# Colligative properties of biological liquids

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Colligative properties of biological liquids Colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the number of molecules in a given volume of solvent and not on the properties (e.g. size or mass) of the molecules. Colligative properties include: lowering of vapor pressure; elevation of boiling point; depression of freezing point and osmotic pressure. Measurements of these properties for a dilute aqueous solution of a non-ionized solute such as urea or glucose can lead to accurate determinations of relative molecular masses. Alternatively, measurements for ionized solutes can lead to an estimation of the percentage of ionization taking place. Colligative properties are mostly studied for dilute solutions.

2 Vapor pressure The relationship between the lowering of vapor pressure and concentration is given by Raoult's law, which states that: The vapor pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical component and the mole fraction of the component present in the solution. The individual vapor pressure p for each component is p = p 0 x, where p is the partial pressure of the component in mixture, p 0 is the vapor pressure of the pure component, x is the mole fraction of the component in solution.

3 Boiling point elevation Boiling point is achieved in the establishment of equilibrium between liquid and gas phase. At the boiling point, the number of gas molecules condensing to liquid equals the number of liquid molecules evaporating to gas. Adding any solute effectively dilutes the concentration of the liquid molecules, slowing the liquid to gas portion of this equilibrium. To compensate for this, boiling point is achieved at higher temperature. ΔT b = molality * K b * i, (K b = ebullioscopic constant, which is 0.51 C kg/mol for the boiling point of water; i = Van 't Hoff factor) Van't Hoff factor is the actual number of particles in solution after dissociation : i=1+α(n-1)

4 Freezing point depression Freezing point, or the equilibrium between a liquid and solid phase is generally lowered in the presence of a solute compared to a pure solvent. ΔT f = molality * K f * i, (K f = cryoscopic constant, which is 1.86 C kg/mol for the freezing point of water,; i = Van 't Hoff factor)

5 Osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration. A semipermeable membrane is a thin layer of material that contains various sized holes, or pores. Smaller solutes and fluid pass through the membrane, but the membrane blocks the passage of larger substances (for example, red blood cells, large proteins)

6 Osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure is the pressure applied by a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. The phenomenon of osmotic pressure arises from the tendency of a pure solvent to move through a semi-permeable membrane. This process is of vital importance in biology as the cell's membrane is selective towards many of the solutes found in living organisms. Osmoregulation is the homeostasis mechanism of an organism to reach balance in osmotic pressure. Morse equation: πv = nrti, where: π = osmotic pressure; V is the volume; T is absolute temperature; n is the number of moles of solute; R = J K -1 mol -1, the molar gas constant; i = Van 't Hoff factor.

7 Osmoregulation in mammalian cells Ion Concentration in cytosol (millimolar) Concentration in blood (millimolar) Potassium Sodium Cloride Bicarbonate Amino acids in proteins Magnesium Calcium < The loss of sodium and chloride ions compensates for the osmotic effect of the higher concentration of organic molecules inside the cell.

8 Balance in osmotic pressure Hypertonic solution causes cells to shrink. Hypotonic solution causes cells to swell. Isotonic solution produces no change in cell volume.

9 Dialysis In medicine, dialysis is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal failure. Substances in water tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Hemodialysis remove wastes and excess water from the blood. A hemodialysis machine

### PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Phase Diagrams Solutions Solution Concentrations Colligative Properties Brown et al., Chapter 10, 385 394, Chapter 11, 423-437 CHEM120 Lecture Series Two : 2011/01

### COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES:

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES: A colligative property is a property that depends only on the number of solute particles present, not their identity. The properties we will look at are: lowering of vapor pressure;

### Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties Vapor pressures have been defined as the pressure over a liquid in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas phase in a closed system. The vapor pressure of a solution is different

### 12.3 Colligative Properties

12.3 Colligative Properties Changes in solvent properties due to impurities Colloidal suspensions or dispersions scatter light, a phenomenon known as the Tyndall effect. (a) Dust in the air scatters the

### What is a Colligative Property?

What is a Colligative Property? 0 Defined as bulk liquid properties that change when you add a solute to make a solution 0 Colligative properties are based on how much solute is added but NOT the identity

### CHAPTER 14 Solutions

CHAPTER 14 Solutions The Dissolution Process 1. Effect of Temperature on Solubility 2. Molality and Mole Fraction Colligative Properties of Solutions 3. Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult s Law 4. Fractional

### Chemistry Notes for class 12 Chapter 2 Solutions

1 P a g e Chemistry Notes for class 12 Chapter 2 Solutions Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in same or different physical phases. The substances forming the solution are called

### Osmolality Explained. Definitions

Osmolality Explained What is osmolality? Simply put, osmolality is a measurement of the total number of solutes in a liquid solution expressed in osmoles of solute particles per kilogram of solvent. When

### Colligative Properties Discussion Chem. 1A

Colligative Properties Discussion Chem. 1A The material covered today is found in sections Chapter 12.5 12.7 This material will not be covered in lecture, you will have homework assigned. Chem. 1A Colligative

### 1. Define the term colligative property and list those physical properties of a solution that can be classified as colligative properties.

Solutions Colligative Properties DCI Name Section 1. Define the term colligative property and list those physical properties of a solution that can be classified as colligative properties. Colligative

### Colligative Properties. Vapour pressure Boiling point Freezing point Osmotic pressure

Colligative Properties Vapour pressure Boiling point Freezing point Osmotic pressure Learning objectives Describe meaning of colligative property Use Raoult s law to determine vapor pressure of solutions

### Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions 11.1 Solution Composition A. Molarity moles solute 1. Molarity ( M ) = liters of solution B. Mass Percent mass of solute 1. Mass percent = 1 mass of solution C. Mole

### Simple Mixtures. Atkins 7th: Sections ; Atkins 8th: The Properties of Solutions. Liquid Mixtures

The Properties of Solutions Simple Mixtures Atkins 7th: Sections 7.4-7.5; Atkins 8th: 5.4-5.5 Liquid Mixtures Colligative Properties Boiling point elevation Freezing point depression Solubility Osmosis

### Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 04

Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01 Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02 Colligative Properties: Depend on the amount not on the identity There are four main colligative properties:

### Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

13.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration All methods involve quantifying the amount of solute per amount of solvent (or solution). Concentration may be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. The terms

### Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions. Classification of Matter

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Learning goals and key skills: Describe how enthalpy and entropy changes affect solution formation Describe the relationship between intermolecular forces and solubility,

### Vapor Pressure Lowering

Colligative Properties A colligative property is a property of a solution that depends on the concentration of solute particles, but not on their chemical identity. We will study 4 colligative properties

### Types of Solutions. Chapter 17 Properties of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions

Big Idea: Liquids will mix together if both liquids are polar or both are nonpolar. The presence of a solute changes the physical properties of the system. For nonvolatile solutes the vapor pressure, boiling

### Chapter 7, Reactions and Solutions

1. Classify the following reaction as precipitation, acid-base or oxidation-reduction: Ce4+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Ce3+(aq) + Fe3+(aq) Ans. oxidation-reduction 2. Classify the following reaction as precipitation,

### Chapter 12: Solutions

Chapter 12: Solutions Problems: 3, 5, 8, 12, 14, 16, 22, 29, 32, 41-58, 61-68, 71-74 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component present in smaller amount

### Chapter Thirteen. Physical Properties Of Solutions

Chapter Thirteen Physical Properties Of Solutions 1 Solvent: Solute: Solution: Solubility: Types of Solutions Larger portion of a solution Smaller portion of a solution A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more

### 2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length?

Colligative properties 1 1. What does the phrase like dissolves like mean. 2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length? Alcohol in water (mol/100g water) Methanol

### Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions

Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Homogeneous mixture is called a solution o Can be solid, liquid, or gas Each of the substances in a solution is called a component of

### Solutions & Colloids

Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Solutions & Colloids Solutions Components of a Solution Solvent: The substance

### Solutions. Occur in all phases. Ways of Measuring. Ways of Measuring. Page 1

Solutions Occur in all phases The solvent does the dissolving. The solute is dissolved. There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solvent. We will focus on aqueous solutions.

### Solutions. ... the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled (the mixture is homogeneous). Solution Composition. Mass percentageof solute=

Solutions Properties of Solutions... the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled (the mixture is homogeneous). Solution Composition 1. Molarity (M) = 4. Molality (m) = moles of solute liters

### Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12

13 Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12 1. The molality of a solution is defined as a. moles of solute per liter of solution. b. grams of solute per liter of solution. c. moles of solute per kilogram

### Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

### Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 13 Properties of are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. In a solution,

### Solutions. Occur in all phases. Ways of Measuring. Ways of Measuring. Energy of Making Solutions. 1. Break apart Solvent. Page 1

s Occur in all phases The solvent does the dissolving. The solute is dissolved. There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solvent. We will focus on aqueous solutions. Ways of

### SOLUTIONS MODULE - 3. Objectives. Chemistry. States of matter. Notes

Chemistry 9 SOLUTIONS Y ou know that when sugar or salt is added to water, it dissolves. The resulting mixture is called a solution. Solutions play an important role in our life. In industry, solutions

### Colligative properties. Chemistry 433. Freezing point depression. Freezing point depression. Freezing point depression 10/28/2008

Chemistry 433 Lecture 20 Colligative Properties Freezing Point Depression Boiling Point Elevation Osmosis NC State University Colligative properties There are a number of properties of a dilute solution

### To calculate the value of the boiling point constant for water. To use colligative properties to determine the molecular weight of a substance.

Colligative Properties of Solutions: A Study of Boiling Point Elevation Amina El-Ashmawy, Collin County Community College (With contributions by Timm Pschigoda, St. Joseph High School, St. Joseph, MI)

### OSMOSIS (A self-instructional package)

1 OSMOSIS (A self-instructional package) Howard Kutchai Department of Molecular Physiology & Biological Physics University of Virginia School of Medicine Copyright 1980, 2001, 2003 by Howard Kutchai 2

### Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent

Solutions 1 Solutions Concentration Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent Coffee crystal = solute Water = solvent Liquid Coffee = solution so a solute is dissolved in solvent to

### Colligative properties CH102 General Chemistry, Spring 2014, Boston University

Colligative properties CH102 General Chemistry, Spring 2014, Boston University here are four colligative properties. vapor-pressure lowering boiling-point elevation freezing-point depression osmotic pressure

### Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit www.ck12.org

### Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions Key topics: Molecular Picture (interactions, enthalpy, entropy) Concentration Units Colligative Properties terminology: Solution: a homogeneous mixture Solute:

### Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Problems: 9-10, 13-17, 21-42, 44, 49-60, 71-72, 73 (a,c), 77-79, 84(a-c), 91 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component(s)

### 13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute-Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects

Week 3 Sections 13.3-13.5 13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute-Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects 13.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb Mole Fraction,

### Physical pharmacy. dr basam al zayady

Physical pharmacy Lec 7 dr basam al zayady Ideal Solutions and Raoult's Law In an ideal solution of two volatile liquids, the partial vapor pressure of each volatile constituent is equal to the vapor pressure

### Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity

Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Chemistry 162 - K. Marr Revised Winter 2014 This lab exercise does not require a report in your lab notebook.

### 48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph

48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph 1. Which of the following concentration measures will change in value as the temperature of a solution changes? A) mass percent B) mole fraction C) molality

### 7-3 Cell Boundaries. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries

Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Every living cell exists in a liquid environment. The cell membrane regulates movement of dissolved molecules from the liquid on one side of the membrane to the liquid

### Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

Sample Exercise 13.1 (p. 534) By the process illustrated below, water vapor reacts with excess solid sodium sulfate to form the hydrated form of the salt. The chemical reaction is Na 2 SO 4(s) + 10 H 2

### Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight

Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose

### CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS Problems: 1-8, 11-15, 20-30, 37-88, 107-110, 131-132 13.2 SOLUTIONS: HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES solution: homogeneous mixture of substances present as atoms, ions, and/or molecules solute:

### Chapter 14. Mixtures

Chapter 14 Mixtures Warm Up What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Give 1 example of a heterogeneous mixture and 1 example of a homogeneous mixture. Today s Agenda QOTD:

### Observe and measure the effect of a solute on the freezing point of a solvent. Determine the molar mass of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute

Chapter 10 Experiment: Molar Mass of a Solid OBJECTIVES: Observe and measure the effect of a solute on the freezing point of a solvent. Determine the molar mass of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute

### David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College

Solutions David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College A solution is a HOMOGENEOUS mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. One constituent t is usually regarded as the SOLVENT

### Chapter 7 : Simple Mixtures

Chapter 7 : Simple Mixtures Using the concept of chemical potential to describe the physical properties of a mixture. Outline 1)Partial Molar Quantities 2)Thermodynamics of Mixing 3)Chemical Potentials

### State what factors affect the rate of diffusion and explain how the rate is affected.

Lab 4 Diffusion and Osmosis Lab Objectives Upon completion of this lab you should be able to do the following. Define and/or use properly the following terms: solute, solvent, concentration gradient, diffusion,

### 0.279 M Change g to mol: g/mol = mol Molarity = mol L = mol 0.325L = M

118 ChemQuest 39 Name: Date: Hour: Information: Molarity Concentration is a term that describes the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solution. Concentrated solutions contain a lot of dissolved solute,

### Physical Chemistry. Lecture 34 Colligative Properties of Solutions

Physical Chemistry Lecture 34 Colligative Properties of Solutions Colligative properties Solution properties that reflect the number of particles in solution Vapor-pressure lowering Freezing-point depression

### Chapter 14 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions

John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs Solubility & Intermolecular Forces Solution = homogeneous mixture of substances. It consists of: http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore solvent - component

### Concentration of Solutions and Molarity

Concentration of Solutions and Molarity The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. A dilute solution is one that contains a small

### Solutions. Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions. Lecture Presentation

Lecture Presentation Chapter 13 Properties of Yonsei University homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances: may be gases, liquids, or solids In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout

### Chapter 7. Mixtures Colligative properties Debye-Hückel. Chemical Thermodynamics : Georg Duesberg

Chapter 7 Mitures Colligative properties Debye-Hückel Chemical Thermodynamics : Georg Duesberg Deviations from Raoult s Law Similar liquids can form an ideal solution obeying Raoult s Law Raoult s law

### Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions

Name: Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions [Chapter 10] Objectives: 1. Students will be able to calculate solution concentration using molarity, molality, and mass percent. 2. Students will be able to interpret

### Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions

Chapter 7 s 7.1 s Solute and Solvent s are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. consist of a solvent and one or more solutes. 1 2 Nature of Solutes in s Examples of s Solutes spread evenly throughout

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

A.P. Chemistry Practice Test: Ch. 11, Solutions Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Formation of solutions where the process is

### From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116)

Chem 112 Solutions From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116) 1. Which of the following compounds are nonelectrolytes? A. NaF

### Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns

Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns Predict whether each of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in the nonpolar solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or in water: C 7 H

### Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids

Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition

### Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

### Chapter 12. Solutions. Lecture Presentation

12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Shouldn t Drink Seawater 544 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility 546 12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation 551 12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility

### Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions 13.1 The Solution Process - Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. - In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

### Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression

Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Kyle Miller November 28, 2006 1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the molecular mass of organic compounds which are dissolved in a solvent

### Colligative Properties

CH302 LaBrake and Vanden Bout Colligative Properties PROBLEM #1: Give the molecular formula, the van t hoff factor for the following Ionic Compounds as well as guess the solubility of the compounds. If

### 3.3 Cell Membrane (p. 81)

Name Bio PreAP/GT 3.3 Cell Membrane (p. 81) Cell Membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers. The cell membrane, or the membrane, forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls

### Cellular Transport Notes. Biology 2201

Cellular Transport Notes Biology 2201 About Cell Membranes 1.All cells have a cell membrane 2.Functions: a.controls what enters and exits the cell to maintain an internal balance called homeostasis b.provides

### Molar Mass Determination by Depression of the Freezing Point

Molar Mass Determination by Depression of the Freezing Point February 7, 2012 Adrienne Oxley Lab Partner: Everett Spell Title page includes the name of the experiment, the date, your name and your lab

### FIGURE 2.18. A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged) and hydrophilic (attracted to water).

PLASMA MEMBRANE 1. The plasma membrane is the outermost part of a cell. 2. The main component of the plasma membrane is phospholipids. FIGURE 2.18 A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged)

### 15 Theory of Dilute Solutions

15 15 Theory of Dilute Solutions CHAPTER CONTENTS COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES LOWERING OR VAPOUR PRESSURE : RAOULT S LAW Derivation of Raoult s Law Determination of Molecular mass from lowering of vapour pressure

### Freezing Point Depression, the van t Hoff Factor, and Molar Mass

, the van t Hoff Factor, and Molar Mass Objectives To understand colligative properties. To find the freezing point depression of a solution. To determine the van't Hoff factor for acetic acid dissolved

### BIOL 305L Laboratory Two

Please print Full name clearly: Introduction BIOL 305L Laboratory Two Osmosis, because it is different in plants! Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into

### EXERCISES. 16. What is the ionic strength in a solution containing NaCl in c=0.14 mol/dm 3 concentration and Na 3 PO 4 in 0.21 mol/dm 3 concentration?

EXERISES 1. The standard enthalpy of reaction is 512 kj/mol and the standard entropy of reaction is 1.60 kj/(k mol) for the denaturalization of a certain protein. Determine the temperature range where

### 1. solid, vapor, critical point correct. 2. solid, liquid, critical point. 3. liquid, vapor, critical point. 4. solid, liquid, triple point

mcdonald (pam78654) HW 7B: Equilibria laude (89560) 1 This print-out should have 18 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering. 001 10.0

### Passive and Active Transport

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Background: Passive and Active Transport Substances are routinely transported (received and delivered) across the cell plasma membranes. These substances include compounds,

16.3 Colligative of Solutions > 16.3 Colligative of Solutions > CHEMISTRY & YOU Chapter 16 Solutions 16.1 of Solutions 16.2 Concentrations of Solutions 16.3 Colligative of Solutions 16.4 Calculations Involving

### Name Date Class. SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477)

16 SOLUTIONS SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477) This section identifies the factors that affect the solubility of a substance and determine the rate at which a solute dissolves. Solution

### Chapter 13 part 4: Colligative Properties

Chapter 13 part 4: Colligative Properties Read: BLB 13.5-13.6 HW: BLB 13:9, 58, 61, 67, 69, 75 Packet 13:13-18 Know:, Colloids!vapor pressure lowering Raoult s Law: P A = X A P A!boiling point elevation

### 1. Define and give an example of the following:

Name: KEY Date: / / HR: Section 1 Chemistry of Life CHAPTER 3 CELL PROCESSES REVIEW 1. Define and give an example of the following: a. Atoms invisible particles that make up all mater; made from protons,

### Introduction to Body Fluids

Introduction to Body Fluids Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Introduction to Body Fluids The fluids in your body

### 8.2 Cell Transport. **The cell must move different substances into and out of the cell. **8.2 discusses the different methods of cell transport

8.2 Bellringer.. (1)In your own words, define passive, active, and transport Now, imagine sitting in a boat that is moving downstream with the current. Then, imagine a small motor to move the same boat

### Transporting molecules across cell membranes. Nutrients, wastes, hormones, ions

Transporting molecules across cell membranes Nutrients, wastes, hormones, ions Recall phospholipid bilayer It s a barrier! Only a small subset of molecules may pass through without help Cell membrane Sense

### Solutions and Colligative Properties

46 Objective MHT-CET Chemistry 2 Solutions and Colligative Properties 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Types of Solutions 2.3 Concentration of Solutions of Solids in Liquids 2.4 Solubility of Gases in Liquids 2.5

### Introduction to Body Fluids

-1- Introduction to Body Fluids Graphics are used with permission of : adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) Page 1: Introduction to Body Fluids The fluids

### water Passive transport moves solute from high to low concentration b) In active transport how do solutes move along their concentration gradient?

Membrane Transport Model 1: Active versus Passive Transport Body fluids are solutions of water and dissolved solutes (ions, glucose, amino acids, etc.). The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable barrier

### EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES

EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES Purpose: 1. To investigate the phenomenon of solution conductance. 2. To distinguish between compounds that form conducting solutions and compounds that

### CHAPTER 13: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08

CHAPTER 13: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08 13.21 The solubility of Cr(NO 3 ) 3 9 H 2 O in water is 208 g per 100 g of water at 15 C. A solution of Cr(NO 3 ) 3

### BIOLOGY 12 - Cell Membrane and Cell Wall Function: Chapter Notes

BIOLOGY 12 - Cell Membrane and Cell Wall Function: Chapter Notes The cell membrane is the gateway into the cell, and must allow needed things such as nutrients into the cell without letting them escape.

### A) HCl C) 52 g KCl in 100 g water at 80ºC A) temperature of the solution increases B) supersaturated D) low temperature and high pressure D) KClO3

1. Which compound becomes less soluble in water as the temperature of the solution is increased? A) HCl B) 2. The solubility of O3(s) in water increases as the A) temperature of the solution increases

### Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent

1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent % (v/v) = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution filled

### Two Ways to Form Solutions. Role of Disorder in Solutions 2/27/2012. Types of Reactions

Role of Disorder in Solutions Disorder (Entropy) is a factor Solutions mix to form maximum disorder Two Ways to Form Solutions 1. Physical Dissolving (Solvation) NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) C 12 H 22

### Determination of Molar Mass by Boiling Point Elevation of Urea Solution

Determination of Molar Mass by Boiling Point Elevation of Urea Solution CHRISTIAN E. MADU, PhD AND BASSAM ATTILI, PhD COLLIN COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT Purpose of the Experiment Determine the boiling

### Colligative Properties - Freezing Point Depression

Purpose To observe freezing point depression of different solutions and calculate the molar mass of commercial antifreeze. Introduction In winter, trucks dispense dirt and salt onto the roads and antifreeze