Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity"

Transcription

1 Type II Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity

2 The four types of hypersensitive responses Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

3 Type II hypersensitivity reactions (1) - Caused by antibody to cell surface antigens and components of the extracellular matrix. - These antibodies can sensitize the cells for antibody-dependent cytotoxic attack by K cells or for complement-mediated lysis. - Type II hypersensitivity is seen in the destruction of red cells in transfusion reactions and in haemolytic disease of the newborn.

4 Type II hypersensitivity reactions (2) - Innocuous antigens can cause Type II hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible individuals by binding to the surfaces of circulating blood cells. - IgG antibodies against cell-surface receptors that disrupt the normal functions of the receptor, either by causing uncontrollable activation or by blocking receptor function.

5

6

7 Antibody-Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

8 ABO blood group Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

9 Development of erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn) caused when an RH- mother carries an RH+ fetus, and effect of treatment with anti-rh antibody, or Rhogam Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

10 Effector mechanisms of antibody-mediated disease C Graves disease: Hyperthyroidism Myasthenia gravis : Muscle weakness (hormones) (neurotransmitter)

11 Type III Immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity

12 The four types of hypersensitive responses Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

13 Type III hypersensitivity reactions (1) - Directed against soluble antigens - Caused by the deposition of antigen/antibody complexes in tissue and blood vessels. - The complexes activate complement and attract ploymorphs and macrophages to the site. - These cells may exocytose their granule contents and release reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates to cause local tissue damage.

14 Type III hypersensitivity reactions (2) - The deposition of immune complexes in tissues causes a local inflammatory response known as an Arthus reaction. - Serum sickness is a classic example of a transient immune complex-mediated syndrome. - In situations in which antigen persists subacute bacterial endocarditis chronic viral hepatitis systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

15 Development of a localized Arthus reaction Immunology (Fig ), 5th edn 2003 Kuby J

16

17 The multiple activities of the complement system.

18 Immune complex disease - The immune complexes produced may bind to vascular endothelium and kidney glomeruli and activate complement (MAC generation). - It initiates the acute inflammatory responses that destroy the vessel walls or glomeruli and lead to thrombosis, ischemic damage to tissues, and scarring. - Some of the late complement proteins may activate prothrombinases in the circulation that initiate thrombosis.

19 Serum sickness is a classic example of a transient immune Figure complex-mediated 12-23syndrome

20 Type IV Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Cell-mediated hypersensitivity)

21 The four types of hypersensitive responses Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

22 Type IV hypersensitivity reactions - T-cell mediated - 1st group: Tissue damage is caused by the activation of macrophages by TH1 cells, which results in an inflammatory response. - 2nd group: Damage is caused by the activation by TH2 cells of inflammatory responses in which eosinophils predominate. - 3rd group: Damage is caused directly by cytotoxic T cells (CTL).

23 Type IV hypersensitivity responses Figure 12-24

24

25 Overview of the DTH response Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

26 Figure part 1 of 2 The delayed-type (type IV) hypersensitivity response is directed by chemokines and cytokines released by TH1 cells stimulated by antigen (1)

27 Figure part 2 of 2 The delayed-type (type IV) hypersensitivity response is directed by chemokines and cytokines released by TH1 cells stimulated by antigen (2)

28 A prolonged DTH response can lead to formation of a granuloma Lytic enzymes released from activated macrophages in a granuloma can cause extensive tissue damage. Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

29 A Second Exposure to Poison Oak May Result in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

30 Development of delayed-type hypersensitvity reaction after a second exposure to poison oak Secrete INF-γ and other cytokines Activated macrophages Secrete mediators of inflammation Immunology (Fig ), 5th edn 2003 Kuby J

31

32 Blistering skin lesions on hand of patient with poison ivy contact dermatitis Figure 12-28

33 There are four types of hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immunological mechanisms that cause tissue damage

34 Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003

35

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system Vahid Naseri Supervised: horand; berzsu Type I Allergy (immediate) Type II cytotoxic, antibody-dependent Type III Immune

More information

What makes an antigen to be an allergen?

What makes an antigen to be an allergen? Hypersensitivity - an inappropriate immune response that causes damage to the individual Type I hypersensitivity - mediated by IgE Type II hypersensitivity - mediated by IgG Type III hypersensitivity -

More information

HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV

HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of the lecture student should be able to understand: What is type III Hypersensitivity reactions Different eg type III of hypersensitivity

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

Hypersensitivity. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy. Allergens. Characteristics of allergens. Allergens. Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells.

Hypersensitivity. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy. Allergens. Characteristics of allergens. Allergens. Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells. Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. Hypersensitivity Robert Beatty Type I Type II Type III Type IV MCB150 IgE Mediated IgG/IgM Mediated IgG Mediated T cell Classic Allergy rbc lysis Immune

More information

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19 Immune system Disorders Chapter 19 I. Hypersensitivity Definition Once sensitized with an antigen (allergen) the immune system responds to a subsequent exposure by reacting with it in a way that damages

More information

Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders

Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders Dr Udani Kiriwandeniya Consultant Histopathologist/Senior lecturer Learning utcomes At the end of this section the student should be able to 1.Briefly describe

More information

IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS. Antibody-Mediated Reactions

IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS. Antibody-Mediated Reactions IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS Antibody-Mediated Reactions Immunology - the Double-Edged Sword Immunoprotection Immunopathology Both involve the same immune mechanisms! The balancing act between hyporeactivity

More information

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity Reactions Introduction Under some circumstances, immunity, rather than providing protection, produces damaging and sometimes fatal results. Such harmful reactions are known collectively

More information

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION Chapter 18 Other Immune Disorders Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Hypersensitivities Hypersensitivity

More information

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3 Patology Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) lecture 3 prof. dr hab. n. med. Andrzej Marszałek immunology in pathology Diseases with immunologic mechanism of tissue injury. Hypersensitivity reactions:

More information

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Jonathan Fox jfox7@uwyo.edu Outline Self and non self Introduction to hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases Type I hypersensitivity i i mechanism of disease

More information

Immune System A&P II

Immune System A&P II Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic

More information

Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Name I. Terminology of Hypersensitivity Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity A. Hypersensitivity an altered immunological response to an antigen that results in disease or

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity

Types of Hypersensitivity Types of Hypersensitivity Type of Reaction Type I (anaphylactic) Type II (cytotoxic) Type III (immune complex) Type IV (delayed cellmediated) Time After Exposure for Clinical Symptoms

More information

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity

More information

Immune Haemolytic Anaemias. Dr. Abdullah Aljedai

Immune Haemolytic Anaemias. Dr. Abdullah Aljedai Immune Haemolytic Anaemias Dr. Abdullah Aljedai Haemolytic diseases are those conditions in which the red cells of the individual do not survive normally in vivo. Haemolysis lead to red cell destruction

More information

Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II. Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD

Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II. Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD 1 ILOs Distinguish between innate and adaptive immunity. Recall the cells involved in the immune response and define their roles.

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM components and functions of the complement system complements (C) are heat labile proteins found in mammalian blood and make up the complement system. This complex, multi-component

More information

PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY. Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies

PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY. Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies Hypersensitivity Any immune response against a foreign antigen that is exaggerated beyond the

More information

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell Immune-Mediated Diseases In a Nutshell Objectives Describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis and pathologic changes of autoimmune diseases, including lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid

More information

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors.

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins

More information

Chapter 18. Blood Types

Chapter 18. Blood Types Chapter 18 Blood Types Blood Types blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interactions between plasma proteins and erythrocytes Karl Landsteiner discovered blood types A, B and O in

More information

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Immunopathology The study of disease states associated with underactivity and overactivity of the immune response Allergy (hypersensitivity) an exaggerated, misdirected

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

Lymph Transport and Immunity

Lymph Transport and Immunity Lymph Transport and Immunity Outline The Lymphatic System Lymph Vessels Lymphoid Organs Nonspecific Defenses Barriers Inflammatory Response Specific Defenses Antibodies T Cells Induced Immunity Active

More information

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity I M M U N I T Y Innate (inborn) Immunity does not distinguish one pathogen from another Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Our first line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers

More information

The Adaptive Immune System

The Adaptive Immune System Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity.

More information

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology Immunity and Abnormal Responses Bio 375 Pathophysiology Immune System The immune system is a major component of the body s defenses It is a SPECIFIC defense, responding to particular substances: Cells

More information

LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY

LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY Allergies represent TYPE I reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification. Most are caused by IgE ANTIBODIES which are capable of binding to Fc-

More information

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiovascular System: Blood Chapter 6 6.1 Blood: An overview What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

BLOOD-Chp. Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? 3 major types of plasma proteins

BLOOD-Chp. Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? 3 major types of plasma proteins 6.1 Blood: An overview BLOOD-Chp Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens Regulatory functions:

More information

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology 18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity Taft College Human Physiology O 2 Diagram of Lymphatic and Cardiovascular Systems Lungs Heart Arteries w/ Plasma Arterioles

More information

BLOOD PHYSIOLOGY Lecture 3 BLOOD TYPES AND BLOOD TRANSFUSION. 2nd year Dentistry

BLOOD PHYSIOLOGY Lecture 3 BLOOD TYPES AND BLOOD TRANSFUSION. 2nd year Dentistry BLOOD PHYSIOLOGY Lecture 3 BLOOD TYPES AND BLOOD TRANSFUSION 2nd year Dentistry 2008 1 Objectives 1. Describe the basis of blood typing 2. Know the ABO and Rh systems for blood typing and their clinical

More information

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells.

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells. Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components

More information

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59 IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59.1 INTRODUCTION The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance of the body for pathogens or tumors. Whether disease develops depends on

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease. Dr. Wendy Turner

Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease. Dr. Wendy Turner Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease Dr. Wendy Turner Lecture Outline Periodontal structures and the inflammatory response Periodontal disease progression stages Pathogenesis and the host response

More information

Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e. Chapter 17: Blood

Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e. Chapter 17: Blood Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e Chapter 17: Blood This chapter begins a new unit. In this unit, the first four chapters deal with transportation one of the body's vital functions. It is important

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN VARIOUS TISSUES HYPERSENSITIVE & AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSES KEY POINTS The immune system has two responses, cell mediated and humoral, Cell mediated involves T lymphocytes Humoral mediated

More information

4. is an increased rate of red blood cell destruction. A) Sickle-cell disease B) Hemolytic anemia C) Pernicious anemia Ans: B

4. is an increased rate of red blood cell destruction. A) Sickle-cell disease B) Hemolytic anemia C) Pernicious anemia Ans: B Chapter 11: Blood 1. The hematocrit is composed mainly of A) plasma. B) white blood cells. C) platelets. D) red blood cells. 2. Fifty-five percent of blood is A) liquid. B) plasma. C) formed elements.

More information

CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY

CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY Allergies represent TYPE I reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification. Most are caused by IgE ANTIBODIES which are capable of binding to Fc-receptors

More information

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

KEY CHAPTER 14: BLOOD OBJECTIVES. 1. Describe blood according to its tissue type and major functions.

KEY CHAPTER 14: BLOOD OBJECTIVES. 1. Describe blood according to its tissue type and major functions. KEY CHAPTER 14: BLOOD OBJECTIVES 1. Describe blood according to its tissue type and major functions. TISSUE TYPE? MAJOR FUNCTIONS connective Transport Maintenance of body temperature 2. Define the term

More information

Blood Sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste (Fe 2+ ) Varies from scarlet (P O2 = 100) to dark red (P O2 = 40) ph is between 7.35 and 7.45 Average volume in an adult is 5 L (7% of body weight) 2 L

More information

Disorders Associated with the Immune System

Disorders Associated with the Immune System Chapter 19 Disorders Associated with the Immune System Antigens such as the staphylococcal enterotoxin are called superantigens. They indiscriminately activate many T cells at once, causing a harmful immune

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on

More information

Lymphocyte Recirculation

Lymphocyte Recirculation Chapter 5 Lymphocyte Migration and Inflammation Lymphocyte Recirculation Naïve lymphocytes enter lymph nodes from the blood circulation Lymphocytes return to blood via the thoracic duct Antigens from infected

More information

Reactivity. Reactivity and Resistance Allergy and hypersensitivity Immunodeficiency states. Species (primary, genetically coded) Group (populational)

Reactivity. Reactivity and Resistance Allergy and hypersensitivity Immunodeficiency states. Species (primary, genetically coded) Group (populational) Reactivity and Resistance Allergy and hypersensitivity Immunodeficiency states Blagoi Marinov, MD, PhD Pathophysiology Department Medical University of Plovdiv Reactivity Species (primary, genetically

More information

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline 1 Autoimmunity and immunemediated inflammatory diseases Abul K. Abbas, MD UCSF FOCiS 2 Lecture outline Pathogenesis of autoimmunity: why selftolerance fails Genetics of autoimmune diseases Therapeutic

More information

and Antigen Presentation

and Antigen Presentation 1 Innate Immunity and Antigen Presentation Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Innate immunity Receptors and mechanisms Roles in disease Antigen

More information

Exercise 9: Blood. Readings: Silverthorn 5 th ed, 547 558, 804 805; 6 th ed, 545 557, 825 826.

Exercise 9: Blood. Readings: Silverthorn 5 th ed, 547 558, 804 805; 6 th ed, 545 557, 825 826. Exercise 9: Blood Readings: Silverthorn 5 th ed, 547 558, 804 805; 6 th ed, 545 557, 825 826. Blood Typing The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) contain a variety of cell surface proteins called

More information

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work Chapter 3 Immunity and how vaccines work 3.1 Objectives: To understand and describe the immune system and how vaccines produce immunity To understand the differences between Passive and Active immunity

More information

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 10. Blood. Slides Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 10. Blood. Slides Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 10 Blood Slides 10.1 10.31 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Blood The only fluid tissue in the human body

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

Blood $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500.

Blood $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500. Blood Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Hemostasis Blood Grouping Grab Bag $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400 $400 $500 $500 $500 $500 FINAL

More information

Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders. Allergies. 4 Hypersensitivity Types. Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency

Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders. Allergies. 4 Hypersensitivity Types. Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency 1 Allergies Allergens (antigens) cause an exaggerated immune response or hypersensitivity 4 types: Type I Type II

More information

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph

More information

B Cells and Antibodies

B Cells and Antibodies B Cells and Antibodies Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Lecture outline Functions of antibodies B cell activation; the role of helper T cells in antibody production

More information

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015 Innate immunity: Definition and Importance Updated: July 2015 1 Contents INNATE IMMUNITY... 3 DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE... 3 Overview of innate immunity in animals... 3 The innate immune system acts early

More information

Immunity and how vaccines work

Immunity and how vaccines work 1 Introduction Immunity is the ability of the human body to protect itself from infectious disease. The defence mechanisms of the body are complex and include innate (non-specific, non-adaptive) mechanisms

More information

Blood Typing Laboratory Exercise 40

Blood Typing Laboratory Exercise 40 Blood Typing Laboratory Exercise 40 Background Blood typing involves identifying protein substances called antigens that are present in red blood cell membranes. Although there are many different antigens

More information

CHAPTER 10 BLOOD GROUPS: ABO AND Rh

CHAPTER 10 BLOOD GROUPS: ABO AND Rh CHAPTER 10 BLOOD GROUPS: ABO AND Rh The success of human blood transfusions requires compatibility for the two major blood group antigen systems, namely ABO and Rh. The ABO system is defined by two red

More information

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34 Adaptive Immunity Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 34.6 B-cell Biology 1. Describe the B-cell receptor structure and function

More information

Hypersensitivity Reactions (Types I, II, III, IV) April 15, 2009

Hypersensitivity Reactions (Types I, II, III, IV) April 15, 2009 Hypersensitivity Reactions (Types I, II, III, IV) April 15, 2009 Inflammatory response - local, eliminates antigen without extensively damaging the host s tissue. Hypersensitivity - immune & inflammatory

More information

Unit 4 Lecture 9. Specific Body Defenses

Unit 4 Lecture 9. Specific Body Defenses Unit 4 Lecture 9 Specific Body Defenses As stated earlier, a non-specific body defense is any defense that protects against a variety of invaders. A specific body defense is defense directed against a

More information

Blood Practice Questions

Blood Practice Questions Blood Practice Questions Student: 1. The hematocrit is the volume of a blood sample made up of A. white blood cells. B. platelets. C. red blood cells. D. plasma. 2. Fifty-five percent of blood is A. plasma.

More information

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The Lymphatic System and Immunity 14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and

More information

Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities.

Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. Hypersensitivity Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells. The symptoms resulting from allergic responses

More information

Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease

Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease Jing Shen, MD Faculty Advisor: Matthew Ryan, MD The University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds Presentation February 2005

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

LAB 1 - Direct agglutination. Serology-the study of the in vitro reactions between antibody and antigen

LAB 1 - Direct agglutination. Serology-the study of the in vitro reactions between antibody and antigen LAB 1 - Direct agglutination Serology-the study of the in vitro reactions between antibody and antigen Serological reaction: - quantitative (weight/volume) - qualitative Agglutination - the aggregation

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Review of lecture 7 Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Science Science is the human activity of

More information

AUTOIMMUNITY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

AUTOIMMUNITY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES 64 AUTOIMMUNITY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES 64.1 INTRODUCTION Normally the function of immune system in our body is to recognize foreign elements and to destroy these before they could harm us either by humoral

More information

LUPUS. and Blood Disorders LUPUSUK 2015

LUPUS. and Blood Disorders LUPUSUK 2015 8 LUPUS and Blood Disorders LUPUSUK 2015 LUPUS and Blood Disorders Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) has many clinical and laboratory manifestations. This factsheet relates to those manifestations

More information

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells The Adaptive Immune Response B-cells FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self

More information

VPM 152. INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators

VPM 152. INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators General Pathology VPM 152 INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators CHEMICAL MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION Definition: any messenger that acts on blood vessels, inflammatory cells or other cells to contribute to an

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

Acquired haemolytic anaemias. Dr.Maysem

Acquired haemolytic anaemias. Dr.Maysem Acquired haemolytic anaemias Dr.Maysem The acquired haemolytic anaemias are usually divided into two main categories, depending on the mechanism by which the premature destruction of red blood cells is

More information

Cardiovascular System. Blood Groups and Blood Typing

Cardiovascular System. Blood Groups and Blood Typing Cardiovascular System Blood Groups and Blood Typing 1 Blood Transfusions Why? Whole blood or components? Although the human body is pretty good at preventing blood loss (hemostasis), there are times when

More information

BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES

BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES Over 20 blood group systems having approximately 400 blood group antigens are currently recognised. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group systems are of major clinical

More information

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Major function of the Lymphatic System o Network of vessels that collect and carry excess fluid from interstitial spaces back to blood circulation o Organs

More information

In 1984, Pfeiffer, demonstrated that some cholera

In 1984, Pfeiffer, demonstrated that some cholera The Complement System Definition The Classical Complement Pathway The Lectin Pathway The Alternative Complement Pathway Ways in which Microorganisms can Resist Body Defenses by Circumventing the Complement

More information

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity Discussion: Introduction Our immune system protects our bodies from the harmful affects of a dizzying array of disease causing pathogens. Although our

More information

Human Circulation and Respiration Chapter 38

Human Circulation and Respiration Chapter 38 Human Circulation and Respiration Chapter 38 Goals: 1. Compare closed and open circulatory systems. 2. Label the parts of the human heart. 3. Explain how blood travels through the heart; identify chambers

More information

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types:

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign

More information

Basics of Immunology

Basics of Immunology Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,

More information

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information