Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple.

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1 Complex Inheritance Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple.

2 Other Types of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate between phenotypes of the homozygotes Example: when a homozygous red carnation is crossed with a homozygous white carnations, then pink carnations are produced We usually don t use lower case letters in this type of inheritance because nothing is really dominant

3 Incomplete Dominance RR = Red RW= pink WW= white

4 Incomplete Dominance Punnett Square Pink x White RW x WW 50% offspring are pink 50% are white RW WW RW WW

5 Other Types of Inheritance Codominance Occurs when both alleles for a trait are expressed in heterozygous offspring Codominant alleles are often symbolized with different letters

6 Codominance BB = Brown BW= Roan WW= White Notice both brown and white are present in the heterozygote

7 Codominance Punnett Square Roan x Roan BW x BW 25% brown 50% roan 25% white BB BW BW WW

8 Other Types of Inheritance Multiple Alleles: Genes with 3 or more alleles (or variations) Human blood type shows codominance and it has multiple alleles- A, B, and O

9 Blood Type Human blood types have 3 alleles A, B, and O. Each person still only gets 2 alleles, but there are 3 possibilities O is recessive to A and B, A and B are codominant: Genotype AO or AA = A blood Genotype BO or BB = B blood Genotype OO = O blood Genotype AB = AB blood (both alleles expressed)

10 Blood Type

11 Blood Type Terminology Heterozygous B Heterozygous A Homozygous recessive Homozygous A Homozygous B AB (technically heterozygous) GENOTYPE BO AO OO AA BB AB

12 Codominance Punnett Square Heterozygous A x Heterozygous B AO x BO 25% AB 25% A blood 25% B blood 25% O blood AB AO BO OO

13 Other Types of Inheritance Sex-Linked Genes and Traits Remember sex chromosomes are the chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism So these are traits/genes carried on sex chromosomes These traits are symbolized using a superscript on the X or Y, such as X r or X R

14

15 Other Types of Inheritance Sex-Linked Genes and Traits Examples: In fruit flies, the gene for eye color is on the X chromosome. Red (X R ) is dominant, white (X r ) is recessive. To have white eyes, females must have the genotype X r X r, or in other words TWO white alleles To have white eyes, males must have the genotype X r Y, or in other words ONE white allele This is why X chromosome sex-linked traits are more common in males

16 Sex-linked Punnett Square Homozygous red eyed female x white eyed male X R X R x X r Y Notice, 50% males and 50% females for offspring All offspring will have red eyes X R X r X R X r X R Y X R Y

17 Other Types of Inheritance Polygenic Inheritance: Traits that are controlled by more than one gene Most human traits are polygenic Examples are height, skin color, eye color, and hair color

18

19 Other Types of Inheritance Complex Characters: Characters that are influenced by genetics AND the environment Skin color and height are examples

20 Other Types of Inheritance Sex-Influenced Traits: Traits in which males and females show different phenotypes even though they have the same genotypes Baldness is an example- it is dominant in men, but recessive in women The differences are mainly due to males and females producing different hormones (chemical signals)

21 Other Types of Inheritance Single Allele Traits Traits where there is only one allele If you have the allele you have the traitthere is no recessive Huntington s disease is an example definition/con

22 Chromosome Mutations Chromosome mutations involve changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss or gain of a chromosome. Deletion: The loss of a piece of chromosome due to breakage Inversion: A chromosomal segment breaks off, flips around, and reattaches

23 Translocation- A piece of chromosome breaks off and reattached to a nonhomologous chromosome

24 Nondisjunction- When a chromosome fails to detach from its homologue during meiosis, so one gamete gets an extra chromosome ex. Down s Syndrome

25 Duplication: repeats a chromosomal segment

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