Topic 3 Understanding the Energy Requirements

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1 Topic 3 Understanding the Energy Requirements Planning for Climate Change - Delivering Sustainable Buildings & Quality Design

2 Learning Objectives By the end of this session, you should have a basic understanding of: Terminology used in relation to energy requirements e.g Ene 1, TER, DER, BER, Part L, regulated CO 2, SAP, EPC Regulated and unregulated energy use and CO 2 emissions What a SAP assessment is and how it is related to the policy requirement for dwellings What a non-domestic EPC is, and how it is calculated What Low and Zero Carbon energy technologies are How the Code energy targets can be met

3 Regulated vs. Unregulated Energy Regulated Energy Use Partly related to quality of building Regulated by Part L Covered by Code Levels 1-5 for dwellings Unregulated Energy Use Related mainly to occupants Not (currently) regulated by Part L Covered by Code Level 6 for dwellings Cooking 9% Appliances 28% Communal Lighting 5% Mainly IT use

4 Converting Energy to Energy is consumed by buildings & CO 2 is emitted either at the building or at the source of the energy CO 2 conversion factors are used to convert each unit of energy consumed by a building into CO 2 Grid Electricity is twice as carbon intensive as natural gas 0.42kg CO 2 1 kwh electricity 1 kwh gas 0.19kg CO 2

5 Assessing Regulated Emissions for Dwellings SAP is Government s Standard Assessment Procedure for calculating regulated energy performance of dwellings Dwellings are modelled using approved software by accredited SAP assessors to verify Part L1A compliance Part L of the Building Regulations relates to the Conservation of Fuel and Power L1A is for new dwellings, L2A for new non-dwellings The Target Emission Rate (TER) is the cap for Part L1A compliance kg CO 2 /m 2 per annum To pass Criterion 1 of Part L1A of the Building Regulations the Dwelling Emissions Rate (DER) must be less than or equal to the TER Typical TER for new dwelling, on gas, is 20-25kgCO 2 /m 2 per year Data entered into SAP model Building dimensions Heat loss walls, floors, roofs U-values Windows, doors, rooflights Ventilation Space and water heating Lighting LZC energy technologies CSH Level % better than Part L Zero carbon home* * Includes unregulated carbon emissions

6 Regulated CO 2 for Dwellings The source of CO 2 for a typical new dwelling: Total Regulated CO 2 (TER) Roof 2.0% Thermal bridging 10% Ventilation losses 18.5% Walls 8.0% Space heating 51.5% (made up of heat losses shown) Windows 8.5% Door 1.9% DHW use 30.5% Lighting 15% G floor 2.5% Pumps and fans 3%

7 Low & Zero Carbon (LZC) Energy Sources Why not just say renewable energy??

8 LZC Energy - Community Heating Community heating is characterised by: Heat and/ or electricity are produced by a central energy centre Heat is carried to building by heat mains buried, insulated pipes Reduced dependence UK centralised generation, e.g. National grid and gas network Can be powered by, e.g. gas CHP, biomass, waste power station heat Can be low carbon or renewable, depending on fuel source

9 Low & Zero Carbon (LZC) Energy Sources Low carbon energy technologies: Combined heat and power (CHP) Heat pumps: Fuels :Gas, waste Types: Engine, fuel cell, Advanced Thermal Treatment Scale: Communal heating or per dwelling

10 Low & Zero Carbon (LZC) Energy Technologies Zero carbon/renewable energy Biomass heating Wind power Solar thermal/solar hot water (SHW) Solar photovoltaic (PV) Fuels :Wood chip, logs or pellets Scale: Communal heating or per dwelling can also be CHP at large scale

11 SAP and the Code Requirements There are some difference between SAP and the Code s treatment of energy and LZCs: Photovoltaics Multiple assessment Large wind turbines + Hydro +Renewable Fuel Cells Biomass CHP Code Ene 1 CO 2 saving allowed for PV which connects to landlords supply As for SAP 2005, apart from: 1,terraced houses cannot be averaged 2, the same services must be used in all Ene 1 allows for CO 2 savings from large wind turbines and hydro Full CO 2 saving of biomass CHP can be allowed for in calculation of Ene 1 score Part L1A CO 2 savings only allowed if PV connects to specific dwellings Allows multiple dwellings within a building to be averaged in terms of emissions. No approved way of allowing CO 2 saving for Part L1A compliance DER for Part L1A cannot take full advantage of CO 2 savings from Biomass CHP - to prevent poor building fabric being used to lower DER

12 EPCs and Non-domestic Buildings EPCs are required on all new buildings: shows building s CO 2 vs. CO 2 of standard new building of same size and occupancy with mixed mode ventilation (standard building scores 50) required by the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive EPBD enforced by Trading Standards an asset rating: linked to building quality, not dependant on operation calculated by SBEM methodology, as used for Part L2, based only on regulated energy use BREEAM Excellent requirement for rating of 40 requires CO 2 emissions to be about 20% less than typical new build

13 EPCs and Non-domestic Buildings Not to be confused with:

14 EPCs and BREEAM Requirements BREEAM credit Ene 1 is determined by the building s EPC (for reduction of CO 2 Emissions) BREEAM excellent requires EPC score of 40 (6 credits for Ene 1) EPC Rating BREEAM Credits New Build Refurbishment Linking to EPC means naturally ventilated building are fairly treated Exemplary level credit 1 Exemplary level credit 2 < 0 0 True zero carbon building* * Includes unregulated carbon emissions

15 Achieving Code Level CO 2 savings Typical CO 2 reductions for LZCs and Energy Efficiency For a typical 3 bed semi detached house Part L Compliant Dwelling Code level 3 min standard Code level 4 min standard 2016 Part onsite (estimated) Code level 5 min standard Code level 6 approx standard Improvementon Part L TER in % Best Practice Energy Efficiency Advanced Practice Energy Efficiency Solar Hot Water+ BPEE Solar Hot Water+ APEE PV maximum saving + BPEE PV maximum saving + APEE Ground Source ( ) +BPEE Ground Source( ) +APEE Ground Source (2010+) +BPEE Biomass heating + BPEE Biomass heating + APEE Gas CHP +BPEE Air source ( ) + BPEE Plant sizes: Solar Hot Water: 4m 2 PV for max saving = 2.54kWp, 20m 2 Ground source = 9kW unit Gas CHP = communal system Biomass Heating = communal system

16 LZC Energy Options Implications for Scheme Design

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