The Islamic World: Reading Notes

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1 Name: Date: Period: World History The Islamic World: Reading Notes Target: I can recognize the world religion of Islam and its origins, practices, and groups I can understand the religion in order to consider the impact Islam had on the world during the Middle Ages Directions: Get into groups of 3-4 and split up the reading evenly. When each individual is done, please share answers with each group member. Key Terms and People: oasis a wet, fertile area in the desert caravan a group of traders that travels together Muhammad an Arabian man whose teachings became the basis for a new religion Islam religion based on messages Muhammad received from God Muslim a person who follows Islam Qur an the holy book of Islam pilgrimage journey to a sacred place mosque a building for Muslim prayer Five Pillars of Islam the five acts of worship required of all Muslims Sunni Muslims who believed caliphs did not have to be related to Muhammad calligraphy decorative writing Ibn Battutah Muslim explorer and geographer Sufism a movement of Islam, based on the belief that one must have a personal relationship with God Omar Khayyám famous Sufi poet who wrote The Rubáiyát patrons sponsors minaret a narrow tower on a mosque from which Muslims are called to pray Abu Bakr one of Islam s first converts, appointed caliph after Muhammad s death caliph title of the highest Islamic leader tolerance acceptance Janissaries slave boys converted to Islam and trained as soldiers Mehmed II Ottoman ruler who defeated the Byzantine Empire Suleyman I Ottoman ruler who led the empire to its heights Shia Muslims who believed only members of Muhammad s family should be caliphs jihad literally means to make an effort or to struggle Sunnah a collection of actions or sayings by Muhammad

2 Section 1: The Roots of Islam - Pages What is a caravan? How did townspeople and nomads rely on each other? Arabia was the trading crossroads for what three continents? Why would a nomad prefer to travel in a tribe? In what business was Muhammad involved? What is the difference between the terms Islam and Muslim? Why did Muhammad not tell people right away about his visions? What is the hegira? What is one major belief that is the same in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? What is the name of Islam s founder? Why do people travel on a pilgrimage? Critical Thinking: If you lived in Arabia, would you choose a nomadic or sedentary life? Why? Use and explain your evidence. Summarize: In 20 words or less, what did you learn in Section 1: The Roots of Islam?

3 Section 2: Islamic Practices and Beliefs Pages What does the Qur an say about slavery? What are the different meanings of the word jihad? What is the Sunnah? How does the Sunnah relate to Muhammad? List the Five Pillars of Islam How does the Sunnah affect the daily lives of Muslims? What is Shariah? What role does Shariah play in modern Islamic countries? Is Shariah the only law used in Islamic countries? Critical Thinking: Write to evaluate the differences and similarities between the two earlier religions of Judaism and Christianity with Islam. Focus not only on beliefs but also on practices and what social conditions might have influenced these practices in all the religions. Summarize: In 20 words or less, what did you learn in Section 2: Islamic Practices and Beliefs?

4 Section 3: Islamic Empires Pages Who was the first caliph? What region did Muslims first unify, and what caliph led this unification? Why do you think Umayyad caliphs moved the capital from Medina to Damascus? Why do you think trade flourished in coastal cities? What feature of Arabia gave Muslim merchants easy access to many parts of the world? What did Arab Muslims gain through trade? When did the Byzantine Empire end? What city became the Ottoman capital and what was it renamed? How was Mehmed II able to conquer Constantinople? How did the conquest of Constantinople help the Ottoman Empire expand? What two cultural traditions did the Safavid Empire blend? Into what two groups did Islam split into in the mid-600s? How do the Sunnis and Shia differ? Where did the Mughals come from? How did Akbar s policies help to unify the Mughal Empire? How did peace and unity in the Mughal Empire lead to a rich culture?

5 Part 3 Continued. Critical Thinking: Draw a timeline marking the major Muslim conquests. Summarize: In 25 words or less, what did you learn in Section 3: Islamic Empires? Section 4: Cultural Achievements Pages In which two cities were scholarly writings translated into Arabic? Why do you think the astrolabe would be useful in sea exploration? What was one benefit of Muslim advances in astronomy? In your own words, define Sufism. What do you think was the more important advance that Muslim scholars made in math or science? Why? What two advances in medicine were made by Muslim doctors? What forms of literature were most often read by Muslims? What is the name of Islam s great collection of stories that is still popular today? What are some of the well-known characters in the previously mentioned stories? What are some features that are characteristic of mosques? Why did Muslim artists create calligraphy as a fine art? Critical Thinking: Pick the advance from Islamic culture that you think is the most important to our modern society, explaining your position. Summarize: In 20 words or less, what did you learn in Section 4: Cultural Achievements

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