such, he has papal infallibility (meaning ne can never be wrong). - Success Criteria WWW EBI You have matched the correct words to the definitions You have used the words correctly in sentences. Spelling, punctuation and grammar is accurate.

3 Home Learning Task Two: Read through the information on Henry VIII s six wives and summarise each relationship in 5 bullet points. You should also include a symbol for each wife. Catherine of Aragon - Henry VIII's first wife and mother of Mary I Catherine was the youngest daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and she came to England in 1501 at the age of 16 to marry Henry VII's eldest son and heir to the throne, Arthur. By 1527 Henry was having serious doubts about his marriage to Catherine. He believed that he had no sons because God was punishing him for having married his brother's wife. He had found a passage in the Bible that backed this belief. He had also fallen for Anne Boleyn, the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, who had recently returned to England from the French court. Catherine refused to grant Henry a divorce or retire to a convent. Henry therefore began the Reformation in England so that he could divorce Catherine without the Pope's permission and marry Anne Boleyn. Catherine was divorced by Henry in 1533 and died in Anne Boleyn - Henry VIII's second wife and mother of Elizabeth. Anne Boleyn was born in At the age of fourteen she was sent with her sister, Mary, to the French court as a maid to Queen Claude. She returned to England in 1522 and attracted many admirers. Her sister, Mary managed to attract the King's attention and became his mistress. In 1526 Henry asked Anne to become his mistress, but she refused because he was a married man. Henry was determined to win Anne Boleyn and became determined to divorce Catherine and marry Anne. The couple eventually secretly married in 1533 after Anne became pregnant. The King's second marriage was not popular. Many people believed that Anne was a witch and had cast a spell on Henry. When the baby was born in September 1533 Henry was cross that the baby was a girl. She was called Elizabeth. Henry and Anne began arguing. Although Anne became pregnant twice more each time the babies were stillborn. Henry was by now tired of Anne and wanted rid of her. He had no intention of waiting for a divorce so his ministers invented evidence showing that Anne had been unfaithful and had plotted the death of the King. She was found guilty and was executed in May Jane Seymour - Henry VIII's third wife and mother or Edward VI. Jane Seymour was a quiet shy girl who attracted Henry because she was so different to his first two wives, Catherine and Anne. Henry married Jane Seymour just 11 days after the death of Anne Boleyn. He was 45 years old, Jane was 28. Although Henry became concerned when Jane did not become pregnant immediately, he was delighted when she gave birth to a son, Edward, in October Henry was very upset when Jane died a month later. On his deathbed, Henry requested to be buried next to Jane. Anne of Cleves, Henry VIII's fourth wife. She was divorced after six months. After the death of Jane, Henry remained single for two years. He had the son that he had wanted for so long and although Edward was weak and sickly, he continued to live. Having broken free from Rome in the 1530s England was isolated from much of Europe and Henry's advisers thought it would be a good idea for him to marry a German princess and make an alliance with the other great Protestant nation in Europe - Germany. Two suitable princesses were chosen and Hans Holbein was sent to paint their portraits. The girls were sisters and daughters of the Duke of Cleves. Henry chose the older daughter, Anne, to be his fourth wife. The 24 year old German Princess arrived in England in December 1539, However, Henry was horrified when he saw her and demanded that his ministers find him a way out of the marriage. Unfortunately for Henry they could not and the marriage went ahead in January Henry was unable to consummate the marriage and the couple divorced amicably six months later. Anne was well provided for and lived out her days in England in comfort. She outlived Henry and died in 1557.

4 Kathryn Howard, Henry VIII's fifth wife. She was executed for adultery after two years of marriage. Henry had chosen his fifth wife before his divorce to Anne was finalised. The lady in question was the 15 year old daughter of Edmund Howard, Kathryn, cousin of Anne Boleyn. The marriage took place in July Henry was 49 years old, overweight and unable to walk far due to his weight and an injury to his leg that festered and refused to heal. Kathryn was young, lively and flirtatious. She was bored with having an old husband and sought out young friends among the courtiers. Unfortunately for Kathryn one of the courtiers in question was a man named Francis Dereham who had known Katherine before her marriage. He knew that she had had affairs before her marriage and used this to bribe her into giving him a good position at court. Katherine's actions led to her being accused of adultery and subsequently executed in Katherine Parr Henry VIII's sixth wife. She outlived Henry and died in Henry married for the sixth time in The lady in question was Katherine Parr who had been twice widowed. She was a kindly lady and proved a good stepmother to the King's three children. She was also an excellent nursemaid and bathed Henry's leg wound and comforted him when he was sick. She came close to being tried for treason in 1546 when her enemies at court attempted to prove that she was a committed Protestant. However, she managed to convince Henry that she was loyal to him and his Church and was spared. After Henry's death she married Edward's uncle, Thomas Seymour. Katherine Parr died in childbirth in 1548.

5 Success Criteria 5 bullet points summarises each wife. Key information is included. Extra detail is not included. Each wife is represented with a symbol. WWW EBI

6 Home Learning Task Three & Four: Prepare for your assessment by learning the content on the next few pages. You need to re-write all the content in a new format e.g. Mind Map, revision cards or revision notes of your own. What will your assessment consist of? Your assessment will focus on Henry s break from Rome. You will have 45 minutes to answer one question with as much detail and explanation as possible. Your essay will be marked according to the following criteria: LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 LEVEL 6 LEVEL 7 LEVEL 8 You are able to: Identify causes of Henry s break from the Catholic Church. Describe the causes of Henry s break from the Catholic Church, supporting points with detailed knowledge. Explain the causes of Henry s break from the Catholic Church (This led to, as a result, therefore). Prioritise (say which were the most important) causes of Henry s break from the Catholic Church Stick to an argument from the start to the end of your essay. Links the causes of Henry s break from the Catholic Church. Produce an independently-researched and original argument, covering factors we have not examined in class. You need to be able to explain what you think caused Henry to break from the Catholic Church. In doing so you must: Begin each paragraph with a clear, focused and specific point. Support each point with detailed factual knowledge Explain how the point you have identified caused Henry to break from the Catholic Church. What do I need to know? Why did Henry break from the Catholic Church? In 1534 Henry VIII made himself Supreme Head of the Church in England. In doing so, Henry VIII declared that that the English Church was separate from the rest of the Catholic Church in Europe and that the Pope had no authority in England. He did this for several reasons: He needed money. He wanted to have more power. However the trigger or the short-term factor that led to Henry s decision was: He was in love with Anne Boleyn.

7 1. Henry VIII needed money Henry VIII was fighting wars against France and was running out of money. He needed more money to pay for these wars. Henry also had a very expensive lifestyle which he needed to finance. The Catholic Church owned huge areas of land in England (around ¼ of all the land in England was owned by the Catholic Church) and collected rents from these lands. Large sums of money had to be paid to the Pope. The monasteries were also very wealthy and the Catholic Church collected taxes that did not go to Henry. By breaking away from the Catholic Church, Henry was able to get the money that had previously been paid to it. He could use this to finance his foreign wars and support his lavish lifestyle. Henry was also able to close down monasteries and sell the land to his followers. 2. Henry VIII wanted more power The Catholic Church had a lot of power and influence in England and sometimes priests would not do as Henry told them as they obeyed the Pope before Henry. In addition, the Pope was the only person who could grant divorces and by the late 1520s Henry needed to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon. By 1527, Henry decided he needed a new wife as Catherine was too old to have any more children and only one of her children - a girl (Mary) - had survived. His quest for a male heir became known as Henry s Great Matter Henry was also concerned that some Popes had abused their position of authority by becoming involved in political activities rather than religious. This had resulted in a loss of respect for the Papacy (the name given to the office of Pope). At the time there were a growing number of people turning against the Catholic Church (Protestants). Henry knew he would be popular with the Protestants if he broke away from the Catholic Church. By 1533, two of Henry s most important advisers, Thomas Cromwell and Thomas Cranmer were both Protestants. They encouraged Henry to break away from the Catholic Church so the Pope had less power. If Henry made himself Head of the Church, there would be no limiting factor (Church) to his power and he would be able to give himself a divorce from Catherine. 3. Henry was in love with Anne Boleyn By the 1520s Henry s marriage to Catherine of Aragon was in trouble. Henry was no longer in love with Catherine of Aragon and did not want to be married to her anymore. Henry had fallen in love with 19 year old Anne Boleyn, she refused to become the King s mistress but insisted on becoming the King s wife. Anne Boleyn fell pregnant in 1533 but Henry was still married to Catherine of Aragon. Henry asked the Pope to grant him an annulment i.e. a declaration that the marriage was null and void - it was not legal and therefore Henry had been living in sin with Catherine. The Pope refused. By breaking away from the Catholic Church and making himself Head of the Church of England, Henry was able to grant himself a divorce and marry Anne Boleyn. Success Criteria WWW EBI You have re-written content in a new format (e.g. MindMap, Revision notes). You can score at least 70% in a factual knowledge test.

8 Home Learning Task Five & Six: Produce a newspaper front page for one of the key events studied during the Tudor era. Use the template below to help you design this. Success Criteria WWW EBI You have carried out your own research. You have described the event in detail. You have a catchy headline. You have included a picture. You have included key terms, dates and names in the article.

9

10 Stretch and Challenge Write at least 200 words for each question. Home Learning Task Big Question 1 How much power should religious organisations have? 2 Should a Head of State (for example, a King) be able to create their own Church? 3 Who was more extreme: Bloody Mary or Protestants who refused to turn? 4 Did Elizabeth I have a duty to get married? 5 Who was the most significant Tudor monarch? Holiday Homework Research the Industrial Revolution and come to class able to explain what it was.

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