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1 Monuments (and Landmarks) Classroom Activity The Classroom Activity introduces students to the context of a performance task, so they are not disadvantaged in demonstrating the skills the task intends to assess. Contextual elements include: an understanding of the setting or situation in which the task is placed, potentially unfamiliar concepts that are associated with the scenario; and key terms or vocabulary students will need to understand in order to meaningfully engage with and complete the performance task. The Classroom Activity is also intended to generate student interest in further exploration of the key idea(s). The Classroom Activity should be easy to implement with clear instructions. Please read through the entire Classroom Activity before beginning the activity with students to ensure any classroom preparation can be completed in advance. Throughout the activity it is permissible to pause and ask students if they have any questions. Resources Needed: Chart paper, whiteboard, or chalkboard Pencils Markers or chalk Some method of displaying ancillary materials 1 Learning Goal: Students will understand the context of the key concepts related to the topic: o The purpose that monuments and landmarks serve o The effects that monuments and landmarks have on communities Students will understand the key terms: monument: a statue or other structure built in remembrance of a person or event landmark: an object or a feature of a landscape that is easily recognized, and that has some significance collaboration: the act of working together to achieve a goal funding: money provided, especially by an organization or government, for a particular purpose Note: Definitions are provided here for the convenience of the facilitator. Students are expected to understand these key terms in the context of the task, not memorize the definitions. Monuments and Landmarks Classroom Activity [Purpose: The facilitator s goal is to help students understand the purpose of monuments and landmarks, and to introduce the variety of forms that such human-made and natural structures can take. This activity will allow students to be active participants as they explore the concept of monuments and landmarks in the context of the performance assessment.] 1 Facilitators can decide whether they want to display ancillary materials using an overhead projector or computer/smartboard, or whether they want to produce them as a handout for students.

2 Facilitator says: Today, we will prepare for the Monuments and Landmarks Performance Task. First, a monument is a structure built in remembrance of a person or event. The monuments we will look at today memorialize important people or events in history. To memorialize is to do or create something that causes people to remember a person or event. Can anyone think of an example of a famous monument? [Allow time for responses.] Facilitator says: Sometimes, a memorial is placed as a landmark an object that is easily recognized to identify the location where the important event has happened. However, not all landmarks are created; some are simply land features, such as the Grand Canyon. As we look at different landmarks and monuments today, think about why each one might have been built, what you know about it, and any reactions you might have to it. [Take students on a virtual tour of some famous monuments and landmarks using the pictures provided in Figure 1: Famous Monuments and Landmarks. Display and describe one picture at a time, allowing students to share any prior knowledge. Note student responses in the box to the right of each picture. If necessary, prompt students with questions such as: What do you know about this monument/landmark, or about its subject? Why do you think this monument/landmark was constructed? What emotional response do you think people may have to this monument? [For possible answers, see Famous Monuments and Landmarks: Facilitator Information below.] Facilitator says: We may not give much thought to the construction of the monuments we see today, but a lot of planning and collaboration or people working together are needed before a monument is built. An artist s design must be accepted, community groups must approve it, and the government must be sure that there is enough money to fund, or pay for, the construction. Note: The following section may be modified to accommodate various teacher-student interaction types such as a teacher-led discussion with the entire class, teacher-student discussion for remote locations with a single student, or small groups. Facilitator says: Now that we have discussed the purposes of monuments and landmarks, it s your turn to become virtual tour guides. [Display Figure 2: The Alamo Cenotaph Memorial. Note: For students who are visually impaired, the image will be described in the section below.] Facilitator says: Look at the photograph of the Alamo Cenotaph Memorial and listen as I read the information displayed below. As I read, think about the purpose that it has served in the past or present, whether it was human-made or naturally occurring, and the emotional response it may cause in others. [Read the paragraph displayed under the photograph of the Alamo Cenotaph Memorial. Then, initiate a class discussion about its purpose, means of creation, and emotional responses it may evoke. Discussion questions may include: What purpose does the Alamo Cenotaph Memorial serve? How was this purpose achieved? Is this Cenotaph a human-made or naturally occurring landmark?

3 What is important about its location? What emotional response does the Cenotaph cause in its visitors? [Note student responses in the appropriate section of the box to the right of the photograph. For answers, see The Alamo Cenotaph Memorial: Facilitator Information below.] Facilitator says: You will learn more about monuments and landmarks in the performance task you will be completing. Monuments are a way to memorialize important people or events in history. You are now ready to complete your performance task.

4 Ancillary Material Figure 1 Monuments and Landmarks Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Washington, DC Picture Description: This statue is part of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial. It shows King standing with his arms crossed as he gazes off into the distance. An inscription on the side of the statue reads, I was a drum major for justice, peace, and righteousness.

5 Picture Description: This is the Paul Revere statue, located in a park in Boston. The statue shows Revere riding on his horse, his right arm outstretched as he makes his historic ride. Paul Revere Statue Boston, Massachusetts

6 Picture Description: This shows Mount St. Helens from a distance, releasing a plume of smoke from the central part of the volcano. Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Castle Rock, Washington

7 Ancillary Material Monuments and Landmarks: Facilitator Information Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Washington, DC Description of Monument/Subject: Monument of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. The main statue, which measures 30 feet high, shows King looking toward the horizon. Parts of the monument include quotations from King s sermons and speeches. Purpose for construction: Built to honor King s accomplishments in achieving equal rights for all citizens, regardless of race or color. The statue also provides a reminder of the importance of King s goals, and of the necessity of his work being continued. Possible emotional responses: pride, hope Picture Description: This statue is part of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial. It shows King standing with his arms crossed as he gazes off into the distance. An inscription on the side of the statue reads, I was a drum major for justice, peace, and righteousness.

8 Paul Revere Statue Boston, Massachusetts Description of Monument/Subject: Monument of Paul Revere, a patriot of the American Revolution. In 1775, Revere rode his horse from Boston to Lexington, Massachusetts (a distance of about 11 miles), to warn his countrymen that the British army was approaching. The statue shows Revere in the midst of his famous ride. Today, it is one of the most recognized landmarks in Boston. Purpose for construction: Built to honor Revere s role in the American Revolution, which gained America its independence from Great Britain. It stands as a symbol of freedom, courage, and strength. Possible emotional responses: patriotism, pride Picture Description: This is the Paul Revere statue, located in a park in Boston. The statue shows Revere riding on his horse, his right arm outstretched as he makes his historic ride.

9 Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Castle Rock, Washington Description of Monument/Subject: A United States National Monument that includes the region surrounding Mount St. Helens, an active volcano. Mount St. Helens last erupted in 1980, causing a great deal of destruction in the area. Purpose for construction: The Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was created to preserve the mountain and surrounding land in its natural state, and allow it to be studied by researchers. It also serves as a reminder of the damage caused by the eruption. Possible emotional responses: awe, wonder Picture Description: This shows Mount St. Helens from a distance, releasing a plume of smoke from the central part of the volcano. Sources:

10 Ancillary Material Figure 2 The Alamo Cenotaph Memorial The Alamo Cenotaph Memorial San Antonio, Texas Purpose: Human-made/Natural: Emotional Response: Picture Description: This is a picture of the Alamo Cenotaph Memorial, located in Alamo Plaza in San Antonio, Texas. Its rectangular base is made of granite. On top of the base, surrounding the marble shaft of the monument, are carvings of the soldiers who defended the Alamo in The monument is 60 feet high. In San Antonio, Texas, the Alamo Cenotaph memorializes the men who defended the 1836 mission during the Battle of the Alamo. This 60-foot-high marble tower is titled The Spirit of Sacrifice. It acts as a landmark of the spot where many brave defenders were laid to rest after the battle. Decorated along the sides of the Cenotaph are carvings of the Alamo defenders. A list of the names of the

11 defenders wraps around the monument, including famous men like David Crockett and Jim Bowie. Visitors from around the country come to the Alamo Cenotaph with a sense of patriotism to honor these past defenders of the United States.

12 Ancillary Material The Alamo Cenotaph Memorial: Facilitator Information ANSWER KEY Purpose: It serves as a remembrance of the men who defended the 1836 mission during the battle of the Alamo. The list of names and carvings decorating the Cenotaph are a tribute to the bravery and sacrifices of these men. Human-made/Natural: The Alamo Cenotaph is a man-made landmark of the spot where the defenders were laid to rest. Emotional Response: It evokes a sense of patriotism in visitors from around the country. Picture Description: This is a picture of the Alamo Cenotaph Memorial, located in Alamo Plaza in San Antonio, Texas. Its rectangular base is made of granite. On top of the base, surrounding the marble shaft of the monument, are carvings of the soldiers who defended the Alamo in The monument is 60 feet high.

13 Sources: _n_ html

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