# Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction We have learned that entropy is used to quantify the extent of disorder resulting from the dispersal of matter in a system. Also; entropy, like enthalpy and internal energy, is a state function and can be calculated for any isothermal changes using: qrev S = Suniv = Ssystem + Ssurroundings > 0 Third Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero, 0 K, is zero. Single microstate due to lack of all molecular motion. No: Translation motion = motion thru space Vibrational motion = bond bending and stretching Rotational motion = spinning in space on an axis T But, what about the entropy of a chemical reaction where the system is not isothermal? Standard Entropies Given that the entropy of a pure crystalline solid is zero at absolute zero, entropies of elements and compounds in their pure states can be calculated under some given environmental conditions (usually standard state, 1 atm, 298 K) These are called standard molar entropies. Standard molar entropies can be found in Appendix C Notice, standard molar entropies for pure substances are not equal to zero. Larger and more complex molecules have greater entropies. 1

2 Entropy Changes for Reactions Entropy changes for a reaction, or non-isothermal systems, can be estimated in a manner analogous to that by which H is estimated: 1. Calculate the entropy change entropy change of the system for the combustion of ethanol under standard state conditions. S sys = Σn S (products) - Σm S (reactants) where n and m are the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. Our question now becomes, does the combustion of ethanol occur spontaneously? The 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics states that the entropy of the universe is always increased for spontaneous reactions. S univ = S system + S surroundings > 0 So, if we know something about the entropy of the universe, we can know something about the spontaneity of the reaction. To determine if the combustion of ethanol is a spontaneous reaction, we must determine the entropy change of the surroundings and compare to the entropy change of the system to see if the total entropy of the universe is increased. To do this, we should recognize that the surroundings serve essentially as a large constant-temperature heat source (or heat sink); therefore, we can think of the universe as an isothermal system. We know that for the surroundings, as an isothermal system: S surr = q rev / T From the first law of thermodynamics: q surr = -q sys From thermochemistry: q sys = H sys q surr = - H o sys Therefore: S surr = - H o sys / T So, the entropy of the surroundings is described by the heat transferred to the system per unit Kelvin. And H o sys can be calculated from: H sys = Σn H o f (prod) - Σn Ho f (react) 2

3 Again, using the 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics and the definition of change in entropy as: 2. Now determine if the combustion of ethanol is spontaneous. S univ = S sys + S surr If: S univ > 0 S univ < 0 S univ = 0 Then: spontaneous rxn Non spontaneous rxn Reversible Equilibrium 3. Prove that the dissolution of sodium chloride in aqueous solution is a spontaneous reaction under standard state conditions. Theretofore, we have been able to use the change in enthalpy of a system and the change of entropy of a system to attempt to predict the spontaneity of a reaction. Examine: 2C 4 H 10 (g) + 13O 2 (g) 9CO 2 (g) + 10H 2 O (g) H o = kj S o = J/K The data suggest that combustion of butane, like all combustion reactions, must be spontaneous. Energy is given off and the disorder increases. Therefore, for any process: H o sys S o sys Spontaneous - + Yes, always + - No, Never But, what about systems where enthalpy favors the reaction but entropy does not, or visa versa? Exothermic processes (favored by energy dispersal) are less likely to be spontaneous at high temperatures when entropy is not favored (nonfavored matter dispersal) Because: S surr = - H o sys / T; The higher the temperature, the smaller the value of S surr 3

4 Endothermic process (disfavored by energy dispersal) are more likely to be spontaneous at high temperatures when entropy is favored (favored matter dispersal) For example: Thermal Decomposition Endothermic Positive entropy Likely at high temperatures So, H o sys S o sys Spontaneous - + Yes, always + - No, Never - - Most likely at low T s + + Most likely at High T s 1. Identify the following reactions as spontaneous, non-spontaneous, more likely at low temperatures or more likely at high temperatures: H o sys S o sys A. CH 4 (g) 2O 2 (g) 2H 2 O (l) + CO B. Graphite + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) C. 2Fe 2 O 3 (s) + C 4Fe (s) + 3CO 2 (g) A. N 2 (g) + 3 F 2 (g) 2NF 3 (g) What if there were a single thermodynamic function that could determine the spontaneity of a process as a function of both enthalpy and entropy? There is: G o sys = H o sys- T S o sys Gibbs Free Energy = energy of a system available to do useful work under standard state conditions. From: S univ = S surr + S sys And: S surr = - H o sys / T We get: S univ = - H o sys / T + S sys Rearranged: -T S univ = H o sys - T S sys Gibbs defined the change in free energy as: G sys = -T S univ Therefore: G sys = H o sys - T S sys Examine: C graphite + 2H 2 (g) CH 4 (g) H o sys = kj S o sys = J/K Energy is released, however, some energy is required to re-order the system since S is negative. Therefore, there is less free energy G o sys = kj 4

5 G o sys < 0, G o sys > 0, G o sys = 0, Work is available and therefore, the process is spontaneous No free work therefore, the process is not spontaneous Reversible process, at equilibrium 4. Calculate the standard free energy change for the formation of methane at 298 K. Use the enthalpy and entropy data in the appendices. G o rxn = Ho rxn - T So rxn 5. Is this reaction spontaneous? Standard Free Energies ( G o f ) = the free energy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of any compound from its free elements in their standard states (1atm, 298 K). Notice, (appendix C) the standard free energy of a pure substance in its standard state is zero. G o rxn = Σ G fo (products) - Σ G fo (reactants) Note that G f for an element = 0 6. Applying Hess Law, determine the enthalpy change, entropy change and free energy change for the oxidation of one mole of sulfur dioxide gas to form sulfur trioxide gas, then determine if the reaction is spontaneous and what drives the reaction. Remember, because H and S are state functions, G is also an additive state function. 7. Calculate the free energy change for the formation of carbon dioxide gas from the oxidation of both diamond and graphite forms of carbon. Under standard state conditions. Then, calculate the change in free energy for the conversion of diamond to graphite under standard state conditions. (Hess Law) 5

6 The definition of free energy, G = H TS, shows us that free energy is a function of temperature. G changes as the temperature changes. As a consequence, in certain instances, reactions can be spontaneous at one T and non-spontaneous at another. These instances arise when enthalpy and entropy are opposite as we have seen before. H o sys S o sys G o sys Spontaneous - + Always - Yes, always + - Always + No, Never - -? Most likely at low T s + +? Most likely at High T s Gibbs Free Energy can also be used to identify the temperature at which a system becomes spontaneous Remember, when G = 0, the system is reversible, meaning at equilibrium. Therefore if the change in free energy drops below zero, it is spontaneous. If the change in free energy rises above zero, it in nonspontaneous. 8. Use thermodynamics to estimate the boiling point of methanol. This is only an estimate because we are assuming that both enthalpy and entropy do not change with temp. 9. Calculate the boiling point of bromine using information in appendix C. 6

### Unit 5 Practice Test. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Unit 5 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The internal energy of a system is always increased by. A) adding

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot

### Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

### CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

### Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry)

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit

### Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

### STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I PREPARED BY: NICOLE HELDT SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

### The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below.

Q. Methanol can be made when methane reacts with oxygen. (a) The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below. (i) What is the energy change represented by A? () (ii) Use the energy level diagram

### Chapter 8 Maxwell relations and measurable properties

Chapter 8 Maxwell relations and measurable properties 8.1 Maxwell relations Other thermodynamic potentials emerging from Legendre transforms allow us to switch independent variables and give rise to alternate

### Boyle s law - For calculating changes in pressure or volume: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2. Charles law - For calculating temperature or volume changes: V 1 T 1

Common Equations Used in Chemistry Equation for density: d= m v Converting F to C: C = ( F - 32) x 5 9 Converting C to F: F = C x 9 5 + 32 Converting C to K: K = ( C + 273.15) n x molar mass of element

### Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines

AP Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Visit the College

### Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

### Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

### Temperature. Temperature

Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

### Chemistry Final Study Guide

Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

### Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

### GENERAL CHEMISTRY II Lecture & Recitation

Howard University Department of Chemistry Fall 2010 GENERAL CHEMISTRY II Lecture & Recitation Chem 004, Section 04, CRN 82454; Section 05, CRN 82456; Section 06, CRN 82458 4 Credit Hours Course Time &

### Chemia Fizyczna Physical chemistry

Załącznik do zarządzenia nr 110 Rektora UMK z dnia 17 lipca 2013 r. Formularz opisu przedmiotu (formularz sylabusa) na studiach wyższych, doktoranckich, podyplomowych i kursach dokształcających A. Ogólny

### ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005

ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005 OBJECTIVES Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses Formulate predictions, questions, or hypotheses

### (1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

### Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

### CHEM 110 A Chemistry I

Columbia College Online Campus P a g e 1 CHEM 110 A Chemistry I Early Fall Session (15-51) Monday, August 17 Saturday, October 10, 2015 Course Description Fundamental course in the principles of chemistry.

### Name: Class: Date: 2) Which one of the following exhibits dipole-dipole attraction between molecules? A) XeF 4 B) AsH 3 C) CO 2 D) BCl 3 E) Cl 2

Name: Class: Date: IM Bonding 1) In liquids, the attractive intermolecular forces are. A) very weak compared with kinetic energies of the molecules B) strong enough to hold molecules relatively close together

### CHAPTER 13 Chemical Kinetics: Clearing the Air

CHAPTER 13 Chemical Kinetics: Clearing the Air 13.1. Collect and Organize For the plot of Figure P13.1, we are to identify which curves represent [N O] and [O ] over time for the conversion of N O to N

### Combustion Reactions An Example of Change Taking Place in Our World

Combustion Reactions An Example of Change Taking Place in Our World by Jane and Ken, period 3 How to... Define a combustion reaction Recognize and identify a reaction Predict the products for a reaction

### The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Objectives MAE 320 - Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill,

### English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1.

96 Chapter 7: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written showing a few individual atoms or molecules reacting to form a few atoms or molecules of products.

### Feasibility Analysis of Ternary Feed Mixtures of Methane with Oxygen, Steam, and Carbon Dioxide for the Production of Methanol Synthesis Gas

1410 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1998, 37, 1410-1421 Feasibility Analysis of Ternary Feed Mixtures of Methane with Oxygen, Steam, and Carbon Dioxide for the Production of Methanol Synthesis Gas George J. Tjatjopoulos*,

### H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1

Section 1.1: Alkanes Mini Investigation: Arranging Carbon Atoms, page 10 A. Three different molecules of C 5 H 12 are possible. B. Five arrangements are possible for C 6 H 14, as predicted: H 3 C CH 2

### AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions

AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. AP Central is the official online

### Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School

Prentice Hall Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School C-1.1 Apply established rules for significant digits,

### = 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

### Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

### Technical Thermodynamics

Technical Thermodynamics Chapter 2: Basic ideas and some definitions Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Egon Hassel University of Rostock, Germany Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Ship Building Institute of Technical

### ME 201 Thermodynamics

ME 0 Thermodynamics Second Law Practice Problems. Ideally, which fluid can do more work: air at 600 psia and 600 F or steam at 600 psia and 600 F The maximum work a substance can do is given by its availablity.

### Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

### Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

### The final numerical answer given is correct but the math shown does not give that answer.

Note added to Homework set 7: The solution to Problem 16 has an error in it. The specific heat of water is listed as c 1 J/g K but should be c 4.186 J/g K The final numerical answer given is correct but

### CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS

CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS Natural gases either from natural production or storage reservoirs contain water, which condense and form solid gas hydrates to block pipeline flow

### AP Chemistry 2006 Free-Response Questions

AP Chemistry 006 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college

### Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer (THMT 09) Poiseuille flow of liquid methane in nanoscopic graphite channels by molecular dynamics simulation

Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer (THMT 09) Poiseuille flow of liquid methane in nanoscopic graphite channels by molecular dynamics simulation Sapienza Università di Roma, September 14, 2009 M. T. HORSCH,

### Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

### Efficiency and Open Circuit Voltage

2 Efficiency and Open Circuit Voltage In this chapter we consider the efficiency of fuel cells how it is defined and calculated, and what the limits are. The energy considerations give us information about

### Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

### Energy Savings in Methanol Synthesis : Use of Heat Integration Techniques and Simulation Tools.

Page 1 Energy Savings in Methanol Synthesis : Use of Heat Integration Techniques and Simulation Tools. François Maréchal a, Georges Heyen a, Boris Kalitventzeff a,b a L.A.S.S.C., Université de Liège, Sart-Tilman

### Hydrogen Production by Nuclear Heat

Hydrogen Production by Nuclear Heat Leanne M. Crosbie January 6, 2003 THE ENERGY CARRIER OF THE FUTURE Research and development is constantly underway to create the next generation energy technology. It

### Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry The Southeastern Dual Enrollment Chemistry Program is a program whereby high school students are given the opportunity to take college

### ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1. NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire.

ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1 DISTILLATION NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. The most common methods of distillation are simple distillation

### Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Unit 11 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Crystalline solids. A) have their particles arranged randomly B) have

### Stoichiometry CHAPTER 12

CHAPTER 1 Stoichiometry What You ll Learn You will write mole ratios from balanced chemical equations. You will calculate the number of moles and the mass of a reactant or product when given the number

### Instructional Notes/Strategies. GLEs. Evidence / Assessments of learning Knowledge/Synthesis. Resources # SI-1 (E)

Lafayette Parish School System Curriculum Map Honors Chemistry (Pearson) Unit 1: Introduction to Chemistry Time Frame 1 week August 15 August 21, 2011 Unit Description - This unit focuses on Why It Is

### - The value of a state function is independent of the history of the system. - Temperature is an example of a state function.

First Law of hermodynamics 1 State Functions - A State Function is a thermodynamic quantity whose value deends only on the state at the moment, i. e., the temerature, ressure, volume, etc - he value of

Entropy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Entropy is a thermodynamic property that can be used to determine the energy not available for work in a thermodynamic process, such as in energy conversion

### Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module - 03 Lecture 10 Good morning. In my last lecture, I was

### Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

### Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch14_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds with the -OH group attached to a saturated alkane-like carbon are known as A)

### 4. Acid Base Chemistry

4. Acid Base Chemistry 4.1. Terminology: 4.1.1. Bronsted / Lowry Acid: "An acid is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) or a proton, while a base is a substance that accepts a proton. B + HA

Steady Heat Conduction In thermodynamics, we considered the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. hermodynamics gives no indication of how long

### AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION

AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION Urea (NH 2 CONH 2 ) is of great importance to the agriculture industry as a nitrogen-rich fertiliser. In Kapuni, Petrochem manufacture ammonia and then convert the majority

### The literature pertaining to the sorption of gases by solids is now so vast that it is

13 Chapter 2 Physical Adsorption The literature pertaining to the sorption of gases by solids is now so vast that it is impossible for any, except those who are specialists in the experimental technique,

### a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units

Chemical Bonds 1. Which of the following is NOT a true compound? a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler

### Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems

Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems unit 8Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid Base Systems Equilibrium describes any condition or situation of balance. We recognize

### COURSE OUTLINE. The course description is online @ http://camosun.ca/learn/calendar/current/web/chem.html

School of Arts & Science CHEMISTRY AND GEOSCIENCE DEPARTMENT CHEM 121-002 College Chemistry 2 Winter 2015 COURSE OUTLINE The course description is online @ http://camosun.ca/learn/calendar/current/web/chem.html

### Syllabus: CH301 Principles of Chemistry I (51140)

Syllabus: CH301 Principles of Chemistry I (51140) Hello and welcome to The University of Texas at Austin! CH301 is the first of a two-semester sequence designed to prepare you for study in math or science-related

### Chapter 7 : Simple Mixtures

Chapter 7 : Simple Mixtures Using the concept of chemical potential to describe the physical properties of a mixture. Outline 1)Partial Molar Quantities 2)Thermodynamics of Mixing 3)Chemical Potentials

### Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids

1 Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids * 10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds & Dipole Moments - van der Waals constant for water (a = 5.28 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) vs O 2 (a = 1.36 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) -- water is polar (draw diagram)

### Physics 5D - Nov 18, 2013

Physics 5D - Nov 18, 2013 30 Midterm Scores B } Number of Scores 25 20 15 10 5 F D C } A- A A + 0 0-59.9 60-64.9 65-69.9 70-74.9 75-79.9 80-84.9 Percent Range (%) The two problems with the fewest correct

### ANALYZING ENERGY. Time and Student Grouping Energy Source Analysis and Consequence Wheel: One class period. Grade Levels: 6-12

ANALYZING ENERGY Lesson Concepts: Students will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nine different energy sources. They will use their knowledge to predict what would happen if the world did not

### DET: Mechanical Engineering Thermofluids (Higher)

DET: Mechanical Engineering Thermofluids (Higher) 6485 Spring 000 HIGHER STILL DET: Mechanical Engineering Thermofluids Higher Support Materials *+,-./ CONTENTS Section : Thermofluids (Higher) Student

### Isotope effects on selected physicochemical properties of nitromethane and 1-pentanol

NUKLEONIKA 2006;51(Supplement 2):S81 S85 PROCEEDINGS Isotope effects on selected physicochemical properties of nitromethane and 1-pentanol Anna Makowska, Jerzy Szydłowski Abstract Densities, kinematic

### Chapter 7 Energy and Energy Balances

CBE14, Levicky Chapter 7 Energy and Energy Balances The concept of energy conservation as expressed by an energy balance equation is central to chemical engineering calculations. Similar to mass balances

### Fuel Cells and Their Applications

Karl Kordesch, Giinter Simader Fuel Cells and Their Applications VCH Weinheim New York Basel Cambridge Tokyo Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Fuel Cell Technology: a Dream, Challenge or a Necessity? 1 1.2.

### Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

### Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures

Isomers ave same molecular formula, but different structures Constitutional Isomers Differ in the order of attachment of atoms (different bond connectivity) Stereoisomers Atoms are connected in the same

### Introduction to the course Chemical Reaction Engineering I

Introduction to the course Chemical Reaction Engineering I Gabriele Pannocchia First Year course, MS in Chemical Engineering, University of Pisa Academic Year 2014 2015 Department of Civil and Industrial

### Physical Chemistry. Tutor: Dr. Jia Falong

Physical Chemistry Professor Jeffrey R. Reimers FAA School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Room 702 Chemistry School CCNU Tutor: Dr. Jia Falong Text: Atkins 9 th Edition assumed

### CHAPTER 13 CHAPTER 13. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

Generated by Foxit PDF reator Foxit Software Pd- AND f-blk RGANETALLIS PAn organometallic compound must contain P a carbon-metal bond. PBook, p. 459, gives list of common ligands P An over-view of organometallics

### There is no such thing as heat energy

There is no such thing as heat energy We have used heat only for the energy transferred between the objects at different temperatures, and thermal energy to describe the energy content of the objects.

### Lecture 14 Chapter 19 Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Lecture 14 Chapter 19 Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory of Gases Now we to look at temperature, pressure, and internal energy in terms of the motion of molecules and atoms? Relate to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics

### 7th Grade Science Curriculum Overview

7th Grade Science Curriculum Overview Philosophy and Common Beliefs Science Curriculum Philosophy Statement Northbrook/Glenview District 30 utilizes a rigorous science curriculum built on essential questions,

### From solid fuels to substitute natural gas (SNG) using TREMP

From solid fuels to substitute natural gas (SNG) using TREMP Topsøe Recycle Energy-efficient Methanation Process Introduction Natural gas is a clean, environmentally friendly energy source and is expected

INTDUCTIN T LEWIS ACID-BASE CEMISTY DEINITINS Lewis acids and bases are defined in terms of electron pair transfers. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor, and a Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor.

### Combustion Analysis Basics

Combustion Analysis Combustion Analysis Basics An Overview of Measurements, Methods and Calculations Used in Combustion Analysis COMBUSTION ANALYSIS BASICS An Overview of Measurements, Methods and Calculations

### Advancement of Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling

155 South 1452 East Room 380 Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 1-801-585-1233 Advancement of Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling Kevin J. Whitty Department of Chemical Engineering Institute for Clean and

### Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V.

Voltaic Cells Introduction In this lab you will first prepare a set of simple standard half-cells and then measure the voltage between the half-cells with a voltmeter. From this data you will be able to

### Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

### HYDROLYSIS OF URANIUM CARBIDES BETWEEN 25O, AND loooc. I. URANIUM MONOCARBIDE*

ORNL OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION for the U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION ORNL- TM-3 COPY NO. -./ DATE - October 22, 1961 HYDROLYSIS OF URANIUM CARBIDES BETWEEN 25O,

### TOPIC-1: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM A MATTER OF BALANCE

Chemistry 534 CHAPTER 6 Chemical Equilibrium The subject of any investigation is called a system. When the study involves experimentation, the system is said to be real. When the study involves ideas,

### Engineering Problem Solving as Model Building

Engineering Problem Solving as Model Building Part 1. How professors think about problem solving. Part 2. Mech2 and Brain-Full Crisis Part 1 How experts think about problem solving When we solve a problem

### 5s Solubility & Conductivity

5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature

### University of Pittsburgh Safety Manual Subject: COMBUSTIBLE METALS. EH&S Guideline Number: 02-005. Effective Date 09/10/13.

Page 1 of 7 These guidelines provide requirements for all University faculty, staff, and students using, handling, or storing combustible metals. These requirements are established to ensure faculty, staff

### ACETYLENE AIR DIFFUSION FLAME COMPUTATIONS; COMPARISON OF STATE RELATIONS VERSUS FINITE RATE KINETICS

ACETYLENE AIR DIFFUSION FLAME COMPUTATIONS; COMPARISON OF STATE RELATIONS VERSUS FINITE RATE KINETICS by Z Zhang and OA Ezekoye Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin,

### Unit 12 Practice Test

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

### Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

### KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA

Név:... osztály:... ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA 2009. május 14. KÉMIA ANGOL NYELVEN KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA 2009. május 14. 8:00 Az írásbeli vizsga időtartama: 120 perc Pótlapok száma Tisztázati Piszkozati OKTATÁSI

### molecular aggregates would then be present in the water: e.g., linear chains containing

VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS OF ALCOHOL-WATER MIXTURES AND THE STRUCTURE OF WATER BY M. AGENO AND C. FRONTALI PHYSICS LABORATORY, ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITA, ROME, ITALY Communicated by Emilio Segr', February