q = (mass) x (specific heat) x T = m c T (1)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "q = (mass) x (specific heat) x T = m c T (1)"

Transcription

1 Experiment: Heat Effects and Calorimetry Heat is a form of energy, sometimes called thermal energy, which can pass spontaneously from an object at a high temperature to an object at a lower temperature. If the two objects are in contact they will, given sufficient time, both reach the same temperature; we call this thermal equilibrium. Heat flow is ordinarily measured in a device called a calorimeter. A calorimeter is simply a container with insulating walls, made so that essentially no heat is exchanged between the contents of the calorimeter and the surroundings. Within the calorimeter chemical reactions may occur or heat may pass from one part of the contents to another, but no heat flows into or out of the calorimeter from or to the surrounding. A. Specific Heat. When heat flows into a substance the temperature of that substance will increase. The quantity of heat, q, required to cause a temperature change, T, of any substance is proportional to the mass, m, of the substance and the temperature change, as shown in equation (1). The proportionality constant is called the specific heat of that substance. q = (mass) x (specific heat) x T = m c T (1) The specific heat can be considered to be the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance by one degree Celsius (if you make m and T in equation 1 both equal to one, then q will equal specific heat, c). Amounts of heat are measured in either joules or calories. TO raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius 4.18 joules of heat must be added to the water. The specific heat of water is therefore 4.18 J/g C. Since 4.18 joules equals one calorie, we can say that the specific heat of water is 1.00 calories/g C. Ordinarily heat flow into or out of a substance is determined by the effect which that flow has on a known amount of water. Because water plays such an important role in these measurements the calorie, which was the unit of heat most commonly used until recently, was actually defined to be equal to the specific heat of water. The specific heat of a metal can readily be measured in a calorimeter. A weighed amount of metal is heated to some known temperature and is then quickly poured into a calorimeter that contains a measured amount of water at a known temperature. Heat flows from the metal to the water, and the two equilibrate at some temperature between the initial temperatures of the metal and the water. Assuming that no heat is lost from the calorimeter to the surroundings, and that a negligible amount of heat is absorbed by the calorimeter walls, the amount of heat that flows from the metal as it cools is equal to the amount of heat absorbed by the water. In thermodynamic terms, the heat flow for the metal is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction, and hence in sign, to that for the water. For the heat flow, q, q metal = -q water (2) If we now express heat flow in terms of equation 1 for both the water and the metal M, we get C M m M T M = C H2O m H2O T H2O (3) In this experiment we measure the masses of water and metal and their initial and final temperatures. (Note that T M <0 and T H2O.), since T = T final T initial.) Given the specific heat of water we can find the positive specific heat of the metal by equation 3. We will use this procedure to obtain the specific heat of an unknown metal.

2 The specific heat of a metal is related in a simply way to its atomic mass. Dulong and Petit discovered many years ago that about 25 joules were required to raise the temperature of one mole of many metals by one degree Celsius. This relation, shown in equation 4, is known as the Law of Dulong and Petit: AM = 25 (4) C metal (J/g C) Where AM is the atomic mass of the metal. Once the specific heat of the metal is known, the approximate atomic mass can be calculated by equation 4. The Law of Dulong and Petit was one of the few rules available to early chemists in their studies of atomic masses. (Note: 25 is an approximate, not exact #.) B. Heat of Solution. When a chemical reaction occurs in water solution, the situation is similar to that which is present when a hot metal sample is put into water. With such a reaction there is an exchange of heat between the reaction mixture and the solvent, water. As in the specific heat experiment, the heat flow for the reaction mixture is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to that for the water. The heat flow associated with the reaction mixture is also equal to the enthalpy change, H, for the reaction, so we obtain the equation q reaction = H reaction = -q H2O (5) By measuring the mass of the water used as a solvent, and by observing the temperature change that the water undergoes, we can find q H2O by equation 1 and H by equation 5. If the temperature of the water goes up, heat has been given off by the reaction mixture, so the reaction is exothermic; q H2O, is positive and H is negative. If the temperature of the water goes down, the reaction mixture has absorbed heat from the water and the reaction is endothermic. In this case, q H2O is negative and H is positive. Both exo- and endothermic reactions are observed. One of the simplest reactions that can be studied in solution occurs when a solid is dissolved in water. As an example of such a reaction note the solution of NaOH in water. NaOH (s) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq); H = H solution (6) When this reaction occurs, the temperature of the solution becomes much higher than that of the NaOH and water that were sued. If we dissolve a known amount of NaOH in a measured amount of water in a calorimeter, and measure the temperature change that occurs, we can use equation 1 to find q H2O for the reaction and use equation 5 to obtain H. Noting that H is directly proportional to the amount of NaOH used, we can easily calculate H solution for either a gram or a mole of NaOH. In the second part of this experiment you will measure H solution for an unknown ionic solid. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Wear your safety glasses while performing this experiment: Part A Specific Heat of a Metal. From your instructor obtain a calorimeter, a sensitive thermometer, a sample of metal in a large stoppered test tube. The calorimeter consists of two nested expanded polystyrene coffee cups fitted with a Styrofoam cover. There are two holes in the cover for a thermometer and a glass stirring rode with a loop bent on one end. Assemble the experimental setup as shown in figure 1. Fill a 400-mL beaker two-thirds full of water and begin heating it to boiling. Fill a 100-mL beaker two-thirds full of water and begin heating it to boiling a well. While the water is heating, weight your sample of unknown metal in the large stoppered test tube to the nearest 0.1g on a top loading balance. Pour the metal into a dry container and weigh the empty test tube and stopper. Replace the metal in the test tube and put the LOOSELY stoppered tube into the hot water in the400-ml beaker. The water level in the 400-mL beaker should be high enough so that the top of the metal is below the water surface. Continue heating the metal in the water for at least 5 minutes after the water begins to boil to ensure that the metal attains the temperature of the boiling water. Add water as necessary from your 100-mL beaker to the 400-mL beaker to maintain the water level.

3 While the water is boiling, mass the calorimeter t0 the nearest 0.01 g. Place about 40 ml of water in the calorimeter and mass again. Insert the stirrer and thermometer into the cover and put it on the calorimeter. The thermometer bulb should be completely under the water. BE CAREFUL SO THAT YOU DO NO PUNCTURE THE CUP. Measure the temperature of the water in the calorimeter to the nearest 0.1 C. Take the test tube out of the beaker of boiling water, remove the stopper, and pour the metal into the water in the calorimeter. Be careful so that no water adhering to the outside of the test tube runs into the calorimeter when you are pouring the metal. Replace the calorimeter cover and agitate the water as best you can with the glass stirrer. Record to the nearest 0.1 C the maximum temperature reached by the water. Be sure to dry your metal before reusing it; this can be done by heating the metal briefly in the test tube in boiling water and then pouring the metal onto a paper towel to drain. You can dry the hot test tube with a towel. When this portion of the experiment is completed, dry your metal once again in the boiling water bath. Return the metal to your instructor by pouring the metal onto a large watch glass provided by your instructor. Carefully place the test tube and stopper on top of the watch glass with the metal. (Note: Even though the Law of Dulong and Petit really only allows us to know the molar mass to 2 significant figures, we will round all calculated molar masses to the ones place even if that requires keeping 3 significant figures.) Part B Heat of Solution. Obtain a calorimeter similar to the one used in part A or simply use the same calorimeter. Mass the calorimeter on a top loading balance to the nearest 0.01 g. Place about 50 ml of distilled water in the calorimeter and mass to the nearest 0.01g. Measure the temperature of the water to 0.1 C. The temperature should be within a degree or two of room temperature. Tare the mass of a small weigh boat, then add about 6 to 7 grams of the unknown ionic solid assigned to you. Record the mass to the nearest 0.01g. Be sure to record the number of your solid in your data table. Add the solid from the weigh boat to the water in the calorimeter. Stirring continuously and occasionally swirling the calorimeter, determine to 0.1 C the maximum or minimum temperature reacted as the solid dissolved. (Caution: You need to stir really well and swirl occasionally to get all the solid to dissolve.) Check to make sure that all the solid dissolved. A temperature change of at least five degrees should be obtained in this experiment. If necessary, repeat the experiment, increasing the amount of solid used. Clean out cup, and dry completely before returning to your instructor.

4 Experiment: Calorimetry Name: Block: Pre-lab Heat Effects and Calorimetry (To be handed in before starting the experiment.) SHOW SET-UPS FOR CREDIT. 1. A metal sample with a mass of 63.2 g. and at a temperature of C was placed in 41.0 g. of water in a calorimeter at 24.5 C. At equilibrium the temperature of the water and metal was 35.0 C. A. What was T for the water? ( T = T final T initial ) B. What was T for the metal? C. Taking the specific heat of water to be 4.18J/g C, calculate the specific heat of the metal, using equation 3. D. What is the approximate atomic mass of the metal? (Use equation 4.) 2. When 5.0 g of KNO 3 were dissolved in 49.0 g. water in a calorimeter at 24.0 C, the temperature of the solution fell to 15.6 C. A. Is this solution reaction exothermic? Why? B. What was T for the water? ( T = T final T initial ) C. Calculate q H2O, using equation 1. D. Find q for the reaction as it occurred in the calorimeter (equation 5). E. Find H solution in joules/g H = F. Find H solution in joules/mole H = G. Write the chemical equation that represents the heat of solution for KNO 3. H. Using enthalpies of formation, H f, given in the back of your text book (A19-A22) to calculate H solution for the reaction in part G. (Reminder: H rxn = Σ H f products - Σ H f reactants) I. Calculate your percent error using your answers to part F and H.

5 Experiment: Calorimetry Name: Block: Post-lab Heat Effects and Calorimetry Due: Day after lab. Part A Specific Heat of a Metal. 1. For the following errors describe how they would affect your calculated specific heat increase, decrease, remain the same). a. The metal did not reach thermal equilibrium with the boiling water. b. When pouring the metal into the distilled water, some hot water from the wet test tube fell into the distilled water as well.. c. Heat from the warming water was lost to the surroundings. d. The mass of the empty test tube was taken when the test tube was slightly wet. e. The initial temperature of the water was recorded higher than it actually was by reading the thermometer from above. Part B Heat of Solution. 1. We found the heat of solution of an ionic solid for part B of this lab. Describe heat of solution briefly in your own words. 2. If we were to graph the entire class s results for this lab, would we likely have a. Mostly low results b. Mostly high results c. Approximately equal number of low and high results 3. Given your answer to #2, did we have random or systematic error? 4. For the following errors describe how they would affect your calculated heat of solution. a. Not all of the ionic solid was dissolved. b. The ionic solid dissolved slowly enough that much of the heat dissipated to the surroundings. c. The student recording the initial temperature of the distilled water did not wait for the thermometer to come to thermal equilibrium with the distilled water prior to recording the initial temperature. (The temperature of the room was warmer than was the distilled water.) d. The ionic solid had absorbed come water from the air prior to being dissolved in the distilled water. e. The balance read zero prior to placing the weigh boat on it. The student did not tare the mass of the weigh boat prior to adding the ionic solid. The balance read 6.00 grams with the weigh boat and solid on it. The student recorded the mass of the ionic solid as 6.00 grams.

Procedure. Day 1 - Calibration of the Calorimeter. (Part I) The Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter.

Procedure. Day 1 - Calibration of the Calorimeter. (Part I) The Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter. Thermochemistry Experiment 10 Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy involved in chemical reactions and changes of physical state. Heat energy is always spontaneously transferred from hotter to

More information

Heats of Transition, Heats of Reaction, Specific Heats, and Hess s Law

Heats of Transition, Heats of Reaction, Specific Heats, and Hess s Law Heats of Transition, Heats of Reaction, Specific Heats, and Hess s Law GOAL AND OVERVIEW A simple calorimeter will be made and calibrated. It will be used to determine the heat of fusion of ice, the specific

More information

Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry

Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry 6-1 Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry Introduction: Chemical reactions involve the release or consumption of energy, usually in the form of heat. Heat is measured in the energy units, Joules (J), defined

More information

Calorimetry: Determining the Heat of Fusion of Ice and the Heat of Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen - Chemistry I Acc

Calorimetry: Determining the Heat of Fusion of Ice and the Heat of Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen - Chemistry I Acc Calorimetry: Determining the Heat of Fusion of Ice and the Heat of Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen - Chemistry I Acc O B J E C T I V E 1. Using a simple calorimeter, Determine the heat of fusion of ice

More information

2 To use calorimetry results to calculate the specific heat of an unknown metal. 3 To determine heat of reaction ( H) from calorimetry measurements.

2 To use calorimetry results to calculate the specific heat of an unknown metal. 3 To determine heat of reaction ( H) from calorimetry measurements. Calorimetry PURPOSE To determine if a Styrofoam cup calorimeter provides adequate insulation for heat transfer measurements, to identify an unknown metal by means of its heat capacity and to determine

More information

Thermochemistry: Enthalpy of Reaction Hess s Law

Thermochemistry: Enthalpy of Reaction Hess s Law Thermochemistry: Enthalpy of Reaction Hess s Law Objective Demonstrate Hess s Law for determining the enthalpy of formation for MgO by measuring temperature change for several reactions. Introduction The

More information

CALORIMETRY AND HESS LAW: FINDING H o FOR THE COMBUSTION OF MAGNESIUM

CALORIMETRY AND HESS LAW: FINDING H o FOR THE COMBUSTION OF MAGNESIUM Experiment 12J FV 7/16/06 CALORIMETRY AND HESS LAW: FINDING H o FOR THE COMBUSTION OF MAGNESIUM MATERIALS: Styrofoam coffee cup and lid, thermometer, magnetic stirrer, magnetic stir bar, 50-mL and 100-

More information

L q + w. CHM 1041 Thermochemistry Heats of Solution (Reaction) J. Bieber. Section: Date:

L q + w. CHM 1041 Thermochemistry Heats of Solution (Reaction) J. Bieber. Section: Date: CHM 1041 Thermochemistry Heats of Solution (Reaction) J. Bieber Name: Partner: Section: Date: To study quantitatively the heat of solution when (1) a salt dissolves in water and (2) to study the heats

More information

Lab 9. Hess s Law. Reaction B. NaOH (s) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Reaction C. NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l)

Lab 9. Hess s Law. Reaction B. NaOH (s) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Reaction C. NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Lab 9. Hess s Law Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: This exercise does not require a report in your lab notebook. Use a pen to record your data, observations, calculations and analysis in the spaces

More information

EXPERIMENT 12N CALORIMETRY

EXPERIMENT 12N CALORIMETRY EXPERIMENT 12N CALORIMETRY FV 7/28/2016 MATERIALS: PURPOSE: OBJECTIVES: Styrofoam cup and lid, stir bar, magnetic stir plate, digital thermometer, 250 ml beaker, two 100 ml graduated cylinders, aluminum

More information

Heat of Neutralization

Heat of Neutralization Cautions HCl and NaOH are corrosive and toxic Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the heat of neutralization for a reaction between a strong acid and a strong base. Introduction Chemical

More information

Chemistry 1215 Make up Lab Enthalpy of Neutralization

Chemistry 1215 Make up Lab Enthalpy of Neutralization hemistry 1215 Make up Lab Enthalpy of Neutralization Objective In this experiment you will determine the molar enthalpy of neutralization of an acid. Introduction The study of energy and its transformations

More information

HEATS OF REACTION. Name: Chemistry 117 Laboratory University of Massachusetts Boston LEARNING GOALS

HEATS OF REACTION. Name: Chemistry 117 Laboratory University of Massachusetts Boston LEARNING GOALS Name: Chemistry 117 Laboratory University of Massachusetts Boston HEATS OF REACTION LEARNING GOALS 1. Become familiar the technique of calorimetry to measure heats of reaction 2. Become familiar with the

More information

Transfer of heat energy often occurs during chemical reactions. A reaction

Transfer of heat energy often occurs during chemical reactions. A reaction Chemistry 111 Lab: Thermochemistry Page I-3 THERMOCHEMISTRY Heats of Reaction The Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide Transfer of heat energy often occurs during chemical reactions. A reaction may

More information

Name: Introduction to Calorimetry

Name: Introduction to Calorimetry Name: Introduction to Calorimetry Purpose: The goal of this experiment is to gain experience in the practice of calorimetry; the main method by which chemists measure the energy changes in chemical reactions.

More information

Calorimetry Lab - Specific Heat Capacity

Calorimetry Lab - Specific Heat Capacity Introduction Calorimetry Lab - Specific Heat Capacity Experience tells us that if a hot piece of metal is added to water, the temperature of the water will rise. If several different metals having the

More information

Explorations in Thermodynamics: Calorimetry, Enthalpy & Heats of Reaction

Explorations in Thermodynamics: Calorimetry, Enthalpy & Heats of Reaction Explorations in Thermodynamics: Calorimetry, Enthalpy & Heats of Reaction Dena K. Leggett, Ph.D. and Jon H. Hardesty, Ph.D. Collin County Community College Dept. of Chemistry 1. Introduction: One of the

More information

By adding Equations 1, 2, and 3, the Overall Equation is obtained. Summation of their enthalpies gives the enthalpy of formation for MgO.

By adding Equations 1, 2, and 3, the Overall Equation is obtained. Summation of their enthalpies gives the enthalpy of formation for MgO. The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound, Hf o, is the heat change accompanying the formation of one mole of compound from the elements at standard state. The standard state of a substance is the

More information

Calorimetry and Thermochemistry

Calorimetry and Thermochemistry CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.3 Calorimetry and Thermochemistry Learn how to measure Heat flow. Learn about the Specific Heat of substances. Learn about Exothermic and Endothermic chemical

More information

Experiment 14 - Heats of Reactions

Experiment 14 - Heats of Reactions Experiment 14 - Heats of Reactions If a chemical reaction is carried out inside a calorimeter, the heat evolved or absorbed by the reaction can be determined. A calorimeter is an insulated container, and

More information

CHM111 Lab Enthalpy of Hydration of Sodium Acetate Grading Rubric

CHM111 Lab Enthalpy of Hydration of Sodium Acetate Grading Rubric Name Team Name CHM111 Lab Enthalpy of Hydration of Sodium Acetate Grading Rubric Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed lab handout and rubric was brought to lab 3 Safety and proper

More information

EXPERIMENT 14: CALORIMETRY

EXPERIMENT 14: CALORIMETRY EXPERIMENT 14: CALORIMETRY Introduction: You will calculate the specific heat constant of a metal, c, by measuring the heat exchanged in a calorimeter. Once c is determined, use the Law of Dulong and Petit

More information

Prelab attached (p 8-9) (g)! MgO (s) + heat (1)

Prelab attached (p 8-9) (g)! MgO (s) + heat (1) CHEM 151 ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF MgO FALL 2008 Fill-in Prelab attached (p 8-9) Stamp Here Name Partner Lecture instructor Date INTRODUCTION Chemical reactions either produce heat as they proceed (exothermic)

More information

I. CALORIMETRY CALORIMETRY

I. CALORIMETRY CALORIMETRY CALORIMETRY I. CALORIMETRY If the process (e.g. chemical reaction, phase conversion) requires heat to proceed, it is said to be endothermic. For endothermic process, q > 0. If the process (e.g. chemical

More information

SPECIFIC HEAT. Roster Number: Pre-Lab Questions Page Instructor: 2. Define specific heat, water equivalent and heat capacity of a body.

SPECIFIC HEAT. Roster Number: Pre-Lab Questions Page Instructor: 2. Define specific heat, water equivalent and heat capacity of a body. SPECIFIC HEAT Name: Class: Roster Number: Pre-Lab Questions Page Instructor: 1. List the symbol and at least two units for specific heat.,, 2. Define specific heat, water equivalent and heat capacity of

More information

Thermochemistry I: Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions

Thermochemistry I: Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions THERMOCHEMISTRY I 77 Thermochemistry I: Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions OBJECTIVES: Learn elementary concepts of calorimetry and thermochemistry Practice techniques of careful temperature, mass, and

More information

Enthalpy of Neutralization. Introduction

Enthalpy of Neutralization. Introduction Enthalpy of Neutralization Introduction Energy changes always accompany chemical reactions. If energy, in the form of heat, is liberated the reaction is exothermic and if energy is absorbed the reaction

More information

Unit 27 Heat of Neutralization Calorimetry

Unit 27 Heat of Neutralization Calorimetry Unit 27 Heat of Neutralization Calorimetry When reactions occur, energy is always involved. Reactions that absorb energy are called "endothermic" reactions. Reactions that give off energy are called "exothermic"

More information

Lab Session 9, Experiment 8: Calorimetry, Heat of Reaction

Lab Session 9, Experiment 8: Calorimetry, Heat of Reaction Lab Session 9, Experiment 8: Calorimetry, Heat of Reaction Specific heat is an intensive property of a single phase (solid, liquid or gas) sample that describes how the temperature of the sample changes

More information

HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE

HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE 303 HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE OBJECTIVES FOR THE EXPERIMENT The student will be able to do the following: 1. Calculate the change in enthalpy (heat of reaction) using the Law of Hess. 2. Find

More information

7 THERMOCHEMISTRY: HEAT OF REACTION

7 THERMOCHEMISTRY: HEAT OF REACTION 7 THERMOCHEMISTRY: HEAT OF REACTION Name: Date: Section: Objectives Measure the enthalpy of reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide Measure the heat capacity of a Styrofoam cup calorimeter

More information

Thermochemistry: Calorimetry and Hess s Law

Thermochemistry: Calorimetry and Hess s Law Thermochemistry: Calorimetry and Hess s Law Some chemical reactions are endothermic and proceed with absorption of heat while others are exothermic and proceed with an evolution of heat. The magnitude

More information

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 Standard Enthalpy Change Standard Enthalpy Change for a reaction, symbolized as H 0 298, is defined as The enthalpy change when the molar quantities of reactants

More information

Calorimetry Experiments

Calorimetry Experiments Calorimetry Experiments Pre-Lab: Today s laboratory period will include a variety of activities designed to re-familiarize you with safe practices for chemistry laboratory, the space and equipment you

More information

Calorimetry and Enthalpy. Chapter 5.2

Calorimetry and Enthalpy. Chapter 5.2 Calorimetry and Enthalpy Chapter 5.2 Heat Capacity Specific heat capacity (c) is the quantity of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1⁰C The units for specific heat

More information

Experiment 25: Calorimetry

Experiment 25: Calorimetry Aaron Bunch CHEM 111 Morning Lab 27 October 2014 Experiment 25: Calorimetry Conclusion: The unknown metal #14 has a specific heat of 0.36 J/g C; the heat of neutralization of HCl and NaOH is -53.0 kj/mol

More information

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510)

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) 17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity and specific heat.

More information

1. The Solubility of a Salt

1. The Solubility of a Salt 1. The Solubility of a Salt Objective In this experiment, you will determine the solubility of a given salt at various temperatures. Also you will prepare the solubility curve for your salt. Introduction

More information

Additivity of Heats of Reaction: Hess s Law

Additivity of Heats of Reaction: Hess s Law Additivity of Heats of Reaction: Hess s Law Computer 18 In this experiment, you will use a Styrofoam-cup calorimeter to measure the heat released by three reactions. One of the reactions is the same as

More information

Experiment 9: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide

Experiment 9: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide 1 Experiment 9: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide Objective: In this experiment, a simple calorimeter will be constructed and calibrated, and Hess law of constant heat summation will be used to

More information

Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured.

Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured. 1 CALORIMETRY p. 661-667 (simple), 673-675 (bomb) Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured. There are two basic types of calorimeters: 1. Constant-pressure

More information

PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY. Calorimetry

PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY. Calorimetry PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY Calorimetry Equipment Needed: Large styrofoam cup, thermometer, hot water, cold water, ice, beaker, graduated cylinder,

More information

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #10 The Reaction of Zinc and Iodine: The Combination of Two Elements

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #10 The Reaction of Zinc and Iodine: The Combination of Two Elements Chemistry 1215 Experiment #10 The Reaction of Zinc and Iodine: The Combination of Two Elements Objective The objective of this experiment is to perform a combination reaction by reacting elemental zinc

More information

THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS

THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS Thermochemistry is the study of the study of relationships between chemistry and energy. All chemical changes and many physical changes involve exchange of energy with the

More information

Experiment 7: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide

Experiment 7: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide Experiment 7: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide Objective: In this experiment, a simple calorimeter will be constructed and calibrated, and Hess' law of constant heat summation will be used to determine

More information

Chapter 5 Energy Relationships in Chemistry: Thermochemistry

Chapter 5 Energy Relationships in Chemistry: Thermochemistry Chapter 5 Energy Relationships in Chemistry: Thermochemistry In order to study thermochemical changes, we first have to define (a) system that specify part of the universe of interest to us. (b) surrounding

More information

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Catalog No. AP6356 Publication No. 6356A Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Introduction A procedure for determining the molar mass of a substance is very useful to chemists.

More information

LAB FOUR. Name. Lab Partner(s) Section Date. In this experiment you will use calorimetry to determine the specific heat of a metal.

LAB FOUR. Name. Lab Partner(s) Section Date. In this experiment you will use calorimetry to determine the specific heat of a metal. Name Lab Partner(s) Section Date Specific Heat of a Metal Objective In this experiment you will use calorimetry to determine the specific heat of a metal. Introduction When a substance is heated, the motion

More information

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To determine the molecular mass of an unknown solid using the colligative property of freezing point depression. Background: When

More information

Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat

Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat Chapter 3 Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat Name: Lab Partner: Section: 3.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to study the relationship between heat and temperature. Calorimetry will

More information

EXPERIMENT 9. Thermochemistry: Hess Law and the Heat of Formation of MgO

EXPERIMENT 9. Thermochemistry: Hess Law and the Heat of Formation of MgO Outcomes EXPERIMENT 9 Thermochemistry: Hess Law and the Heat of Formation of MgO After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: 1. Differentiate between exothermic and endothermic reactions.

More information

ENERGY. Thermochemistry. Heat. Temperature & Heat. Thermometers & Temperature. Temperature & Heat. Energy is the capacity to do work.

ENERGY. Thermochemistry. Heat. Temperature & Heat. Thermometers & Temperature. Temperature & Heat. Energy is the capacity to do work. ENERGY Thermochemistry Energy is the capacity to do work. Chapter 6 Kinetic Energy thermal, mechanical, electrical, sound Potential Energy chemical, gravitational, electrostatic Heat Heat, or thermal energy,

More information

Lab: Heat and Calorimetry

Lab: Heat and Calorimetry Objectives Lab: Heat and Calorimetry Gain applicable knowledge about calories Compare the calorie content of food samples Introduction Most people are aware that foods contain calories, but what is a calorie?

More information

Thermodynamics Experiment The Enthalpy of H 2 O 2 Decomposition in Aqueous Solution

Thermodynamics Experiment The Enthalpy of H 2 O 2 Decomposition in Aqueous Solution Thermodynamics Experiment The Enthalpy of H 2 O 2 Decomposition in Aqueous Solution OBJECTIVES 1. To illustrate the use of calorimetry in the experimental measurement of thermodynamic data. 2. To illustrate

More information

Lab: Specific Heat of Metals PHYSICS: CHAPTER 21: HEAT

Lab: Specific Heat of Metals PHYSICS: CHAPTER 21: HEAT Name Date Period Lab: Specific Heat of Metals PHYSICS: CHAPTER 21: HEAT Background: Almost everyone has noticed that some foods remain hot much longer than others. Boiled onions and moist squash on a hot

More information

Apparatus error for each piece of equipment = 100 x margin of error quantity measured

Apparatus error for each piece of equipment = 100 x margin of error quantity measured 1) Error Analysis Apparatus Errors (uncertainty) Every time you make a measurement with a piece of apparatus, there is a small margin of error (i.e. uncertainty) in that measurement due to the apparatus

More information

Experiment 2. Properties of Water. Introduction. Safety. Objectives. Concepts. Materials

Experiment 2. Properties of Water. Introduction. Safety. Objectives. Concepts. Materials Experiment 2 Properties of Water Introduction Water (H 2 O) is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface and the life on the Earth is possible only because it s unique properties. Have you ever wondered

More information

Simple Experiments in Thermochemistry

Simple Experiments in Thermochemistry Simple Experiments in Thermochemistry Purpose: To demonstrate the law of conservation of energy and propose a method for making a chemical heat pack using the heats of solution of sodium bicarbonate and

More information

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry Chapter 5 Thermochemistry I. Nature of Energy Energy units SI unit is joule, J From E = 1/2 mv 2, 1J = 1kg. m 2 /s 2 Traditionally, we use the calorie as a unit of energy. 1 cal = 4.184J (exactly) The

More information

Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide F. Basic Calorimetry Set TD-8557A

Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide F. Basic Calorimetry Set TD-8557A Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide 012-03060F Basic Calorimetry Set TD-8557A Al Cu W Table of Contents Introduction......................................................................... 1 Notes

More information

L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N

L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N Class Date Name Partner(s) L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N Materials LoggerPro Software and Real Time Physics Thermodynamics Experiment Files Stainless Steel Temperature Probes (2) Styrofoam Cup Film

More information

To measure the solubility of a salt in water over a range of temperatures and to construct a graph representing the salt solubility.

To measure the solubility of a salt in water over a range of temperatures and to construct a graph representing the salt solubility. THE SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES 2007, 1995, 1991 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included. OBJECTIVE To measure

More information

SOLUTION CALORIMETRY

SOLUTION CALORIMETRY Experiment 7 SOLUTION CALORIMETRY Prepared by Stephen E. Schullery and Ross S. Nord, Eastern Michigan University PURPOSE Measure the heats of two simple reactions and use Hess's Law to theoretically predict

More information

5.2. Determining Enthalpy of Reaction by Experiment. Specific Heat Capacity. 234 MHR Unit 3 Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction

5.2. Determining Enthalpy of Reaction by Experiment. Specific Heat Capacity. 234 MHR Unit 3 Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction In this section, you will 5.2 Section Preview/ Specific Expectations determine the heat that is produced by a reaction using a calorimeter, and use the data obtained to calculate the enthalpy change for

More information

q (heat) mass x T SpHt (or s)

q (heat) mass x T SpHt (or s) General Chemistry I CHEM-1030 Laboratory Experiment No. 10 (Revised 10/30/2016) Specific Heat Introduction The specific heat of a substance, symbolized s or SpHt, is the quantity of heat needed to change

More information

3A Energy. What is chemical energy?

3A Energy. What is chemical energy? 3A Energy What is chemical energy? Chemical energy is a form of potential energy which is stored in chemical bonds. Chemical bonds are the attractive forces that bind atoms together. As a reaction takes

More information

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual EXPERIMENT 4: Separation of a Mixture of Solids Read the entire experiment and organize time, materials, and work space before beginning. Remember to review the safety sections and wear goggles when appropriate.

More information

PREPARATION FOR CHEMISTRY LAB: COMBUSTION

PREPARATION FOR CHEMISTRY LAB: COMBUSTION 1 Name: Lab Instructor: PREPARATION FOR CHEMISTRY LAB: COMBUSTION 1. What is a hydrocarbon? 2. What products form in the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon? 3. Combustion is an exothermic reaction. What

More information

Entropy & Enthalpy Changes A Lab Investigation

Entropy & Enthalpy Changes A Lab Investigation Entropy & Enthalpy Changes A Lab Investigation Summary In this investigation, students will explore basic thermodynamic concepts, including spontaneity, entropy, and enthalpy through a series of guided

More information

Specific Heats of Metals

Specific Heats of Metals Johnson 1 Cameron Johnson Jun Li Physics 222 March 6, 2013 Specific Heats of Metals Abstract The purpose of this lab is to determine the specific heat of various types of metals by adding a known amount

More information

UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan

UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan Title: Exothermic verses Endothermic Grade Level and Course: 8 th Grade Physical Science & 9-12 High School Chemistry Materials: 100 ml beakers or plastic cups.1 M CH3COOH

More information

Chapter Six. Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter Six. Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter Six Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions 1 Energy (U): Capacity to Do Work Radiant energy Energy from the sun Nuclear energy Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom Thermal energy Energy

More information

HEAT OF FUSION MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT AND PART A. HEAT OF FUSION

HEAT OF FUSION MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT AND PART A. HEAT OF FUSION HEAT OF FUSION AND MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT CAUTION: Please handle thermometers gently. Broken mercury-filled thermometers should be taken to Rm. B-31 for disposal as mercury is very toxic. If a red-liquid

More information

Specific Heat. Goals and Introduction

Specific Heat. Goals and Introduction Specific Heat Goals and Introduction One process by which the temperature of an object can change is when an exchange of thermal energy, or heat flow, Q, occurs between an object and its surroundings.

More information

Experiment 3: The Enthalpy of Reaction for the Dissolution of Salts

Experiment 3: The Enthalpy of Reaction for the Dissolution of Salts I. Introduction Experiment 3: The Enthalpy of Reaction for the Dissolution of Salts You will need a flash drive for this lab to save your data from the laptop computer. The enthalpy of reaction is generally

More information

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry Chapter 5 Thermochemistry 1. The ΔE of a system that releases 14.4 J of heat and does 4.8 J of work on the surroundings is J. (a). 19.2 J (b). 14.4 J (c). 4.8 J (d). - 19.2 J Explanation: The ΔE can be

More information

Chapter 6: Thermochemistry (Chemical Energy) (Ch6 in Chang, Ch6 in Jespersen)

Chapter 6: Thermochemistry (Chemical Energy) (Ch6 in Chang, Ch6 in Jespersen) Chapter 6: Thermochemistry (Chemical Energy) (Ch6 in Chang, Ch6 in Jespersen) Energy is defined as the capacity to do work, or transfer heat. Work (w) - force (F) applied through a distance. Force - any

More information

Category 5 points 4 points 3 points 2 points 1 point 0 points Participation Participated fully. Mostly on-task. Safety reminders needed.

Category 5 points 4 points 3 points 2 points 1 point 0 points Participation Participated fully. Mostly on-task. Safety reminders needed. Lab Report Rubric Category 5 points 4 points 3 points 2 points 1 point 0 points Participation Participated fully Mostly on-task Minimal and Safety participation Prelab /10 Observations Data Units & Significant

More information

Heats of Reaction lab. Enthalpy

Heats of Reaction lab. Enthalpy Heats of Reaction lab tonight s QuestiONs Is the amount of heat given off or absorbed, q sys, by a chemical reaction an intensive or extensive property? For an acid-base reaction, does the heat of reaction

More information

THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS

THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1 NOTE: You are required to view the podcast entitled Decanting and Suction Filtration before coming to lab this week. Go to http://podcast.montgomerycollege.edu/podcast.php?rcdid=172

More information

Thermodynamics. Energy can be used * to provide heat * for mechanical work * to produce electric work * to sustain life

Thermodynamics. Energy can be used * to provide heat * for mechanical work * to produce electric work * to sustain life Thermodynamics Energy can be used * to provide heat * for mechanical work * to produce electric work * to sustain life Thermodynamics is the study of the transformation of energy into heat and for doing

More information

Example. c. Calculate the amount of heat (in kj) required to heat 1.00 kg (~1 L) of water at 25 C to its boiling point.

Example. c. Calculate the amount of heat (in kj) required to heat 1.00 kg (~1 L) of water at 25 C to its boiling point. Example When consuming an ice-cold drink, one must raise the temperature of the beverage to 37.0 C (normal body temperature). Can one lose weight by drinking ice-cold beverages if the body uses up about

More information

Specific Heat (Temperature Sensor)

Specific Heat (Temperature Sensor) 43 Specific Heat (Temperature Sensor) Thermodynamics: Calorimetry; specific heat Equipment List DataStudio file: 43 Specific Heat.ds Qty Items Part Numbers 1 PASCO Interface (for one sensor) 1 Temperature

More information

Experiment 16 The Solution is Dilution

Experiment 16 The Solution is Dilution Experiment 16 The is Dilution OUTCOMES Upon completion of this lab, the student should be able to proficiently calculate molarities for solutions. prepare a solution of known concentration. prepare a dilute

More information

CHEM108 Lab Manual. Includes Lab Reports and Pre-Lab Assignments. Required for all Saddleback CHEM108 Classes

CHEM108 Lab Manual. Includes Lab Reports and Pre-Lab Assignments. Required for all Saddleback CHEM108 Classes CHEM108 Lab Manual Includes Lab Reports and Pre-Lab Assignments Required for all Saddleback CHEM108 Classes ! NAME: Pre-lab #1: Introduction to Lab Techniques Introduction to Measurements There are numerous

More information

CHEMISTRY 110 Assignment #3 - answers 2011.

CHEMISTRY 110 Assignment #3 - answers 2011. 1. Titanium metal is used as a structural material in many high tech applications such as in jet engines. What is the specific heat of titanium in J/() if it takes 89.7 J to raise the temperature of a

More information

PHYSICS 220 LAB #9: CALORIMETRY

PHYSICS 220 LAB #9: CALORIMETRY Name: Partners: PHYSICS 220 LAB #9: CALORIMETRY If you pour cold cream into a hot cup of coffee, the mixture comes to an intermediate equilibrium temperature. If you put a piece of ice in a glass of water,

More information

Determining the Effectiveness of Container Lids on Heat Absorption: Measuring Heat of Reaction for NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq)

Determining the Effectiveness of Container Lids on Heat Absorption: Measuring Heat of Reaction for NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq) SCHOLARS DAY REVIEW 27 SCHOLARS DAY REVIEW VOLUME 2 Determining the Effectiveness of Container Lids on Heat Absorption: Measuring Heat of Reaction for NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq) Christine L. Burton Faculty Sponsor:

More information

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets Procedure Each Part of lab requires a separate data table. You might want to put each table on a separate page so you can leave room to show equations and calculations.

More information

Use tongs and wear goggles when removing the samples from the pot of boiling water. Protect your eyes against accidental splashes!

Use tongs and wear goggles when removing the samples from the pot of boiling water. Protect your eyes against accidental splashes! Calorimetry Lab Purpose: Students will measure latent heat and specific heat. PLEASE READ the entire handout before starting. You won t know what to do unless you understand how it works! Introduction:

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 4 Chem.1A

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 4 Chem.1A Name: Section: Experiment 4: Synthesis of Alum Pre-laboratory Assignment (Read through the experiment before starting!) 1. a) What are the strong acid and strong base used in this synthesis? b) What should

More information

AP Chemistry Laboratory #16: Determination of the Equilibrium Constant of FeSCN 2+

AP Chemistry Laboratory #16: Determination of the Equilibrium Constant of FeSCN 2+ AP Chemistry Laboratory #16: Determination of the Equilibrium Constant of FeSCN 2 Lab day: Wednesday, February 12, 2014 Lab due: Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Goal (list in your lab book): The goal of this

More information

Bomb Calorimetry Determination of the Energy in a Biodiesel

Bomb Calorimetry Determination of the Energy in a Biodiesel Bomb Calorimetry Determination of the Energy in a Biodiesel So now we ve got our sample of biodiesel from the previous week, what do we do with it. Well, a fuel is something that ideally is able to be

More information

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components.

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Water Lab I. Distillation Hypothesis: Water can be purified by distillation. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Materials and Equipment: Sodium chloride,

More information

SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB

SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB Purpose: Most ionic compounds are considered by chemists to be salts and many of these are water soluble. In this lab, you will determine the solubility,

More information

Chapter 5. Thermochemistry

Chapter 5. Thermochemistry Chapter 5. Thermochemistry THERMODYNAMICS - study of energy and its transformations Thermochemistry - study of energy changes associated with chemical reactions Energy - capacity to do work or to transfer

More information

CHM112 Lab Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression Grading Rubric

CHM112 Lab Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression Grading Rubric Name Team Name CHM112 Lab Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression Grading Rubric Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed lab handout and rubric was brought to lab 3 Safety and proper

More information

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

More information

Standardization of NaOH

Standardization of NaOH EXPERIMENT 18 Prepared by Edward L. Brown, Lee University The student will become familiar with the techniques of titration and the use of a primary standard, Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP). Buret

More information