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1 Glossary of terms: Term Definition Example active voice An active verb has its usual pattern of subject and object (in contrast to the passive voice). Active The school arranged a visit. Passive: adverbs adverbial antonym article Clause Cohesive devices These help modify the verb and adjective. Adverbs can also be used to describe time, frequency and manner. Adverbs of manner Greedily, generously, loudly, softly, wide, well. (Adverbs of manner cannot be placed in between the verb and its direct object). Adverbs of time include: today, now, yesterday, later, soon, tomorrow. Adverbs of frequency Daily, weekly, always, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually, frequently, and often. Adverbs to indicate the degree of possibility. Definitely, certainly, possibly, maybe, clearly, obviously, perhaps and probably. An adverbial is a word or phrase that is used, like an adverb, to modify a verb or clause. Two words are antonyms if they are opposite. The articles the (definite) and a or an (indefinite) are the most common types of determiner. Articles are now incorporated in the term determiner. Clauses can sometimes be either main or subordinate clauses or they can complete sentences. Cohesive devices are words that are used to show how a text fits A visit was arranged by the school. The match was really exciting (adverb modifying the adjective, exciting) We don t play games very often! He played the piano well. The was opened wide. The bus leaves in five minutes. (in five minutes is a prepositional phrase that acts as an adverbial). Hot-cold, Light-dark. The dog found a bone in an old box. It was raining. (single clause sentence) If you are coming to the party, please let us know. (Subordinate clause). Joe was given a bike for Christmas. He liked it very much. (Use of

2 Conjunction determiner Fronted, fronting. Main clause Modal Verbs together so that they create cohesion (it s clear how a text fits together). Determiners and pronouns, which can refer back to earlier parts of the text; Conjunctions and adverbs, which can make relations between words clear; Ellipsis of expected words. A conjunction links two or more words and phrases together. There are two main types: coordinating (when two or more words or phrases are an equal pair) and subordinating (to introduce a subordinate clause). A determiner specifies a noun as known or unknown and goes before any modifiers (e.g, adjectives and other nouns). Types of determiners: Articles, demonstratives (these, those), possessives (e.g. my, your), quantifiers (e.g, some, every). When a group of verbs that normally comes after the verb is moved to the beginning. When writing fronted adverbials, we often follow them with a comma. A sentence contains at least one clause which is not a subordinate clause. A main clause makes sense on its own and will contain a subject and verb. These are to change the meaning of a verb and express the degree of certainty over an event. Will, would, shall, should, could, can, may, might, must and ought. pronoun) We ll be going shopping before we go the park. (a conjunction makes a relationship of time clear). Co-ordinating: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS). Subordinating: when, before, because, which, as, so that, even though, although, as though, after, since, until, while, where, if, in order that, provided that, rather than, whereas. Kylie is only small but she can kick the ball (2 equal pair clauses). Everyone watches Kyle when he does backflips. (Introduces a subordinate clause). Julia s parents (possessive, known) Some big boys (quantifier, unknown) Before we begin, make sure you ve got a pencil. (Make sure you have a pencil before we begin). It was raining but the sun was shining. (Two main clauses) Noun phrase A noun phrase has a noun as its Adult foxes can jump (adult

3 perfect phrase Prefix Prepositions Progressive head. The perfect part of verb generally calls attention to the consequences of a prior event., for example, he has gone to lunch, implies that he is still away. The perfect verb form can be made through adding a form of the verb have before it. Past perfect verbs are formed with the helping verb had. Present perfect verbs are formed with the helping verbs has and have / Future perfect forms of the verbs are formed with the helping verbs will have and shall have. A phrase is a group of words that are grammatically connected so they stay together, and that expand a single word, the head. The phrase is a noun phrase if the head is a noun and the phrase is a prepositional phrase if the head is a preposition. However, if the verb is at the head then it is a clause. A group of words that goes before a root word so that the meaning changes. Groups of words that show the directions, locations, or, sometimes, time. Words like before and since can act as prepositions as well as conjunctions. Examples of prepositions Time prepositions during, at, in or on. Space prepositions to, over, under, in, on, through, below, behind, across. This is also known as continuous and generally describes an event in progress. modifies foxes so belongs to the noun phrase). Almost all healthy adult foxes in this area can jump. She has downloaded some songs (present perfect, she now has songs) I had eaten lunch when he you came. (Past perfect; I wasn t hungry when you came). She waved to her mother (noun phrase, with the noun, mother, as its head) She waved to her mother (a preposition phrase with the word, to, as its head). Overtake, Misbehave. to, in between, next to,from, below, above, from. I haven t seen my dog since this morning. I m going, since no-one wants me here! (Conjunction as it links two clauses. Michael is singing. (Present progressive) Amanda was making a patchwork

4 Relative Clause Subordinate Clause Subjunctive form Suffix Word classes This is a special type of subordinate clause that modifies a noun. It often does this through using a relative pronoun (such as who or that which refer back to the noun). The relative pronoun that is often omitted. In year 5 and 6, children will be taught how to write relative clauses that begin with who, which, when, where, that and whose. A clause which is subordinate (lesser) to another part of the sentence is a subordinate clause. This is often only used in formal writing and when either commanding or in a wishful mood. A group of letters that are added to a root word so that the meaning is changed. Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, determiner and pronoun. Adjectives used before the noun to make the noun more specific or can be used after the verb be to add more information (complement) Adverbs These can modify verbs and adjectives. Noun the surest way to identify is noun is the way it is used after the determiner. Nouns can also be classified into common countable (book, books, ideas) and common noncountable (imagination, money). Proper nouns: Marilyn, Sitwell, Rotherham. quilt. (Past progressive). That s the boy who lives near school. (who refers back to the boy) The prize that I won was a book (that refers back to the book); Tom broke the game, which annoyed Ali. (Which refers back to the whole clause) He watched her as she disappeared. The street where Ben lives. (A relative clause that modifies street). The school requires that all pupils be honest. The school rules demand that pupils do not enter the gym at lunchtime. If Cinderella were to go to the ball, she would dance until midnight. Call called; Teach - teacher The pupils did some really good work. The work was good (after the verb as its complement)/ Ben soon started snoring loudly. (Adverbs to modify started and snoring). The match was really exciting! (Adverb to modify the adjective, exciting).

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