# Chapter 18 Hybrid Vigor

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1 Chapter 18 Hybrid Vigor I. A Population Model for Hybrid Vigor II. Measuring Hybrid Vigor III. Individual, Maternal, and Paternal Hybrid Vigor IV. Loss of Hybrid Vigor V. Predicting Hybrid Vigor

2 Chapter 18 Hybrid Vigor Learning Objective: To understand the genetic basis for the effects or consequences of outbreeding (linecrossing and crossbreeding), which are actually the opposite for those of inbreeding, and learn how to properly apply this breeding tool. In addition, students will learn how to calculate values of hybrid vigor (heterosis) from planned and specific linecrossing and crossbreeding mating systems.

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4 I. A Population Model for Hybrid Vigor Crossbreeding Mating of parents from two or more different breeds Crossbreeding is widely used in the commercial livestock industry. Crossbreds: Most market or meat animals are crossbreds because they are generally more profitable due to G.

5 I. A Population Model for Hybrid Vigor Why are crossbreds more profitable? Hybrid vigor (Heterosis) Increase in performance of crossbreds compared to the average of parental breeds, due to dominance and epistasis (GCV), most noticeably for fertilityand survival-related traits. The first-cross, F 1, generation expresses maximum hybrid vigor. Breed Complementation Combining breed strengths by utilizing sire and dam breeds, due to breeding value (BV).

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7 II. Measuring Hybrid Vigor Genetic influences on livestock traits: Repro/ Health Production Yield Heritability (BV) Low Moderate High Heterosis (GCV) High Moderate Low

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10 II. Measuring Hybrid Vigor _ = P F1 - P P %HV = X 100 = P P Example A measure of within-litter uniformity for 70-day market weights average 6.5% for both purebred Altex and New Zealand White parental breeds, and 5.5 and 6.2% for the mean of Altex X NZW and NZW X Altex crossbreds: %HV = X 100 = -10.0% 6.5

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12 II. Measuring Hybrid Vigor _ = P F1 - P P %HV = X 100 = P P Example Means for milk production in dairy cattle is 12,000 lbs for Jersey and 18,000 lbs for Holstein breeds. The combined average for Jersey X Holstein crossbreds is 16,000 lbs: 16,000 15,000 %HV = X 100 = 6.67% 15,000

13 II. Measuring Hybrid Vigor Trait Type of Cross Bos taurus Bos taurus Bos indicus Bos taurus Maternal Heterosis Calving rate 3.7% 13.4% Calf survival 1.5% 5.1% Birth weight 2.4% 11.1% Weaning weight 3.9% 12.6% Adapted from: Cundiff et al., 1994

14 III. Individual, Maternal, and Paternal Hybrid Vigor

15 IV. Loss of Hybrid Vigor F 1 X F 1 (Aa X Aa) A a A AA Aa The result is a 50% loss in hybrid vigor, which is a direct reflection of the loss of heterozygosity. a Aa aa

16 IV. Loss of Hybrid Vigor Back-cross (AA X Aa) Back-cross (aa X Aa) A a A a AA Aa A a Aa aa For either backcross, the result is a 50% loss in hybrid vigor, which is a direct reflection of the loss of heterozygosity.

17 V. Predicting Hybrid Vigor III. Below are performance figures of purebred and crossbred sows for 21-day litter weight: Breed group 21-d litter weight Yorkshire(Y) 110 Hampshire (H) 90 H X Y 125 Y X H 105 1) Calculate the percentage maternal hybrid vigor for this trait. 2) Identify the best maternal breed. Explain your answer.

18 IV. Calculate the percentage maximum heterosis potential (individual heterosis in the offspring and maternal heterosis in the dam) for the following breed crosses: Y = Yorkshire, H = Hampshire, and D = Duroc. To arrive at figures for Total calculated heterosis, use individual and maternal heterosis values of 12 and 18 pounds, respectively. Total Individual Maternal calculated heterosis heterosis heterosis 1) Y X Y 2) H X Y 3) D X HY 4) HY X HY 5) Y X HY Formula : ˆ n ˆ %RHV = ( 1 - p si p di )F 1 HV i=1

19 V. Predicting Hybrid Vigor I. Below are genetic performance figures for fertility (pregnancy success) in purebred and crossbred cows: Breed group Fertility, % Brahman (B) 82 Hereford (H) 86 H X B 88 B X H Calculate percentage hybrid vigor for this trait. What type of non-additive gene action (i.e., form of dominance) is suggested? 2. Is there evidence of a maternal breed effect? Explain why or why not.

20 V. Predicting Hybrid Vigor (Prob. 18.5) II. Calculate the maximum heterosis potential (direct heterosis in the following five calves, and maternal heterosis of their dams) in different breed crosses (A = Red Angus, H = Hereford, and C = Charolais) involving weaning weight performance. To arrive at figures for Total calculated heterosis, use individual and maternal heterosis values of 27 and 44 pounds, respectively. Individual Maternal Total calculated heterosis heterosis heterosis 1) H X H 2) H X A 3) HA X H 4) C X HA 5) C X HHA The HHA dam is 75% H and 25% A.

21 V. Santa Gertrudis cattle are 5/8 Shorthorn and 3/8 Brahman. Calculate the level of retained heterosis: ˆ n Formula : %RHV = ( 1 - p si p di ) X 100% i=1 Photo: King Ranch

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