Focus Question. Essential Questions. August Comte. Sociology. Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought. How did the field of sociology develop?

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1 Focus Question What is social Darwinism? 1-2: Sociology: Then and Now Sociology Essential Questions How did the field of sociology develop? In what ways do the three main theoretical perspectives in sociology differ in their focus? How did the field of sociology develop? Sociology did not develop until the 1800s Rapid social and political changes in Europe as a result of the Industrial Revolution Growth of cities, new urban populations produced a multitude of social problems Over time, it became more difficult to ignore the effect of society on the individual Sweeping political, social, and economic changes Scholars questioned traditional explanations of life and attempted to prove their beliefs using a variety of methods Prominent Contributors to Sociological Thought Auguste Comte Harriet Martineau Herbert Spencer Karl Marx The time lines shown Émile Durkeim here give an idea of Jane Addams relative chronology George Herbert Mead Max Weber Charles Horton Cooley W.E.B. Du Bois Talcott Parsons 1910 Robert Merton C. Wright Mills Erving Goffman August Comte coined the term sociology as the science of human behavior considered founder of sociology as distinct subject; studied basic issues of order and change; ideas regarding society refuted Social dynamics 1

2 Harriet Martineau English social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist. studied social behavior in England and the United States sociological methods How to Observe Morals and Manners believed that some very general social laws influence the life of any society. Herbert Spencer influenced by Darwin s biological model of society; social change and unrest are natural occurrences in evolution toward stability and perfection; coined phrase survival of the fittest Karl Marx believed the structure of society is influenced by how its economy is organized; his emphasis on conflict led to conflict theory Emile Durkheim concerned with problem of social order; held functionalist view of society; A function is the consequence that an element of society produces for the maintenance of its social system. study what is directly observable; 1897 study, Suicide Jane Addams combined sociology with activism pioneer settlement worker, Hull House, public philosopher, sociologist, author, woman suffragist & world peace leader st American woman awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. George Herbert Mead American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general. 2

3 Max Weber taught the need for insight in intellectual work focused on effect of society on individual; with Verstehen one puts oneself in the place of others to see through their eyes Ideal Type description of the essential characteristics of some aspect of society. Charles Horton Cooley taught economics and sociology at the University of Michigan founding member and the 8 th president of the American Sociological Association looking glass self pioneered work on small groups within society W.E.B. DuBois intellectual leader in the US: sociologist historian civil rights activist Pan-Africanist author editor Talcott Parsons Harvard University analyzed the work of Émile Durkheim and Vilfredo Pareto - voluntaristic action. Max Weber Robert K. Merton Creation of terms: unintended consequences, reference group, role strain, role model, self-fulfilling prophecy Social roles worked on deviant behavior and crime Approaches to the study of Sociology Macro & Micro C. Wright Mills The Sociological Imagination The Power Elite 3

4 Erving Goffman Secret Identities (Charades) Canadian born sociologist and writer. The 73 rd president of American Sociological Association symbolic interaction The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Split into 4 groups. Each group will come up and pick a sociologist we have just studied and portray him to the other students is his/her group. (Clues are available) Once you start, your group will then have 60 seconds to guess. If time runs out, then it will go to the next group in order. They will have 10 seconds to answer correctly. After 10 seconds the third group will be allowed 10 seconds of their own to answer the question. First answer only will be accepted for the second and third guesses. What is Sociological Theory? Theory: An attempt to explain events, forces, materials, ideas or behavior in a comprehensive manner. Sociological Theories: Seek to explain problems, actions, or behavior. Effective theories should explain and predict. Sociologists employ theories to examine the relationships between observations or data that may seem completely unrelated. Race of Victims in Death Penalty Cases Functionalist Perspective Views society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole. Each part must contribute or it will not be passed on from one generation to the next. Focus on functions and dysfunctions Functions Manifest Function the intended and recognized consequence of some element of society. Latent Function the unintended and unrecognized consequence of the element of society. Dysfunctions negative consequence an elements has for the stability of the social system Conflict Perspective Assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups. Conflict is not necessarily violent. Conflict can be over economics or over competing values. 4

5 Conflict Perspective The Marxist View: Conflict is seen not merely as a class phenomenon but as a part of everyday life in all societies. This view emphasizes social change and redistribution of resources, making conflict theorists more radical than functionalists. Conflict Perspective A Racial View: W.E.B. DuBois: Encourages sociologists to view society through the eyes of those segments of the population that rarely influence decision making. Sociology, contended DuBois, had to draw on scientific principles to study social problems such as those experienced by Blacks in the United States. Interactionist Perspective Generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole. Interactionism is a sociological framework for viewing human beings as living in a world of meaningful objects. These objects may include material things, actions, other people, relationships, and even symbols. Symbol anything that represents something else. Symbolic Interaction how people use symbols when interacting. Comparing Major Theoretical Perspectives Functionalist Conflict Interactionist View of society Stable, well integrated Characterized by Active in influencing and tension & struggle affecting everyday social between groups interaction Level of Macro Macro Micro analysis as a way analysis of understanding the emphasized larger macro phenomena Key concepts Manifest functions Inequality Symbols Latent functions Capitalism Nonverbal communication Dysfunction Stratification Face-to-face interaction View of the People are socialized to People are shaped People manipulate individual perform societal by power, coercion, symbols and create their functions and authority social worlds through interaction Comparing Major Theoretical Perspectives Functionalist Conflict Interactionist View of the Maintained through Maintained through Maintained by shared social order cooperation and force and coercion understanding of consensus everyday behavior View of social Predictable, reinforcing Change takes place Reflected in people s change all the time and may social positions and their have positive communications with others consequences Example Public punishments Laws reinforce the People respect laws or reinforce the social positions of those disobey them based on order in power their own past experience Proponents Émile Durkheim Karl Marx George Herbert Mead Talcott Parsons W. E. B. Du Bois Charles Horton Cooley Robert Merton Ida Wells-Barnett Erving Goffman Categorizing Using a graphic organizer similar to the one below, categorize information regarding the early sociologists and their theoretical perspectives. Early Sociologist Topics of Interest Theoretical Approach Comte Spencer Durkheim Marx Weber 5

6 Categorizing Your completed table should look like this: Early Sociologist Topics of Interest Theoretical Approach Comte Social order and social change Functionalist Spencer Social Darwinism Functionalist Durkheim Function of different elements of society in maintaining social order Functionalist Marx Social effects of economic power imbalances and class conflict Conflict Weber Effect of society on the individual and the meanings individuals attach to their actions Interactionist 6

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