Global Population ( )

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1 Population and Global Migration Issues I. Issues & Concepts in Global Population II. Trends in Global Migration III. Explanations of Immigration IV. Paths of Immigration V. Immigration Policy Issues in Wealthy Countries VI. The Evolution of Immigration Flows in the USA I. Issues & Concepts in Global Population The specter of overpopulation From Thomas Malthus forward, people have worried that human population might exceed the carrying capacity the maximum population size that can be supported without irreversibly damaging the environment The demographic transition As populations become more affluent & as women become more educated, family size shrinks Eventually this puts at risk the replacement rate of human fertility (currently 2.1 children per couple) The North-South divide The wealthy North is home to shrinking populations The poorer South is home to expanding populations with higher fertility rates and with gains in life expectancy On balance, the pace of global population growth has slowed. However, it has accelerated in the poorest countries. Global Population ( )

2 Population Growth Rates ( ) II. Trends in Global Migration The rising pace of migration worldwide million people residing outside their country of birth in [SOURCE: UN Population Division, July 2012 estimate] More than double the 1975 total The pace of international migration has picked up from the 1970s forward 3 percent of the world s population Where are the international migrants? About 60% in wealthy countries (127 million people) This equals 10.3% of wealthy countries populations up from around 8% in 2000 The largest total number is found in Europe 70 million (9.5% of Europe s population) But migrants form a bigger the population in USA, Canada, Australia, & New Zealand 50 million in USA & Canada (14.5% of population) 5.7 million in Australia & New Zealand (21.3% of population)

3 Size and Growth of Migrant Stock, Change from 1990 to World 153,956, ,199, % 39.1% More developed regions 81,424, ,761, % 56.9% Less developed regions 72,531,000 86,437, % 19.2% Africa 16,221,000 19,263, % 18.8% Asia 49,956,000 61,295, % 22.7% Europe 48,437,000 69,869, % 44.2% Latin America & Caribbean 6,994,000 7,714, % 10.3% North America 27,597,000 50,042, % 81.3% Oceania 4,751,000 6,014, % 26.6% III. Explanations of Immigration Contemporary logistical obstacles are smaller global transportation paths are quicker & more heavily traveled than ever before making migration more feasible for more people expanded global reach of mass media via internet, TV & movies making faraway countries seem closer & more familiar more people than ever before have telephones (or, at least, access to telephones) making communication with relatives, friends, & acquaintances abroad more cheaper & more frequent easier & cheaper to send money overseas than ever before making it possible to work in one country to support family members in one s home country Push factors (sending country characteristics) Poor economic conditions Failed states concerns re: violence & crime Population growth faster than in wealthy countries Income inequality within the sending country between sending country & receiving country Pull factors (receiving country traits that make it attractive to global migrants) Gain in earning potential &/or safety Kinship networks in receiving country Migrant remittance mechanisms Earning money abroad to support family in home country

4 IV. Paths of Immigration Legal immigration Labor visas Typically the smallest legal immigration Family reunification The largest slice of legal immigration Humanitarian immigration (asylum & refugee claims) This path of legal entry is in decline Lower levels in the 21 st century than in the late 20 th century Illegal immigration With fewer legal routes available relative to demand, there are increasing attempts at illegal entry into all wealthy countries Thrives on vigorous open labor markets, especially for the unskilled The availability of better paying jobs -- and the lack of labor visas -- fuel most illegal immigration worldwide V. Immigration Policy Issues in Wealthy Countries Half of global migration from 1990 to was from the poorer South to wealthy Northern countries In the South, the major concern raised is the brain drain effect of talented, hard-working people leaving their home countries In the North, the rise in immigration over the past two decades has given it a higher political profile Immigration enhances cultural diversity & brings with it cultural change & new societal challenges there are many hurdles faced by immigrants family separation, language acquisition, culture shock, homesickness, etc. some in the native-born population may also feel challenged some may fear cultural change & customs unknown to them some may raise socioeconomic concerns Public opinion polls show increased public concern in some portions of each wealthy country s population with the consequences of immigration However, without these immigration inflows, wealthy Northern countries would face even greater demographic & economic pressures associated with aging populations & low birthrates

5 VI. The Evolution of Immigration Flows in the USA Immigration rose from the mid-nineteenth century through World War I the total flow was the highest in the first decade of the 20 th century (8.8 million from ) as a the total population, immigration peaked in 1890 (14.8%) from 1870 to 1920, immigrants consistently comprised between 13.2% and 14.8% of the U.S. population Efforts to restrict immigration via national-origins quotas begin with the 1924 Immigration Act these policy changes limited immigration from the major source countries of southern and eastern Europe during the interwar era Immigration flows recovered over the second half of the 20 th century total flow increased each decade from the 1940s forward (10.5m in 2001-) even the surge of the 1990s and 2000s did not bring the immigrant the population up to the levels of the years 1870 to 1920 the immigrant the U.S. population rose from 7.9% in 1990 to 12.9% in the source countries of U.S. immigrants shifted from Europe to Latin America and Asia Flows of U.S. Immigration ( )

6 Total U.S. Stock of Immigrants in raw numbers & as a share (1850-) Region of Birth for the Foreign-Born Population of the U.S. (1850-) Europe Canada Latin America Asia Africa Oceania % 6.7% 0.9% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% % 8.9% 1.0% 1.2% 0.0% 0.1% % 10.6% 1.2% 1.2% 0.0% 0.1% % 9.0% 2.1% 1.4% 0.0% 0.1% % 9.2% 5.6% 1.9% 0.1% 0.1% % 9.8% 9.4% 5.1% 0.4% 0.4% % 8.7% 19.4% 8.9% 0.9% 0.4% % 6.5% 33.1% 19.3% 1.5% 0.6% % 4.0% 44.3% 26.3% 1.9% 0.5% % 2.7% 51.7% 26.4% 2.8% 0.5% 12.1% 2.0% 52.9% 28.4% 4.0% 0.5%

7 Immigration into Harrisonburg & into Virginia Change from 1990 to 2000 Change from 2000 to Canada 4,318, % 5,826, % 7,202, % 34.9% 23.6% United States 23,251, % 34,988, % 42,813, % 50.5% 22.4% France 5,906, % 6,277, % 6,684, % 6.3% 6.5% Germany 5,936, % 7,349, % 10,758, % 23.8% 46.4% United Kingdom 3,753, % 4,029, % 6,451, % 7.3% 60.1% Italy 1,346, % 1,634, % 4,463, % 21.4% 173.2% Japan 877, % 1,620, % 2,176, % 84.7% 34.3% AVERAGE 7.5% 8.8% 11.2% 32.7% 52.4% Harrisonburg, VA % 3, % 6, % 404.5% 86.2% VIRGINIA 311, % 570, % 894, % 82.9% 56.8%

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