MAGNETISM MAGNETISM. Principles of Imaging Science II (120)

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1 Principles of Imaging Science II (120) Magnetism & Electromagnetism MAGNETISM Magnetism is a property in nature that is present when charged particles are in motion. Any charged particle in motion creates a magnetic field MAGNETISM When a charged particle moves, a magnetic filed is produced around the moving charge. This magnetic field exerts a magnetic force on certain kinds of particles that are within the field Moving charge produces a magnetic field Magnetic field of a charged particle is perpendicular to the motion of the particle Orbital magnetic moment 1

2 MAGNETISM When a charged particle moves in a circular or elliptical path, the perpendicular magnetic field moves with the charged particle MOVING CHARGES PRODUCE MAGNETIC FIELD Every electron has a charge. Everyone of these charges is in motion Spin magnetic moment: Electron spin on axis Dipole: Tiny magnetic field created by a single spinning electron. Magnetic domain: Many atoms aligned to produce a larger magnetic field. Many domains exist in a magnet MAGNETISM LAWS Magnetic Poles North & South Poles Iron filings will concentrate at ends Flux lines extending from N S The greater the concentration of flux lines per unit of measure (m 2 ) the greater the strength of the magnetic field 2

3 MAGNETISM LAWS Attraction & Repulsion Similar charges repel, unlike charges attract Imaginary lines of the magnetic field leave the North Pole and enter the South Pole MAGNETIC CLASSIFICATION (Susceptibility) Ferromagnetic (Iron, Cobalt, Nickel) High Permeability Ability of a material to be magnetized either by the application of electric current or exposure to a magnetic field High Retentivity Ability of a magnetized material to remain magnetized once the magnetizing source (electric current or magnet) is withdrawn MAGNETIC CLASSIFICATION Diamagnetic (wood, glass, plastic) No Permeability (non-magnetic) No Retentivity Cannot be artificially magnetized and are not attracted to a magnet Repel magnetic fields 3

4 MAGNETIC CLASSIFICATION Paramagnetic (Aluminum) Low Permeability Low Retentivity Categorized between ferromagnetic and diamagnetic Oersted s Experiment Discovered that a compass needle is attracted to a wire that carries a current. When the current is OFF, the needle points North, to the earth s magnetic pole. Result: Any moving charge produces a magnetic field. However, it is the movement of electrons in the electric current that makes the magnetic field Oersted s Experiment Proved that an electrical current can be used to produce magnetic fields 4

5 SOLENOID Coil of wire with current flowing through it Magnetic field lines form circles around each section of the wire Used for detent locks on x-ray tube Magnetic field in center can be intensified by placing iron in coils ELECTROMAGNET Consists of a loop of wire wrapped around a soft iron core. When electrical current passes through the wire, the iron core becomes a magnet. The strength of the electromagnet is proportional to the Strength of the current Number of loops surrounding the core Magnetic Field Lines SOLENOID ELECTROMAGNET 5

6 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Definition: The result of two coils being placed in close proximity. A varying current is supplied to the first coil, which then induces a similar flow in the second coil. Relies on the principle of interacting electric and magnetic fields A changing magnetic field produces an electric field The magnetic field must be changing or fluctuating in order for mutual induction to occur Purpose: To induce an EMF (electromotive force) ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Moving a wire through a magnetic field induces current to flow in the wire Faraday s experiment proved that a magnetic field can generate electricity (Opposite of Oersted s Law) ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 6

7 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Strength of Current Depends on: Strength of magnetic field Larger magnet yields greater strength Velocity of magnetic field speed with which conducting material cuts or is cut by magnetic lines of force Angle of conductor to magnetic field Perpendicular better than oblique Number of turns of wire coil Greater number of turns produces greater current TYPES OF CURRENT DIRECT CURRENT (DC) Electrons flow in only one direction Waveform begins at zero and moves to its maximum potential at its peak ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) Electrons flow first in one direction (the first half of the cycle), and then in the other direction (the second half of the cycle) U.S. current: 60 Hz AC Waveform represented using a sinusoidal or sine wave TYPES OF CURRENT 7

8 GENERATORS Definition: A electromagnetic device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy Produces alternating current (AC) with the use of slip rings and an armature Produces direct current (DC) with the use of a commutator ring in place of the slip rings GENERATORS GENERATORS 8

9 ELECTRIC MOTOR Converts electrical energy to mechanical energy Induction motor to turn the anode at a very high speed to dissipate heat during x-ray production Consists of rotor and stator Simple DC Motor MOTORS INDUCTION MOTOR The stator is made of stationary electromagnets located around the outside. The rotor, located with the stator, is made of an iron core surrounded by coils. The magnetic field of the stator around the rotor is created by a series of electromagnets. These magnets are turned on and off in a sequence, such that the outside magnetic field itself rotates. The inner coils around the central rotor of the motor are not connected to a current source. Instead, a current is induced in them by the magnetic field of the stator, and this induced current creates the inner magnetic field that attempts to align itself with the stronger outside magnetic field. This force is what turns the rotor. 9

10 Transformers Designed to change the voltage and current in agreement with Ohm s Law There is an inverse relationship between voltage and current Control of voltage and current is achieved by a process of Mutual Induction Transformer Types Closed Core Square core of ferromagnetic material Primary coil & Secondary coil at opposite ends Shell Type More efficient Center cores with separate primary & secondary windings Transformer Types Autotransformer Single ferromagnetic column core with single coil wrapped around Smaller design 10

11 Transformer Operate on mutual or self- induction Mutual induction requires alternating current (AC) and 2 coils of electrically conductive material Generates AC in a 2 0 coil when AC is applied to the 1 0 coil Step-Up, Step-Down Transformers Transformer Law Designed to alter voltage and current in an AC circuit The ability to control current and voltage is dependent upon: # windings (turns) on the primary and secondary sides Voltage & Current on the primary side Transformer Video 11

12 Transformer Law There is a direct relationship between transformer voltage and the # of primary & secondary turns: Vs = Ns Vp Np Law Applied A transformer has 100 primary and 400 secondary turns of wire. What is the secondary voltage if 220 volts are applied to the primary coil? Vs = Ns Vp Np 880 Volts Transformer Law The inverse relationship between transformer voltage and current is expressed as: Vs = Ip Vp Is Vs = Voltage secondary side Vp = Voltage primary side Ip = Current primary side Is = Current primary side 12

13 Law Applied A step-down transformer is delivered a total of 220 volts and 3 amps on the primary side. Output voltage is 110 volts what is the output (secondary) current? Vs = Ip Vp Is 6 amps Transformer Law There is an inverse relationship between transformer current and the # of primary and secondary turns Is = Np Ip Ns Law Applied A transformer has 3,000 turns on the secondary side and 600 windings on the primary side. If 0.5 amps flow through the primary windings, what is the output current on the secondary side? Amps? ma? Is = Np Ip Ns 0.1 amps 100 ma 13

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