Name Lab # 3: Gases Percent Yield of Hydrogen Gas from Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid

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1 Name Lab # 3: Gases Percent Yield of Hydrogen Gas from Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Introduction For chemical reactions involving gases, gas volume measurements provide a convenient means of determining stoichiometric relationships. A gaseous product is collected in a long, thin graduated glass tube, called a eudiometer, by displacement of a liquid, usually water. Magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid, producing hydrogen gas: Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Note: for every mole of Mg (s) that is reacted, one mole of H 2 (g) is produced. If we know the mass of Mg(s) we can convert to moles of Mg(s). Then, since we get 1 mole of H 2 (g) for every mole of Mg(s), we can predict how many moles of H 2 (g) could be made (theoretical yield). We use an excess of HCl so that we would react all the Mg(s) before we used all of the HCl. When the magnesium reacts with the acid, the evolved hydrogen gas is collected by water displacement and its volume is measured. The temperature of the gas is taken to be the same as the temperature of the water it is in contact with because, given a sufficient amount of time, the two will reach thermal equilibrium. The level of water in the eudiometer is adjusted so that it is equal to the level of water outside the eudiometer. This insures that the pressure in the eudiometer is equal to the prevailing atmospheric pressure. Because the hydrogen gas was collected above water, and water has a significant vapor pressure, to get the pressure of pure hydrogen (dry hydrogen), we must subtract the vapor pressure of water. The pressure of the dry hydrogen gas (PH 2 ) is calculated from Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Ptotal = PH 2 + PH 2 O so PH 2 = Ptotal - PH 2 O where Ptotal (the pressure in the eudiometer) is atmospheric pressure, and PH 2 O (the water vapor pressure) is the pressure exerted by water vapor that has evaporated into the eudiometer. We will get the vapor pressure of water from the table below of vapor pressure vs. temperature. 1

2 The number of moles of hydrogen gas collected can then be calculated from the ideal gas law: (n= # moles H 2 ) n = PV (Use PH 2 here, not P total ) This will give you the experimental # moles of hydrogen gas collected. The theoretical # of moles of H 2 (g) can be calculated by converting the mass of Mg to moles Mg, and understanding that we get 1 mole of H 2 from every mole of Mg(s). From the theoretical yield and the experimental yield, one can calculate the percent yield: RT PROCEDURE: Percent Yield = experimental # moles H 2 100% theoretical #mole H 2 1. PUT ON RUBBER GLOVES. Fill the largest beaker in your drawer (400 ml or a 600mL beaker) about 2/3 full of water and allow it to sit on the base of a ring stand so that the temperature of the water may adjust to room temperature. Place a buret clamp on the ring stand well above the beaker. 2. Obtain a 4-5 cm length of magnesium ribbon from the back counter of the lab room. Weigh and record the mass of the magnesium ribbon in your data table. Your magnesium should have a mass no larger than g. Roll the magnesium ribbon into a loose coil. Obtain a piece of thread 25 cm in length, and tie it to one end of the magnesium ribbon in such a way that all the loops of coil are tied together (see Figure 1). 3. Get a eudiometer. Always carry a eudiometer in a vertical position. The eudiometer will contain water. Empty out the water into your sink and temporarily attach it to the buret clamp, open end up. Figure 1 4. Using a glass funnel, add about 10 ml of hydrochloric acid to your eudiometer. Remove the eudiometer from the buret clamp, hold it on a slight slant, and add enough water to the eudiometer to fill it completely. Try to mix the water and the acid as little as possible. Reattach the eudiometer to the buret clamp, open end up (see Figure 2). 5. Obtain a one-hole rubber stopper from the back counter. Take your magnesium coil and lower it into the water of the eudiometer to a depth of about 5 cm. Have the thread attached to the coil hang over the lip and out of the eudiometer. Insert the onehole rubber stopper into the eudiometer so the thread is held firmly against the edge, and when water squirts out of the hole in the stopper, cover the hole firmly with your thumb (see Figure 1). Figure 2 2

3 6. Taking care that no air enters, remove the eudiometer from the buret clamp, invert it, and place its open end underwater in the beaker. Re-clamp the eudiometer to the buret clamp so that the bottom of the eudiometer is about 1 cm below the surface of the water in the beaker. The acid will flow down the eudiometer and react with the magnesium. 7. When the magnesium has disappeared entirely and the reaction has stopped, tap the tube with your finger to dislodge any bubbles you see attached to the side of the eudiometer. Measure the temperature of the water in your beaker; this will be the temperature of the hydrogen gas in the eudiometer. Record this value, to the nearest 0.1 o C, in your data table. Because your thermometer reads to a tenth of a degree Celsius, add when converting to Kelvin. 8. Place your finger over the hole in the stopper and remove the eudiometer from the beaker. Lower the eudiometer into the leveling tank and remove your finger. Raise or lower the eudiometer until the water level inside the eudiometer is the same as the water level in the leveling tank. Read the volume of gas in the eudiometer and record it in your data table. Record the volume to the nearest 0.01 ml. Figure 3. Inverted eudiometer illustrating gas collection and water displacement. 9. Your instructor will write the barometer for today s atmospheric pressure on the board. Record this value in your data table. The water vapor pressure can be found in the table on page 2. Record this value for the vapor pressure of water in your data table. 10. When finished with the experiment, clean the eudiometer with deionized water, dry the outside, fill it with deionized water, and return it. 3

4 DATA TABLE: Mass of Magnesium Metal = g (must be less than g) Volume of Gas = ml Temperature of Gas = Temperature of the water = = C Atmospheric Pressure = torr Water Vapor Pressure (at the above temperature, see table on last page) = torr CALCULATIONS: 1. Theoretical (calculated) yield of H 2 gas (# moles H 2 ). a) Convert mass Mg to #moles Mg b) Convert # moles Mg reacted to moles of H 2 that could be produced (1 mole H 2 is produced for every 1 mole Mg reacted- this comes from the balanced chemical equation): Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H2 (g) # moles H 2 = (theoretical yield of H 2 ) 2. Experimental yield of H 2 gas (# moles H 2 ). a) Determine pressure of dry H 2 (PH 2 ) by subtracting the vapor pressure of water from the total pressure, Ptotal = PH 2 + PH 2 O so PH 2 = Ptotal - PH 2 O where Ptotal (the pressure in the eudiometer) is atmospheric pressure, and PH 2 O (the water vapor pressure) is the pressure exerted by water vapor that has evaporated into the eudiometer. Use the table provided on the last page to find the vapor pressure of water as a function of temperature. PH 2 = torr b) Convert this pressure from torr to atm (760.0 torr = 1atm) PH 2 = atm 4

5 c) Use the Ideal Gas Equation to calculate the number of moles (n) of H 2 that you produced in your experiment (experimental yield). Make sure to use the correct units so that they match the units in the gas constant (R). 3. Calculate the Percent Yield. % Yield = experimental # moles H 2 100% theoretical #mole H 2 % Yield = 4. What are the possible sources of error in this experiment? 5

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