# 3. Energy measurement in calorimeters

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1 Part II, 3. Energy measurement in calorimeters 3.1 Concept of a calorimeter in particle physics 3.2 Interactions of photons with matter 3.3 Electromagnetic and hadronic showers 3.4 Layout and readout of calorimeters 3.5 Energy resolution in calorimeters 3.6 The ATLAS and CMS calorimeter systems

2 Calorimetry: = Energy measurement by total absorption, usually combined with spatial information / reconstruction latin: calor = heat However: calorimetry in particle physics does not correspond to measurements of!t The temperature change of 1 liter water at 20 C by the energy deposition of a 1 GeV particle is K! LHC: total stored beam energy E = protons! 14 TeV ~ 10 8 J If transferred to heat, this energy would only suffice to heat a mass of 239 kg water from 0 to 100 C [c Water = 4.18 J g -1 K -1, m =!E / (c Water!T ) ]

3 3.1 Concept of a calorimeter in particle physics Primary task: measurement of the total energy of particles Energy is transferred to an electrical signal (ionization charge) or to a light signal (scintillators, Cherenkov light) This signal should be proportional to the original energy: E = " S Calibration procedure " " [GeV / S] Energy of primary particle is transferred to new, particles, " cascade of new, lower energy particles Layout: block of material in which the particle deposits its energy (absorber material (Fe, Pb, Cu, ) + sensitive medium (Liquid argon, scintillators, gas ionization detectors,..)

4 Important parameters of a calorimeter: Linearity of the energy measurement Precision of the energy measurement (resolution,! E / E) in general limited by fluctuations in the shower process worse for sampling calorimeters as compared to homogeneous calorimeters Uniformity of the energy response to different particles (e/h response) in general: response of calorimeters is different to so called electromagnetic particles (e, #) and hadrons (h)

5 Charged Particles (e +, e - ) Overview of interaction processes of electrons and photons Neutral particles (g) Energy loss due to excitation and ionisation Bethe Bloch formula Photo effect (dominant in ~ kev energy range) Bremsstrahlung Compton effect (dominant in MeV energy range) Cherenkov radiation Pair creation (threshold energy = 2 m e = 1,022 MeV)

6 3.2 Interactions of photons with matter In order to be detected, photons must transfer their energy to charged particles Photo electric effect Compton scatteraing Pair creation Photons disappear via these reactions. The Intensity of a photon beam is exponentially attenuated in matter: I(x) = I 0 e µ x

7 Photo electric effect: Release of electrons from the inner shells (K, L,..) of atoms (Only possible in the close neighbourhood of a third collision partner) The cross section shows a strong modulation if E #! E bin (binding energy)

8 Compton scattering:

9 Pair production: # + (A) " e + e - + (A) Only possible in the close neighbourhood of a collision partner (atomic nucleus) Threshold energy: E # > 2 m e c 2 = MeV Cross section (high energy approximation): "! pair = 4"r 2 e Z ln 9 Z! 1 % \$ ' ( 7 # 1/3 54 & 9 A 1 N A X 0 µ pair = X 0 After traversing a material thickness of 9/7 X 0, the photon intensity due to pair creation- is decreased by 1/e.or. For high photon energies, pair production occurs after traversing a material thickness corresponding to one radiation length with a probability of p =1! e!7/9 = 0.54

10 Photon interaction cross sections

11 3.3 Electromagnetic showers Particle showers created by electrons/positrons or photons are called electromagnetic showers (only electromagnetic interaction involved) Basic processes for particle creation: bremsstrahlung and pair creation Characteristic interaction length: radiation length X 0 Number of particles in the shower increases, until the critical energy E c is reached; For E < E c the energy loss due to ionization and excitation dominates, the number of particles decreases, due to stopping in material

12 Longitudinal shower profile Shower depth (shower maximum) scales logarithmically with particle energy! " size of calorimeters growth only logarithmically with energy.

13 Longitudinal shower parametrization (t [X 0 ] = thickness in units of X 0 ) Shower depth (shower maximum) scales logarithmically with particle energy! "! size of calorimeters growth only logarithmically with energy. can be derived using a simple shower model (see exercises)

14 Lateral shower profile: The lateral shower profile is dominated by two processes: - Multiple Coulomb scattering - Relatively long free path length of low energy photons It is characterized by the so-called Molière radius \$ M About 95% of the shower energy are contained within a cylinder with radius r = 2 \$ M in general well collimated! energy deposition (arbitrary units) core electrons shower radius

15 Hadronic showers Hadrons initiate their energy shower by inelastic hadronic interactions; (strong interaction responsible, showers are called hadronic showers) Hadronic showers are much more complex then electromagnetic showers Several secondary particles, meson production, multiplicity ~ln(e) % 0 components, % 0 " ##, electromagnetic sub-showers; The fraction of the electromagnetic component grows with energy, f EM = 0.1 ln E (E in GeV, in the range 10 GeV < E < 100 GeV)

16 During the hadronic interactions atomic nuclei are broken up or remain in exited states Corresponding energy (excitation energy, binding energy) comes from original particle energy " no or only partial contribution to the visible energy In addition, there is an important neutron component The interaction of neutrons depends strongly on their energy; Extreme cases: - Nuclear reaction, e.g. nuclear fission " energy recovered - Escaping the calorimeter (undergo only elastic scattering, without inelastic interaction) ' Decays of particles (slow particles at the end of the shower) e.g. % " µ & µ " escaping particles " missing energy These energy loss processes have important consequences: in general, the response of the calorimeter to electrons/photons and hadrons is different! The signal for hadrons is non-linear and smaller than the e/# signal for the same particle energy

17 Two hadronic showers in a sampling calorimeter Red: electromagnetic component Blue: charged hadron component Hadronic showers show very large fluctuations from one event to another " the energy resolution is worse than for electromagnetic showers

18 3.4 Layout and readout of calorimeters In general, one distinguishes between homogenous calorimeters and sampling calorimeters For homogeneous calorimeters: absorber material = active (sensitive) medium Examples for homogeneous calorimeters: - NaJ or other crystals (Scintillation light ) - Lead glass (Cherenkov light) - Liquid argon or liquid krypton calorimeters (Ionization charge) Sampling calorimeters: absorption and hadronic interactions occur mainly in dedicated absorber materials (dense materials with high Z, passive material) Signal is created in active medium, only a fraction of the energy contributes to the measured energy signal

19 Examples for sampling calorimeters (a) Scintillators, optically coupled to photomultipliers (b) Scintillators, wave length shifters, light guides (c) Ionization charge in liquids (d) Ionization charge in multi-wire proportional chambers

20 3.5 Energy resolution of calorimeters The energy resolution of calorimeters depends on the fluctuations of the measured signal (for the same energy E 0 ), i.e. on the fluctuation of the measured signal delivered by charged particles. Example: Liquid argon, ionization charge: Q = <N> <T 0 > ~ E 0 where: <N> = average number of produced charge particles, ~ E 0 / E c <T 0 > = average track length in the active medium For sampling calorimeters only a fraction f of the total track length (the one in the active medium) is relevant; Likewise, if there is a threshold for detection (e.g. Cherenkov light) The energy resolution is determined by statistical fluctuations: - Number of produced charged particles (electrons for electromagnetic showers) - Fluctuations in the energy loss (Landau distribution of Bethe-Bloch sampling) For the resolution one obtains:!e E =!Q Q " N N "! E

21 The energy resolution of calorimeters can be parametrized as:!e E =! E " " " # E " is the so called stochastic term (statistical fluctuations) ( is the constant term (dominates at high energies) important contributions to ( are: - stability of the calibration (temperature, radiation,.) - leakage effects (longitudinal and lateral) - uniformity of the signal - loss of energy in dead material -. # is the noise term (electronic noise,..) Also angular and spatial resolutions scale like 1/"E

22 Examples for energy resolutions seen in electromagnetic calorimeters in large detector systems: Experiment Calorimeter "' (' #' L3 BaBar BGO CsI (Tl) < 2.0% (*) 1.3% OPAL Lead glass (**) 5% (++) 3% 0.3% 2.1% 0.4 MeV NA48 Liquid krypton 3.2% 0.5% 125 MeV UA2 ALEPH ZEUS H1 D0 Pb /Szintillator Pb / Prop.chamb. U / Szintillator Pb / Liquid argon U / Liquid argon 15% 18% 18% 11.0% 15.7 % 1.0% 0.9% 1.0% 0.6% 0.3% 154 MeV 140 MeV homogeneous calorimeters sampling calorimeters (*) scaling according to E -1/4 rather than E -1/2 (**) at 10 GeV (++) at 45 GeV

23 hadronic energy resolutions: In general, the energy response of calorimeters is different for e/# and hadrons; A measure of this is the so-called e/h ratio In so-called compensating calorimeters, one tries to compensate for the energy losses in hadronic showers (" and bring e/h close to 1) physical processes: - energy recovery from nuclear fission, initiated by slow neutrons (uranium calorimeters) - transfer energy from neutrons to protons (same mass) use hydrogen enriched materials / free protons

24 3.6 The ATLAS and CMS calorimeters

25 The ATLAS calorimeter system Liquid argon electromagnetic Liquid argon hadron calorimeter in the end-caps and forwards regions Scintillator tile hadron calorimeter in the barrel and extended end-cap region

26 ATLAS and CMS electromagnetic calorimeters "! CMS: PbWO 4 Scint. Crystal Calorimeter "! Entire shower in active detector material "! High density crystals (28 X 0 ) "! Transparent, high light yield "! No particles lost in passive absorber "! High resolution: ~3% /)E (stochastic) "! Granularity "! Barrel:!! *!" = rad "! Longitudinal shower shape unmeasured "! ATLAS: LAr Sampling Calorimeter "! Passive, heavy absorber (Pb, mm thick [barrel]) inter-leaved with active detector material (liquid argon) "! Overall 22 X 0 "! Accordion structure for full " coverage "! Resolution: ~10% /)E (stochastic) "! Granularity "! Barrel:!! *!" = rad (main layer) "! Longitudinal segmentation (3 layers)

27 ATLAS Liquid Argon EM Calorimeter Pointing 3-layer electrode structure for half-barrel of LAr calorimeter (fine-grained for % 0 ### rejection)

28

29 Signal formation in a Liquid argon calorimeter and pulse shaping: Instead of total charge (integrated current) measure the initial current I 0, (via electronic signal shaping), which is also proportional to the energy released

30 The CMS calorimeter system PbWO 4 crystal el. magn calorimeter (homogeneous) Hadron calorimeter integrated in return yoke

31 CMS el.magnetic calorimeter: crystal PbWO 4

32

33 Comparison between ATLAS and CMS calorimeters CMS ATLAS EM calorimeter Hadronic calorimeter ATLAS Liquid argon + Pb absorbers \$/E! 10%/"E Fe + scintillator / Cu+LAr (10%) \$/E! 50%/"E GeV CMS PbWO 4 crystals \$/E! 3%/"E Brass + scintillator (7 % + catcher) \$/E! 100%/"E GeV

34 Part II, 4. Measurements of muons

35 Muon Detectors "! Muon detectors are tracking detectors (e.g. wire chambers) "! they form the outer shell of the (LHC) detectors "! they are not only sensitive to muons (but to all charged particles)! "! just by definition : if a particle has reached the muon detector, it's considered to be a muon (all other particles should have been absorbed in the calorimeters) "! Challenge for muon detectors "! large surface to cover (outer shell) "! keep mechanical positioning stable over time "! ATLAS "! 1200 chambers with 5500 m 2 "! also good knowledge of Aluminum tubes with central wire filled with 3 bar gas (inhomogeneous) magnetic field needed ATLAS Muon Detector Elements ~5 m

36 ATLAS muon system

37 ATLAS muon system

38 Muon detector system In the forward region

39 CMS Muon system

40 Superconducting Coil, 4 Tesla! CMS! CALORIMETERS!! ECAL! 76k scintillating PbWO4 crystals!!!! HCAL! Plastic scintillator/brass sandwich IRON YOKE TRACKER! Pixels# Silicon Microstrips" 210 m 2 of silicon sensors" 9.6M channels! Total weight t Overall diameter 15 m Overall length 21.6 m MUON BARREL! Drift Tube! Chambers! (DT)" Resistive Plate! Chambers!(RPC)" MUON ENDCAPS! Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC)" Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)"

41 The ATLAS experiment Solenoidal magnetic field (2T) in the central region (momentum measurement) High resolution silicon detectors: - 6 Mio. channels (80 µm x 12 cm) Mio. channels (50 µm x 400 µm) space resolution: ~ 15 µm Energy measurement down to 1 o to the beam line Independent muon spectrometer (supercond. toroid system) Diameter 25 m Barrel toroid length 26 m End-cap end-wall chamber span 46 m Overall weight 7000 Tons

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