Effectively Using Pressure Sensors with Today s Data Acquisition Systems

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1 Automotive Testing Expo Europe 2011 Effectively Using Sensors with Today s Data Acquisition Systems Chris Novak Global Application Engineer Honeywell Sensing and Control Copyright 2011 Honeywell International Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Electromechanical Transducer Mechanical Input ( Force ) Wheatstone Bridge Structure (ΔL/L) Electrical Output (V out ) Strain Gage / Piezo Resistors Electrical Output (ΔR/R) Amplifier Display / Output Basic Theory

3 Understanding Sensors is defined as force per unit area All pressure sensors use a force-summing device to convert the pressure into a stress or displacement proportional to the pressure The stress or displacement is then applied to an electrical transduction element to generate the required signal Below examples are generally related to Silicon Piezo Resistive (Force/Area) Examples Deformation of Sense Element Change in Electrical Properties Change in Output RB- R RB+ R RB+ R RB- R

4 Understanding Piezo Resistive-Type In Piezo Resistive Sensors, the transduction elements which convert the stress from the diaphragm deflection into an electrical signal are Piezo Resistors Piezo Resistance = changing electrical resistance due to mechanical stress As shown here, typically 4 Piezo Resistors are used - connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit - to provide an output which changes primarily with pressure.

5 Understanding Foil-Based Sensors Two basic types of Foil-based sensors Diaphragm Force Sensor-based Strain Gages Single Diaphragm Strain Gages Mechanical Transmitter Gaged Element Single Diaphragm Port Fluid Under Pipe Fluid Under Gaged Diaphragm Gaged Force Sensor with Mechanical Transmitter

6 Understanding Load Measurement As Applied to Sensors Load Cells Measure Direct Force Strain Gage Technology a Key Function of Load Cells The Structure (Spring Element) is the Most Critical Component Multiple-bending Beam Design Shear-Web Design Multiple-Bending Beam Low capacity: 20 20K N p y P T T C C C C T T Shear Web Capacity: 2K 1M N p y C T T C C T T C P Strain Gage (Wheatstone Bridge or Electrical Circuits) V out V in 4 active arms with pairs subjected to equal and opposite strains. 4 active arms with pairs subjected to equal and opposite strains. A Direct Measurement of Force

7 Wheatstone Bridge (Electrical Circuits) Resistan Ohms where The gage measures resistance (i.e. Ohms), which is converted to strain when a Force is applied. L R Strain L R Gage Factor is the ratio of resistance change to strain change. A specific R in the gage = specific L on the base material. + increased resistance = increased output Gage _ Factor F R R L L R R R RF V out V in h V out V B V D - Decreased resistance = increased output Mechanical Meets Electrical

8 Types of Sensors Measurement Types Absolute Gage True Gage Differential Absolute Applied Gauge (gage) Applied Differential Applied P1 Sealed Reference Applied Psi of Vacuum Barometric Today s Atmospheric Atmospheric on day gage was sealed Vacuum Silicon Examples Ambient Applied P2 Reference Inches Water Absolute Vacuum Front/Topside sensing Back-side sensing

9 Typical Applications For Automotive Assembly & Testing Automated paint system pressure Automated sealant dispensing systems End of line leak testing Oil pump testing Cold engine testing Fuel injection system pressure Vehicle fluid fill control pressures Component Testing Fluid pump pressure Brake system & assembly testing Tire manufacturing mold pressure control Air bag system Suspension pressure Hydraulic pressure Powertrain Testing Dynamometer hot engine testing Oil pressure Coolant pressure Fuel flow, consumption, flow & pressure Intake air flow Manifold vacuum testing Transmission pressure testing Emissions testing Cylinder compression (cold test) Vehicle & Proving Ground Testing Road handling (steering system pressures) Brake testing (pressure) Ride Motorsports Applications Brake system status Fuel line pressure Aero-dynamics testing Tire pressure Engine diagnostics Vacuum pressure Fuel-air ratio

10 Case Studies PRESSURE Application 1: Component leak test stations End of Line stations that monitor pressure drops on brake cylinders, after system has been pressurized Model/Models: Model Z, TJE & STJE pressure sensor family Accuracy & Repeatability: 0.25%, 0.1% & 0.05% Why Use Honeywell? Foil based sensing technology, along with beam element design, provides a superior temperature performance Hermetically sealed sensor Flexibility of standard outputs Compound range availability PRESSURE Application 2: On-board testing of transmission fluid pressure sensors are installed directly on the transmission of a test vehicle to capture actual road performance Model/Models: Model S, A-105, A-205 Subminiature pressure sensors Accuracy: 0.5% FS Why Use Honeywell? Foil based sensing technology provides a superior temperature performance High performance with dynamically changing temperature On-board vehicle testing demands small sensor package 40 years of Pedigree reliable, stable & robust product PRESSURE Application 3: Automotive Brake component cycle life testing Monitoring brake pressure during cycle testing to ensure accurate control Model/Models: Model Z, TJE & STJE pressure sensor family Accuracy & Repeatability: 0.25%, 0.1% & 0.05% Why Use Honeywell? Better accuracy Hermetically sealed sensor Customizable to facilitate a bleed screw on the pressure port, ensuring safe return of brake fluid to reservoir

11 Working with Instrumentation Honeywell Sensors Instrumentation 1. Sensor mv/v SC + A/D D* SW Bridge-based sensors 2. Sensor + SC A* A/D D* SW A* = 5 VDC, 10 VDC, 4-20mA D* = Digital signal SC = Signal Conditioning A/D = Analog to Digital Conversion SW = Software Including PC

12 Plug and Play Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS): IEEE covers communication protocol Data stored in EPROM on Sensor Standard Templates Accuracy options look up tables, curve fitting, etc.

13 For More Information If you would like more information on any of Honeywell s pressure transducers or other products for test & measurement applications, please contact us: Ph: (800) (U.S.) or Fax: Visit Us Online:

14 Thank you.

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