# The aspect of the data that we want to describe/measure is the degree of linear relationship between and The statistic r describes/measures the degree

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1 PS 511: Advanced Statistics for Psychological and Behavioral Research 1 Both examine linear (straight line) relationships Correlation works with a pair of scores One score on each of two variables ( and ) Correlation: Defined as the degree of linear relationship between and Is measured/described by the statistic r Regression: Describes the form or function of the linear relationship between & Is concerned with the prediction of from Forms a prediction equation to predict from Central tendency and dispersion are critical for DESCRIBING the characteristics of a distribution However, sometimes we are interested in the relationship between variables (i.e., how the value of one variable changes when the value of another variable changes) Correlation and regression help us understand these relationships 1

2 The aspect of the data that we want to describe/measure is the degree of linear relationship between and The statistic r describes/measures the degree of linear relationship between and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient r = =, The average product of z scores for and Works with two variables ( and ) -1<r<1 r measures positive or negative relationships Measures only the degree of linear relationship r 2 = proportion of variability in that is explained by r is undefined if or has zero spread The sign of r shows the type of linear relationship between and We can use the definitional formula for r and these scatterplots to see positive, negative, and zero relationships r = 1 r = -1 r = , Formula has two parts 1. Measure of the association between two variables 2. Standardizing process Numerator deals with the linear association Denominator deals with standardization 2

3 Covariance between two variables captures the linear association between two variables Covariance is similar to the variance except that the covariance deals with two variables whereas the variance only deals with a single variable Covariance is a measure of the direction and magnitude of the linear association between and Covariance may be thought of as the sum of matches and mismatches across participants Match: Both variables are on the same side of the mean Mismatch: The score on one variable is above the mean but the score on the other variable is below the mean Strong associations result from many matches Weak associations result from few matches Covariance depends on the scale of the variable Variables on a 1-7 scale will have a smaller covariance than variables on a scale with the same association Dividing the covariance by the standard deviation of each variable serves to standardize the covariance Correlation ranges between -1 and +1 regardless of the scales of the variables involved r is a measure of effect size 3

4 What happens to Variable increases in value decreases in value increases in value decreases in value What happens to Variable increases in value decreases in value decreases in value increases in value Type of Correlation Positive Positive Negative Negative Value Positive, ranging from 0 to +1 Positive, ranging from 0 to +1 Negative, ranging from 0 to 1 Negative, ranging from 0 to 1 Example The more time you spend studying, the higher your test score will be The less money you put in the bank, the less interest you will earn The more you exercise, the less you will weigh The less time you take to complete a test, the more you ll get wrong N = 1000 r =.95 N = 20 N = 1000 r =.90 N = 20 N = 1000 r =.70 N = 20 N = 1000 r =.50 N = 20 N = 1000 r =.30 N = 20 N = 1000 r =.10 N = 20 4

5 The correlation reflects the degree and direction of linear relationship (top row) Correlation does not reflect the slope of the relationship (middle row) Correlation does not reflect many aspects of nonlinear relationships (bottom row) If there is a curvilinear relationship between and, then r will not detect it The value of r will be zero if there is no linear relationship between and r = 0 r = 0 Size of correlation Interpretation.8 to 1.0 very strong relationship.6 to.8 strong relationship.4 to.6 moderate relationship.2 to.4 weak relationship.0 to.2 weak or no relationship 5

6 r 2 =proportion of variability in that is explained by Also known as coefficient of determination If r=.5, r 2 =.25, so the proportion of variability in that is explained by is.25 (25% explained by, 75% unexplained) Scatterplots: r=.5, r 2 =.25 r=.7, r 2 =.49 r=.9, r 2 =.81 Venn Diagrams: r 2 is represented by the proportion of overlap. If there is no spread in or, then r is undefined. Note that any z is undefined if the standard deviation is zero This is a problem because z scores are and r = s =0 s =0 r is undefined r is undefined Correlation as a statistical technique vs. correlational research design Correlational research is non-experimental This is what leads to the common idea of correlation does not imply causation Correlation as a statistical technique is simply a way to analyze data This has nothing to do with issues of causation Common misunderstanding Using particular analyses (e.g., ANOVA instead of Pearson s r) does not allow researchers to make assumptions about causation 6

7 Example of correlation: Murder rates and ice cream sales are positively correlated As murder rates increase, ice cream sales also increase Why? Possible explanations for the causal connections underlying correlational findings Murders may cause increases in ice cream sales Ice cream sales may cause more murders Some other variable may cause both murders and ice cream sales Things to remember: Correlations can range from -1 to +1 The absolute value of the correlation coefficient reflects the strength of the correlation A correlation of -.7 is stronger than a correlation of +.5 Do not assign a value judgment to the sign of the correlation Negative correlations are not bad and positive correlations are not good Population correlation coefficient is ρ (rho) Impact on r: Restriction of range Extreme scores (outliers) Not only can we compute the degree to which two variables are related (correlation coefficient) but we can use these correlations as the basis for predicting the value of one variable from the value of the other Prediction is an activity that estimates future outcomes from present ones When we want to predict one variable from another, we need to first compute the correlation between the two variables 7

8 Total High School GPA and First-ear College GPA are Correlated High School GPA First-ear College GPA r =.68 for these two variables Regression is concerned with forming a prediction equation to predict from Uses the formula for a straight line: =b+a is the predicted score on the criterion variable b is the slope, b= / =rise/run is a score on the predictor variable a is the -intercept, where the line crosses the axis, the value of when =0 Example: if b=.695, a=.739, and =3.5, then =.695(3.5)+.739 =

9 Regression line of on Regression line of on Prediction of given = 3.5 Regression line of on Linear only Generalize only for values in your sample Actual observed is different from by an amount called error (e) That is, = +e Error in regression is e=- Many different potential regression lines 9

10 There are many different potential regression lines, but only one best-fitting line The statistics b and a are computed so as to minimize the sum of squared errors Σe 2 =Σ(- ) 2 is a minimum which is called the Least Squares Criterion This means that it minimizes the distance between each individual point and the regression line Error in prediction: the distance between each individual data point and the regression line (a direct reflection of the correlation between two variables) = 3.3, = 3.7 Error in prediction Standard error of estimate is a statistic that measures/describes spread of errors or scores in regression s y x is the standard deviation of errors in regression s y x = = As r 2 increases, s y x decreases For example, if N=100 and s y =4 r 2 s y x s y x is the standard deviation of around the regression line 10

11 Partitioning total variability Total = Explained + Not Explained This is true for proportion of spread and amount of spread Proportion: 1 = r 2 + (1-r 2 ) Amount: s 2 y = r 2 *s 2 y + (1-r 2 )s 2 y Total Explained Not Explained Proportion 1 r 2 1-r 2 Amount s 2 y r 2 *s 2 y (1-r 2 )s 2 y Example: r=.7, s 2 y=150 Total Explained Not Explained Proportion 1 r 2 =.49 1-r 2 =.51 Amount s 2 y = 150 r 2 *s 2 y = 73.5 (1-r 2 )s 2 y =

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