Preparation for BioScience Academy Math Assessment Test

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1 Preparation for BioScience Academy Math Assessment Test Math is an essential component of laboratory science and solid math skills are required for a successful career in this field. To be eligible for BioScience Academy, applicants must therefore demonstrate mastery over basic science math and be able to solve simple word problems. This review booklet covers the topics and types of problems that will appear on the math assessment test. Problem sets (with answer keys) are provided. Please note that this booklet is intended only as a review. If you have difficulties with some of the problems, you will need to seek more thorough explanations of the material online or in a textbook. For the one hour test, you will be given a metric conversion table identical to the one in this booklet. However, you will not be allowed to use calculators. You are therefore advised to do the math problems in this booklet without a calculator. TOPIC PAGE Converting between Fractions, Decimals and Percents 2 Rounding Numbers 2 Solving Algebraic Equations 3 Scientific Notation 4 Calculations in Scientific Notation 6 The Metric System 8 Metric Conversions 11 Ratios and Proportions 12 Lab Math Problems 14 Answers to Problems 22 Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 1

2 CONVERTING BETWEEN PERCENT, FRACTIONS & DECIMALS PERCENT to FRACTION Remove % sign Divide by 100 PERCENT to DECIMAL Remove % sign a) multiply by 0.01 or divide by 100 or c) move decimal point 2 places to left FRACTION to PERCENT Multiply by 100 Add % sign DECIMAL to PERCENT Multiply by 100 Add % sign DECIMAL to FRACTION Count the number of decimal places. Write the decimal number as a fraction over 1 followed by as many zeroes as there are decimal places. Remove decimal point from original number. This is your fraction. Reduce to lowest terms. FRACTION to DECIMAL Divide numerator by denominator RULES FOR ROUNDING NUMBERS The standard method of rounding numbers is as follows; If a digit to be dropped is less than 5, the preceding figure is not altered Example: Round to one decimal place: If a digit to be dropped is more than 5, the preceding figure is increased by 1 Example: Round to one decimal place: If a digit to be dropped is 5, the preceding figure is increased by 1 Example: Round to one decimal place: Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 2

3 SOLVING ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS Basic algebra is needed for formulas that are commonly used in the lab. The following examples review how to solve for an unknown value. There are only a few important rules to remember when solving algebraic equations. These are illustrated below: Example I z 3 = 9 z 3 (+3) = 9 (+3) z 0 = 12 z = 12 To solve for the unknown, we need to manipulate the equation so that the final equation reads z =. To do this, we move all the expressions that are on the same side of the equal sign as z to the opposite side of the equation: To move -3 to the other side of the equation, we add its inverse +3, and we do this to each side of the equation. Since equals zero, z is isolated. Why do we add +3 to each side of the equation? Remember that the = sign means that the value of left hand side is equal to the value on the right. Whatever we do to one side of the equation, we need to do to the other side. Example II 4z = z = z = 6 z = 6 To solve for the unknown, we need to move 4 to the other side of the equation so that z is isolated. To move 4, however, we cannot add or subtract it from z as we did in Example I. Instead, we need to multiply by the reciprocal of 4. Why? 4z means 4 times z. When we multiply 4 by its reciprocal, we are left with 1z, which is the same as z. Remember that any number multiplied by its reciprocal gives 1: 4 1 = 1 4 Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 3

4 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Scientific notation is a shorthand way of writing very large (eg., 3,000,000,000,000) or very small numbers (eg., ). Numbers written in scientific notation are composed of three parts: a coefficient, a base and an exponent. The number 567,000,000,000 written in scientific notation is: 5.67 x coefficient base exponent The exponent can be either positive or negative and indicates how large or small a number is. A negative exponent indicates that a number is less than one; it does NOT mean the number is negative. RULES FOR WRITING NUMBERS IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Numbers written in scientific notation must meet the following criteria: 1. The coefficient must be greater than or equal to one, but less than ten. In other words: 1 coefficient < The base must be The exponent must indicate the number of decimal places that the decimal point needs to be moved to change the number to standard notation. (Standard notation is the usual way of writing numbers.) CONVERTING BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION AND STANDARD NOTATION A) Steps for Converting from Standard Notation to Scientific Notation a) Starting with the number in standard form, move the decimal point until the number is greater than or equal to one, but less than ten. Multiply the number formed in step a) by 10 raised to the number of decimal places moved. i) If the original number in standard notation was less than 1, the exponent will be negative. ii) If the original number in standard notation was greater or equal to 1, the exponent will be positive. Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 4

5 Examples Write each of the following numbers in scientific notation: (a) 93,000,000 ( Standard notation Scientific Notation a) 93,000, x 10 7 Standard notation i) If there is no decimal point in the number, then the decimal point is assumed to be at the end of the number. Move the decimal as many places as necessary to make the coefficient a number that is greater than or equal to one, but less than 10. ii) Determine the sign of the exponent. Since 93,000,000 is greater Scientific Notation x 10 5 than 1, the exponent will be positive. The decimal point was moved 7 places, so the exponent is 7. i) Move the decimal as many places as necessary to make the coefficient a number that is greater than or equal to one, but less than 10. ii) Determine the sign of the exponent. Since is less than 1, the exponent will be negative. The decimal point was moved 5 places, so the exponent is 5. B) Steps for Converting from Scientific Notation to Standard Notation i) If the exponent is positive, this means that the number in standard notation will be greater than one. So move the decimal point to the right as many places as indicated by the exponent. ii) If the exponent is negative, this means the number in standard notation will be less than one. So move the decimal point to the left as many places as indicated by the exponent. Examples Write each of the following in standard notation: a) 3.45 x x 10 7 Scientific Notation Standard notation a) 3.45 x ,500 The exponent is positive. Therefore, in standard notation, the number will greater than one. The exponent is 4, so move the decimal point 4 spaces. Add zeroes to the end of the number so that the decimal point can be moved as many places as needed. Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 5

6 Scientific Notation Standard notation 6.73 x The exponent is negative. Therefore, in standard notation, the number will less than one. The exponent is 7, so move the decimal point 7 spaces. Add zeroes in front of the number so that the decimal point can be moved as many places as needed. Always put a zero in front of the decimal point!! CALCULATIONS IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION A) Steps for Multiplying Numbers in Scientific Notation Example i) Multiply the coefficients. ii) Add the exponents. iii) Express the answer in scientific notation. (3.9 x 10 5 ) (30.0 x 10 2 ) = multiply 3.9 x 30 = 117 coefficients x 10 5 x 10 2 = 10 7 add exponents 117 x 10 7 express in 1.17 x 10 2 x 10 7 = 1.17 x 10 5 scientific notation B) Steps for Dividing Numbers in Scientific Notation Example i) Divide the coefficients. ii) iii) Subtract the bottom exponent from the top exponent. Express the answer in scientific notation. (180.0 x 10 2 ) (0.3 x 10 9 ) Divide = x 10 2 = 10 ( 2 9) = Subtract bottom exponent Coefficients from top exponent x Express in 6.0 x 10 2 x = 6.0 x 10 9 scientific notation Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 6

7 C) Steps for Adding and Subtracting Numbers in Scientific Notation To add numbers written in scientific notation, apply the principles of factoring and the distributive property. ab + ac = a(b + c) (a is the common factor of both ab and ac, so it can be factored out ) (4.2 x 10 4 ) + (3.5 x 10 4 ) = 10 4 ( ) = 10 4 (7.7) = 7.7 x 10 4 When the exponents are the same --as in the above problem-- addition and subtraction of numbers written in scientific notation is straightforward. How do you solve a problem when the exponents are not the same? Answer: Re-write the problem so that the exponents are the same. It is okay to do this, provided that the values of the expressions in the original problem do not change: 10 4 is the common factor of both expressions Example 1: (2.0 x 10 2 ) + (3.0 x 10 3 ) = can be rewritten as: (0.2 x 10 1 x 10 2 ) + (3.0 x 10 3 ) = (because 0.2 x 10 1 = 2.0) (0.2 x 10 3 ) + (3.0 x 10 3 ) = 10 3 ( ) = 10 3 is the common factor of both expressions 10 3 (3.2) = 3.2 x 10 3 Example 2: (2.0 x 10 7 ) (6.3 x 10 5 ) = can be rewritten as: (2.0 x 10 2 x 10 5 ) (6.3 x 10 5 ) = (200 x 10 5 ) (6.3 x 10 5 ) = 10 5 ( ) = 10 5 is the common factor of both expressions 10 5 (193.7) = 10 5 (1.937 x 10 2 ) = x 10 5 x 10 2 = x 10 7 Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 7

8 THE METRIC SYSTEM The metric system is a decimal-based system of units for length, volume, weight and other measurements. Even though it is not widely used in everyday life here in the USA, the metric system is used in science; therefore, it is extremely important that you learn this system and the metric units of measurement that are commonly used in biomedical labs. In the metric system, each type of measurement has a base unit. The base unit for length is meters (m), volume is liters (L) and mass/ weight* is grams (g). For measurements that are tens of times smaller or larger than the base unit, prefixes are added to the base unit. Examples: the prefix kilo- indicates that the measurement is 1000 or 1 x 10 3 times larger than the base unit. The prefix milli- indicates that the measurement is 1 x 10 3 or times smaller than the base unit: 1 kilogram is 1000 or 1 x 10 3 times the weight of 1 gram. 1 kilometer is 1000 or 1 x 10 3 times the length of 1 meter. 1 milligram is or 1 x 10 3 times the weight of 1 gram. 1 millimeter is or 1 x 10 3 times the length of 1 meter. The tables on the following two pages show the mathematical relationships between metric measurements. If you are not familiar with the metric system, this table might look very complex. However, through repeated use of the metric system in your laboratory classes, you will memorize many of the prefixes listed in the table and remember the relationship of each with the base unit. Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 8

9 Metric System Relationships A) Mathematical relationship between base units and other metric measurements. BASE UNITS OF MEASUREMENT MASS / WEIGHT VOLUME LENGTH Gram (g) Liter (L) Meter (m) Greater than the base unit Smaller than the base unit PREFIX kilo- (onethousand) centi- (onehundredth) milli- (onethousandth) micro- (onemillionth) nano- (onebillionth) pico- (onetrillionth) SYMBOL k 1g = 1 x 10 3 kg 1L = 1 x 10 3 kl 1m = 1 x 10 3 km c centigram not commonly used in the lab centiliter not commonly used in the lab 1cm =1 x 10-2 m 1m = 1 x 10 2 cm m 1g = 1 x 10 3 mg 1L = 1 x 10 3 ml 1m = 1 x 10 3 mm µ 1g = 1 x 10 6 μg 1L = 1 x 10 6 μl 1m = 1 x 10 6 μm n 1g = 1 x 10 9 ng 1L = 1 x 10 9 nl 1m = 1 x 10 9 nm p 1g = 1 x pg 1L = 1 x pl 1m = 1 x pm Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 9

10 B) Mathematical relationships between metric measurements smaller than the base unit Length mm and µm 1mm = 1 x 10 3 µm mm and nm 1mm = 1 x 10 6 nm mm and pm 1mm = 1 x 10 9 pm µm and nm 1µm = 1 x 10 3 nm µm and pm 1µm = 1 x 10 6 pm nm and pm 1nm = 1 x 10 3 pm Volume ml and µl 1ml = 1 x 10 3 µl ml and nl ml and pl 1ml = 1 x 10 6 nl 1ml = 1 x 10 9 pl µl and nl 1µl = 1 x 10 3 nl µl and pl 1µl = 1 x 10 6 pl nl and pl 1nl = 1 x 10 3 pl Mass/Weight mg and µg 1mg = 1 x 10 3 µg mg and ng mg and pg 1mg = 1 x 10 6 ng 1mg = 1 x 10 9 pg µg and ng 1µg = 1 x 10 3 ng µg and pg 1µg = 1 x 10 6 pg ng and pg 1ng = 1 x 10 3 pg Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 10

11 METRIC CONVERSIONS In your lab classes, you will use balances that weigh in grams and occasionally, balances that weigh in milligrams. You will also use various liquid measuring instruments including pipettes, which measure milliliter volumes, micropipettors that measure microliter volumes and graduated cylinders that can measure liter volumes. You will record all the measurements that you make in your lab notebook. However, you will frequently be required to convert your measurements from one unit to another. For example, you may weigh out 5 grams of a chemical, but then be told to report the weight in milligrams or, you may combine 300 microliters of one solution with 25 microliters of another solution, but be required to record the total volume in milliliters. Converting between metric units is not difficult, but requires a systematic approach such as that shown in the following: CONVERSION FACTOR METHOD FOR SOLVING CONVERSION PROBLEMS 1) Make sure you understand what is being asked: a) determine what units are involved g and µg in the example above EXAMPLE: 25 g is how many µg? determine what unit needs to be converted to what unit g needs to be converted to µg in the example above 2) Determine the relationship between the units in the problem: 1 x 10 6 µg = 1 g in the example above 3) Write down the two conversion factors that are formed from the equation 1 x 10 6 µg = 1 g 1 x10 6 µg and 1 g 1 g 1 x 10 6 µg 4) Use one of the conversion factors to solve the problem: 25 g is how many µg? 25 g x _1 x 10 6 µg = 1 g 25 g x 1 x 10 6 µg = 1 g Select the conversion factor that has the unit you want to end up with on the top (in the numerator) what you want, stays on top The grams and the 1 s cancel out 25 x 10 6 µg = 2.5 x 10 7 µg (expressed in scientific notation) PAY ATTENTION to the wording of conversion problems! All of the following are asking for the same conversion: How many µg is 25g? Convert 25 g to µg 25 g is how many µg? Express 25 g in µg. Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 11

12 RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS Review A ratio is the amount of one measurement relative to another measurement. In other words, a ratio shows the relationship between two quantities. Example: 1000 bacteria /4 ml (in every 4ml, there are 1000 bacteria) Ratios can be written as fractions: 1000 bacteria 4 ml Two ratios with different quantities can in fact represent the same relationship as shown in the example below. The number of bacteria and the volumes in each ratio differ, but the relationship between the values is the same bacteria = 250 bacteria 4 ml 1 ml When two ratios describe the same relationship, they are said to be proportional. The term proportion refers to two equal ratios. Lab Applications of Ratios and Proportions Many lab math problems can be solved by applying the principles of ratios and proportions: A) Ratio and proportion math is frequently used in solution preparation to calculate the amount of a substance or the volume of a liquid. Example: A lab technician is about to conduct an experiment that requires a NaCl (sodium chloride) solution with a concentration of 8mg/ ml. However, 75ml of the solution are needed for the experiment. How much NaCl is required for this volume? Please note that 8mg/ ml is the same as 8mg / 1ml To calculate how much NaCl is needed for 75ml, set up a proportion: 8mg = z 1 ml 75ml Please note that in solution preparation, the denominator represents the total volume Two methods can be used to solve for z. i: Cross multiplication (make sure to include units in the process) 8mg = z z x 1 ml = 8mg x 75ml z = 600mg 1 ml 75ml ii: Determine what the numerator or denominator of the first ratio needs to be multiplied or divided by to get the numerator or denominator in the second ratio. 8mg = z 8mg x 75 = 600mg z = 600mg 1 ml = 75 ml 1ml x 75 = 75ml Therefore: the lab technician needs to dissolve 600mg in a total volume of 75ml. Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 12

13 B) Ratio and proportion math is used to compare the concentration of solutions. i) Cross multiplications shows that the following two solutions of NaCl do not have the same concentration: Sol A Sol B 8g NaCl and 250g NaCl 12L 65L 8g x 65L 250g x 12L ii) By converting each concentration to g/l, it is possible to determine which solution is more concentrated: Sol A Sol B 8g = 0.66g 250g = 3.8g Sol B has the higher concentration 12L L 65L L C) Ratio and proportion math is used to convert concentrations as shown in B ii above. It is standard practice to express concentrations as an amount per 1 ml or an amount per l µl, etc. Example: A bottle of Protein X arrives in a lab with a specification sheet indicating that there are 0.5mg in a total volume of 4ml. The person receiving the bottle converts the concentration to mg/ml and labels the bottle accordingly: 0.5mg = x x = 0.125mg concentration of Protein X is 0.125mg/ml 4 ml 1 ml Please note that per ml mean per 1 ml, but it is standard practice not to include the number 1. (This is similar to how a car s mileage is expressed: 26 miles/ gallon is the same as 26 miles/ 1 gallon, but the 1 is not included.) Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 13

14 PRACTICE PROBLEMS You are encouraged to do all problems with and without the calculator since you will not be permitted to use a calculator on the entrance test. Answers for all worksheet problems can be found below the last worksheet. CONVERTING BETWEEN FRACTIONS, DECIMALS AND PERCENTS Worksheet A 1) Convert from decimal to percent. 2) Convert from percent to decimal = 1.6 % = 3) Convert from fraction to decimal. 4) Convert from decimal to fraction = = 600 5) Convert from percent to fraction. 6) Convert from fraction to percent. 78% = 5 = 40 ROUNDING NUMBERS Worksheet B Round the following numbers to one decimal place 1) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 3.99 ALGEBRA AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Worksheet C Solve for z. Express answers 5 13 in scientific notation. 1) 5z = 15 2) 5z + 20 = 15 3) 6 + 5z = 26 4) 5z 10 = 25 2z Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 14

15 5) (3.0 x 10 7 )z = (1.8 x 10 4 ) 6) (1.6 x 10 6 ) z = (8.0 x 10 4 )(4.0 x 10 8 ) 7) (3.2 x 10 7 ) = (1.6 x 10 2 )z 8) (5.5 x 10 2 ) = (1.1 x 10 6 )z 9) (4.8 x 10 9 ) = (1.2 x 10 6 )z 10) (5.0 x 10 4 )z = 9,500 (2.0 x 10 7 ) (2.5 x 10-6 ) 11) 2.5 = 5.5 x ) 5.0 x 10 2 = 5.5 x z 1 x 10-4 (1 x 10-6 ) z 13) (2.0 x ) = 125,000,000,000z SIGNED NUMBERS, EXPONENTS AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Worksheet D Signed numbers 1) 4 + ( 5) = 2) ( 5) + ( 7) = 3) ( 19) 3 = 4) ( 6) ( 4) = 5) 7 ( 9) = 6) 13 x ( 2) = 7) ( 6) ( 2) = 8) (3) x ( 9) x ( 5) = 9) ( 6) x ( 3) x ( 4) = Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 15

16 Exponents Write the following expressions in standard notation. 10) 10 5 = 11) 10 5 = Please note these relationships: 10 3 = 1 x 10 3 = 1 = 1 = ) 1 = ) 1 = 10 5 Simplify the following expressions and then write in standard notation. Write your answer as in this example: 10 4 x 10 2 = 10 6 = 1,000,000 14) 10 2 x 10 6 = *Please note: Any number raised to the power of 0 is = 1 and 3 0 = 1 15) 10 4 x 10 9 = 16) 10 4 x 10 4 = 17) 10 6 = ) 10 6 = ) 10 3 x 3 6 = Write the following numbers in standard notation. Examples: 4.26 x 10 7 = 42,600, x 10 5 = ) 3.0 x 10 8 = 21) 9.2 x 10 8 = 22) 14 = 23) 1.5 = ) 7.3 x 10 4 = 25) 6.7 x Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 16

17 Write the following numbers in scientific notation. 26) x 10 3 = 27) x 10 4 = 28) 0.09 x 10 2 = 29) 111 x 10 7 = 30) 12 = 10 5 Perform the following operations and then write the answers in a) standard notation and scientific notation. 31) 3.6 a) 3.0 x ) 4.8 x 10 5 a) 4.0 x ) (7.0 x 10 3 ) (2.0 x 10 6 ) = a) 34) (2.5 x 10 5 ) (5.0 x 10 1 ) = a) 35) (18.0 x 10 5 ) a) (6.0 x 10 3 ) Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 17

18 36) (8.4 x 10 2 ) a) (4.2 x 10 4 ) 37) (5.0 x 10 7 )(8.0 x 10 5 ) a) (4.0 x 10 2 ) To do questions 38 & 39 without a calculator, use the distributive property / common factor method to solve the problems. 38) (2.0 x 10 3 ) + (451.0 x 10 3 ) = a) 39) (8.0 x ) + (6.0 x ) = a) METRIC CONVERSIONS Worksheet E Please remember that a measurement has two parts: a number and a unit. ALWAYS write both parts whenever you convert or take a measurement. Solve the following problems. Show all work. Write the answers in a) standard notation and scientific notation. 1. Convert 30 mg to g. a) 2. How many µl are there in 6.5 nl? a) 3. Convert 22 L to µl. a) Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 18

19 4. How many m are there in 25 mm? a) 5. Calculate the number of ng in 3 g. a) 6. Convert 62 pg to g. a) 7. How many µl are there in 390 pl? a) 8. Convert 69 mg to pg. a) 9. How many pm are there in 44 nm? a) 10. Calculate the number of kg in 5 pg. a) 11. One meter has how many cm? a) Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 19

20 RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS Worksheet F Determine whether each of the following pairs of ratios are proportional. 1) 3mg and 57mg 2) 60g and 15g 3) 240 cells and 5,400 cells 5ml 95ml 10 tablets 2 tablets 0.4ml 9ml Solve for the unknown value. Do not forget to include the unit of measurement. 4) 500 m = z 5) 20mg NaCl = 80 mgnacl 0.5 km 4km 2 tablets z Solve the following problems using ratio and proportion math: 6) 1ml of ethanol dissolved in a total volume of 8ml is the same as dissolving 3ml of ethanol in what total volume? 7) A patient needs to take one 200mg dose of vitamin B6 daily. The tablets she purchased from the drugstore are 50mg each. To take the correct dose, how many tablets should the patient take? 8) A solution contains 3mg/ml of Protein M. A scientist needs 12mg of Protein M for his experiment. How many ml of Protein M solution does the scientist need? 9) A solution made by dissolving 0.35g of sodium bicarbonate in 25 ml water has the same concentration as a solution prepared by dissolving 1.05g of sodium bicarbonate in how many ml of water? 10) A student prepares a solution containing 5 mg of sodium chloride in 150ml of water. The next day the student prepares a solution of the same concentration, but this time prepares it in 600ml of water. How many mg of sodium chloride did the student need to make this solution? Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 20

21 11) A pharmacist dispenses 20 potassium tablets to a patient. If each tablet contains 600mg, what is the total milligram quantity of potassium dispensed to the patient? 12) A blood sample contains 100 cells/ 0.02mL. How many cells per ml is this? 13) A student has 15ml of cells growing in culture. She determines that her cell population has a concentration of 1000 cells/ml. How many cells in total does the student have? 14) A technician needs to grow bacteria for an experiment. The growth medium for the bacteria requires 0.5 g of glucose per liter. The technician has prepared some medium by adding 3.6g of glucose in a total volume of 6.2 liters. Did she make the solution correctly? 15) You have a liter of a solution with a concentration of 0.4g/ml of enzyme. You need 2g of enzyme for an experiment. How much of the solution do you take? 16) A scientist has two sodium chloride solutions. Solution A has 25mg in 80ml, Solution B has 216 mg in 400ml. Calculate the number of mg per ml for each solution: Solution A: Solution B: Which solution has the higher concentration? 17) A scientist has bacteria growing in two flasks. In tube A he has 1 x 10 7 bacteria in 0.05L of culture fluid. In tube B he has 5.5 x 10 5 bacteria in 10ml. Write answers in scientific notation. Calculate the number of bacteria per ml in each flask Flask A: Flask B: Which flask has the higher concentration? Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 21

22 18) A lab supervisor tells a student to dissolve 6mg of Protein X in a total of 15ml buffer. The student is distracted by a text message and when she prepares the solution, she accidentally dissolves 8mg in 16ml. a) Is the concentration of the solution the student prepared higher or lower than the required concentration? Show the calculation that allowed you to arrive at this answer. The student asks her supervisor if she can start over. However, the student is told that Protein X is very expensive and she cannot start over. Instead, the student needs to adjust the volume to reach the required concentration. How does she do this? 19) You have a solution of Protein Z with a concentration of 7 mg/ml. You take 0.2mL of the solution and add 0.3mL of water. What is the final concentration of Protein Z? 20) You have a solution of Protein M with a concentration of 5 mg/ml. You take 9 ml of the solution and add 16mL of water. What is the final concentration of Protein M? 21) A tube contains 10ml of solution of Protein Z. Each ml contains 3.2mg of Protein Z. How many tubes of Protein Z solution are needed for an experiment requiring 3200mg? ANSWERS TO LAB MATH PROBLEMS Answers are in red print. CONVERTING BETWEEN FRACTIONS, DECIMALS AND PERCENTS Worksheet A 1) Convert from decimal to percent. 2) Convert from percent to decimal = 1.6 % = 6.7% Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 22

23 3) Convert from fraction to decimal. 4) Convert from decimal to fraction = 600 = /50 5) Convert from percent to fraction. 6) Convert from fraction to percent. 78% = 5 = 39/ % ROUNDING NUMBERS Worksheet B Round the following numbers to one decimal place 1) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ALGEBRA AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Worksheet C Solve for z. Express answers 5 13 in scientific notation. 1) 5z = 15 z = 3 2) 5z + 20 = 15 5z = z = 5 z= 1 3) 6 + 5z = 26 4) 5z 10 = 25 2z 5z = z + 2z = z = 20 7z = 35 z = 4 z = 5 5) (3.0 x 10 7 )z = (1.8 x 10 4 ) 6) (1.6 x 10 6 ) z = (8.0 x 10 4 )(4.0 x 10 8 ) z = (1.8 x 10 4 ) z = (8.0 x 10 4 )(4.0 x 10 8 ) (3.0 x 10 7 ) (1.6 x 10 6 ) z = 0.6 x 10 3 z = 2.0 x 10 3 z = 6.0 x ) (3.2 x 10 7 ) = (1.6 x 10 2 )z 8) (5.5 x 10 2 ) = (1.1 x 10 6 )z (3.2 x 10 7 ) = z (5.5 x 10 2 ) = z (1.6 x 10 2 ) (1.1 x 10 6 ) 2.0 x 10 9 = z 5.0 x 10 4 = z Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 23

24 9) (4.8 x 10 9 ) = (1.2 x 10 6 )z 10) (5.0 x 10 4 )z = 9,500 (2.0 x 10 7 ) (2.5 x 10-6 ) 2.4 x = (1.2 x 10 6 )z (5.0 x 10 4 )z = (9,500)(2.5 x 10 6 ) 2.4 x =z z = (9,500)(2.5 x 10 6 ) (1.2 x 10 6 ) (5.0 x 10 4 ) 2.0 x = z z = 4.75 x ) 2.5 = 5.5 x ) 5.0 x 10 2 = 5.5 x z 1 x 10-4 (1 x 10-6 ) z use cross multiplication z = 1.1 x 10 5 (2.5)z = 10(5.5 x 10 5 ) z = (5.5 x 10 6 ) z = 2.2 x ) (2.0 x ) = 125,000,000,000z Convert to scientific notation (2.0 x ) = (1.25 x ) z (2.0 x ) = z (1.25 x ) 1.6 x = z SIGNED NUMBERS, EXPONENTS AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Worksheet D Signed numbers 1) 4 + ( 5) = 1 2) ( 5) + ( 7) = 12 3) ( 19) 3 = 22 4) ( 6) ( 4) = 2 5) 7 ( 9) = 2 6) 13 x ( 2) = 26 7) ( 6) ( 2) = 3 8) (3) x ( 9) x ( 5) = 135 9) ( 6) x ( 3) x ( 4) = 72 Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 24

25 Exponents Write the following expressions in standard notation. 10) 10 5 = ) 10 5 = 100,000 Please note these relationships: 10 3 = 1 x 10 3 = 1 = 1 = ) 1 = ) 1 = 100, Simplify the following expressions and then write in standard notation. Write your answer as in this example: 10 4 x 10 2 = 10 6 = 1,000,000 14) 10 2 x 10 6 = 10 8 = 100,000,000 *Please note: Any number raised to the power of 0 is = 1 and 3 0 = 1 15) 10 4 x 10 9 = 10 5 = 100,000 16) 10 4 x 10 4 = 10 0 = 1* 17) 10 6 = 10 3 = ) 10 6 = 10 3 = ) 10 3 x 3 6 = 1000 x 729 = 729,000 Bases are different, therefore exponents cannot be added! Write the following numbers in standard notation. Examples: 4.26 x 10 7 = 42,600, x 10 5 = ) 3.0 x 10 8 = 300,000,000 21) 9.2 x 10 8 = ) 14 = 1.4 x 10 x 10 9 = 1.4 x ) 1.5 = 1.5 x 10 7 = 15,000, = ) 7.3 x 10 4 = ) 6.7 x 1 = 6.7 x 10 3 = Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 25

26 Write the following numbers in scientific notation. 26) x 10 3 = 27) x 10 4 = (2.544 x 10 2 ) x 10 3 = x 10 1 (6.201 x 10 1 ) x 10 4 = x ) 0.09 x 10 2 = 29) 111 x 10 7 = (9 x 10 2 ) x 10 2 = 9 x 10 0 = 9 (1.11 x 10 2 ) x 10 7 = 1.11 x ) 12 = 1.2 x 10 1 x 10 5 = 1.2 x Perform the following operations and then write the answers in a) standard notation and scientific notation. 31) 3.6 a) x 10 5 = 1.2 x x ) 4.8 x 10 5 = 1.2 x 10 5 x 10 5 a) 12,000,000, x x ) (7.0 x 10 3 ) (2.0 x 10 6 ) = 14 x 10 3 = 1.4 x 10 x 10 3 a) 14, x ) (2.5 x 10 5 ) (5.0 x 10 1 ) = 12.5 x 10 6 a) = 1.25 x 10 x x ) (18.0 x 10 5 ) a) 0.03 (6.0 x 10 3 = 3.0 x 10 5 x 10 3 ) 3.0 x ) (8.4 x 10 2 ) a) (4.2 x 10 4 = 2.0 x 10 2 x 10 4 ) 2.0 x ) (5.0 x 10 7 )(8.0 x 10 5 ) = 10 x 10 2 x 10 2 a) 10 (4.0 x 10 2 ) = 1.0 x 10 1 x x 10 Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 26

27 To do questions 38 & 39 without a calculator, use the distributive property / common factor method to solve the problems. 38) (2.0 x 10 3 ) + (451.0 x 10 3 ) = 10 3 ( ) a) 453,000 = 453 x 10 3 = 4.53 x 10 2 x x is the common factor for both expressions 39) (8.0 x ) + (6.0 x ) = a) (8.0 x 10 2 x ) + (6.0 x ) = ( ) 6.08 x is a common factor for both expressions METRIC CONVERSIONS Worksheet E Please remember that a measurement has two parts: a number and a unit. ALWAYS write both parts whenever you convert or take a measurement. Solve the following problems. Show all work. Write the answers in a) standard notation and scientific notation. 1. Convert 30 mg to g. a) 0.03 g Use the relationship 1g = 1 x 10 3 mg 30mg x 1g = 30 x 10 3 = 3 x 10 2 g 1 x 10 3 mg 3.0 x 10 2 g 2. How many µl are there in 6.5 nl? a) µl Use the relationship 1 µl = 1 x 10 3 nl 6.5 x 10 3 µl 3. Convert 22 L to µl. a) 22,000,000 µl Use the relationship 1L = 1 x 10 6 µl 2.2 x 10 7 µl 4. How many m are there in 25 mm? a) m Use the relationship 1m = 1 x 10 3 mm 2.5 x 10 2 m 5. Calculate the number of ng in 3 g. a) 3,000,000,000 ng Use the relationship 1g = 1 x 10 9 ng 3 x 10 9 ng Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 27

28 6. Convert 62 pg to g. a) g Use the relationship 1g = 1 x pg 6.2 x g 7. How many µl are there in 390 pl? a) µl Use the relationship 1µl = 1 x 10 6 pl 3.90 x 10 4 µl 8. Convert 69 mg to pg. a) 69,000,000,000 pg Use the relationship 1mg = 1 x 10 9 pg 6.9 x pg 9. How many pm are there in 44 nm? a) 44,000 pm Use the relationship 1nm = 1 x 10 3 pm 4.4 x 10 4 pm 10. Calculate the number of kg in 5 pg. a) kg Use two relationships: 1g = 1 x pg 1kg = 1 x 10 3 g 5 x kg First convert pg to g, then convert g to kg 11. One meter has how many cm? a) 100 cm Use the relationship 1m = 1 x 10 2 cm 1 x 10 2 cm RATIOS and PROPORTIONS Worksheet F Determine whether each of the following pairs of ratios are proportional. 1) 3mg and 57mg 2) 60g and 15g 3) 240 cells and 5,400 cells 5ml 95ml 10 tablets 2 tablets 0.4ml 9ml 3 x 95 = x 2 = x 9 = x 57 = 285 yes 10 x 15 = 150 no 5,400 x 0.4 = 2160 yes Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 28

29 Solve for the unknown value. Do not forget to include the unit of measurement. 4) 500 m = z 5) 20mg NaCl = 80 mgnacl 0.5 km 4km 2 tablets z 500m x 4km = 0.5m x z 20mg x z = 80mg x 2 tablets z = 8 tablets 500m x 4km = z 0.5m z = 4000m Observe unit cancellation- it is highly recommended that you do all problems this way! Solve the following problems using ratio and proportion math: 6) 1ml of ethanol dissolved in a total volume of 8ml is the same as dissolving 3ml of ethanol in what total volume? 1ml ethanol = 3ml x = 24ml 8ml x 7) A patient needs to take one 200mg dose of vitamin B6 daily. The tablets she purchased from the drugstore are 50mg each. To take the correct dose, how many tablets should the patient take? 4 tablets 50mg = 200mg z = 4 tablets 1 tablet z 8) A solution contains 3mg/ml of Protein M. A scientist needs 12mg of Protein M for his experiment. How many ml of Protein M solution does the scientist need? 4 ml 3mg = 12mg ml z z = 4 ml 9) A solution made by dissolving 0.35g of sodium bicarbonate in 25 ml water has the same concentration as a solution prepared by dissolving 1.05g of sodium bicarbonate in how many ml of water? 75ml 0.35g = 1.05g 25ml 75ml 10) A student prepares a solution containing 5 mg of sodium chloride in 150ml of water. The next day the student prepares a solution of the same concentration, but this time prepares it in 600ml of water. How many mg of sodium chloride did the student need to make this solution? 20mg 5mg = 20mg 150ml 600ml Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 29

30 11) A pharmacist dispenses 20 potassium tablets to a patient. If each tablet contains 600mg, what is the total milligram quantity of potassium dispensed to the patient? 12,000mg 600mg = 12,000mg tablet 20 tablets 12) A blood sample contains 100 cells/ 0.02mL. How many cells per ml is this? 5000 cells/ml 100 cells = 5000 cells 0.02ml 1ml 13) A student has 15ml of cells growing in culture. She determines that her cell population has a concentration of 1000 cells/ml. How many cells in total does the student have? 15,000 cells total 1000 cells = 15,000 cells 1ml 15ml 14) A technician needs to grow bacteria for an experiment. The growth medium for the bacteria requires 0.5 g of glucose per liter. The technician has prepared some medium by adding 3.6g of glucose in a total volume of 6.2 liters. Did she make the solution correctly? NO 0.5g = 3.6g 6.2L x 0.5g 3.6g x 1L 1 L 6.2L ) You have a liter of a solution with a concentration of 0.4g/ml of enzyme. You need 2g of enzyme for an experiment. How much of the solution do you take? 5ml 0.4g = 2g x = 5ml ml x 16) A scientist has two sodium chloride solutions. Solution A has 25mg in 80ml, Solution B has 216 mg in 400ml. Calculate the number of mg per ml for each solution: Solution A: mg/ml Solution B: 0.54 mg/ml Which solution has the higher concentration? Solution B 17) A scientist has bacteria growing in two flasks. In tube A he has 1 x 10 7 bacteria in 0.05L of culture fluid. In tube B he has 5.5 x 10 5 bacteria in 10ml. Write answers in scientific notation. Calculate the number of bacteria per ml in each flask Flask A: 2 x 10 5 bacteria/ml_ Flask B: 5.5 x 10 4 bacteria/ml Which flask has the higher concentration? _A Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 30

31 18) A lab supervisor tells a student to dissolve 6mg of Protein X in a total of 15ml buffer. The student is distracted by a text message and when she prepares the solution, she accidentally dissolves 8mg in 16ml. c) Is the concentration of the solution the student prepared higher or lower than the required concentration? Show the calculation that allowed you to arrive at this answer. 6mg = 0.4mg 8mg = 0.5mg higher 15ml 1ml 16ml 1ml d) The student asks her supervisor if she can start over. However, the student is told that Protein X is very expensive and she cannot start over. Instead, the student needs to adjust the volume to reach the required concentration. How does she do this? 6mg = 8mg x= 20ml Student needs to add 4ml to the 16ml of 15ml x the solution she prepared incorrectly to achieve the correct concentration 19) You have a solution of Protein Z with a concentration of 7 mg/ml. You take 0.2mL of the solution and add 0.3mL of water. What is the final concentration of Protein Z? 7mg = x x = 1.4mg (in 0.2ml) 1.4mg = z z = 2.8mg ml 0.2ml 0.5ml 1ml (total final volume)) final concentration of Protein Z is 2.8mg/ml 20) You have a solution of Protein M with a concentration of 5 mg/ml. You take 9 ml of the solution and add 16mL of water. What is the final concentration of Protein M? 5mg = x x = 45mg (in 9ml) 45mg = z z = 1.8mg ml 9ml 25 ml 1ml (total final volume) final concentration of Protein M is 1.8mg/ml 21) A tube contains 10ml of solution of Protein Z. Each ml contains 3.2mg of Protein Z. How many tubes of Protein Z solution are needed for an experiment requiring 3200mg? 100 tubes 3.2 mg = 32mg = 32mg = 3200mg ml 10ml tube 100 tubes Property of Boston University, BioScience Academy 2012 Gloria Vachino, M.S. 31

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