Rock Identification. Modified from a PowerPoint presentation prepared by J. Crelling, Southern Illinois University

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1 Rock Identification Modified from a PowerPoint presentation prepared by J. Crelling, Southern Illinois University

2 Characterizing Rocks There are 3 major types of rocks IGNEOUS formed from molten magma SEDIMENTARY formed from sediment (soil, sand, etc,) METAMORPHIC formed by applying heat and pressure to other existing rocks

3 The Rock Cycle a representation of the interrelationship between different types of rocks.

4 Characterizing Rocks The three major characterizing features of rocks are: Color Composition (Mineralogy/Chemistry) Texture Note: Even the most sophisticated geological classification schemes are based on these features

5 Characterizing Rocks Classification by Color Color Index (used mainly for igneous rocks) Leucocratic light color Mesocratic intermediate color Melanocratic dark color and/or Felsic rich in light colored minerals Mafic rich in dark colored minerals

6 Igneous Rocks Textures of Igneous Rocks Aphanitic fine-grained. Individual grains can t be seen with naked eye Phaneritic - grains easily seen with the naked eye Porphyritic larger grains in finer grains Inclusions > Xenoliths > Xenocrysts

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10 Vesicular & Glassy Textures

11 Xenoliths

12 Xenocryst

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15 Sedimentary Rocks Detrital & Chemical Rock Classification Detrital Rocks Conglomerate Sandstones Siltstone Chemical Rocks Limestone Chert (Flint) Salt (Evaporite) Shale

16 Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Detrital rocks are classified based on particle size and grain shape

17 Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Conglomerates Poorly Sorted particle sizes Well-rounded particles Usually particles are gravel sized

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21 Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Breccia Poorly sorted grains Angular grains Gravel sized grains

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24 Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone Well sorted particles Particles can be angular to rounded Sand-sized Particles

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27 Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Shale Microscopic grain size Consist of silt and clay size grains Cannot see grains with naked eye Occur in quiet depositional environments

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30 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Classification Inorganic - Not produced by living things. Biochemical - Are produced by or are remnants of living things (e.g. shell fragments, coral reefs, etc)

31 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Limestone Most abundant chemical rock Inorganic (oolitic limestone, Travertine) or Biochemical (Chalk, Coquina)

32 Limestone (Chemical Rocks) Travertine Common in caves Happen when calcium carbonate is precipitated out of groundwater

33 Limestone (Chemical Rocks) Coquina Consists of loosely cemented shell fragments

34 Fossiliferous limestone Limestone

35 Fine-grained limestone

36 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Chert (Flint) Consists of Microcrystalline Silica Two major occurrences of chert Irregular shaped nodules in limestone layers of rock Most likely Biochemical

37 Cross-section through a geoid showing silica layering

38 Flint

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40 Metamorphic Rocks Classified into two main groups Foliated Rocks Non-foliated Rocks

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42 Metamorphic Rocks Foliated Rocks Progression of Shale to Gneiss Slate Phyllite Schist Gneiss Low Metamorphic Grade High Metamorphic Grade

43 Metamorphic Rocks Foliated Textures Slaty - very fine-grained, fissile Phyllitic - fine-grained, foliated, shinny Schistose - foliated, large grains visible Gneissic - light and dark bands

44 Slate Parent Rock Shale Slaty Cleavage

45 Phyllite Parent Rock Slate Characteristic sheen/shine Phyllitic Texture

46 Schist Parent Rock Phyllite Characteristic scaly appearance Schistosity

47 Gneiss Parent Rock Schist Characteristic of light and dark banding Gneissic Texture

48 Metamorphic Rocks Non-foliated Rocks Rocks that show no Foliation Crystalline Rocks Marble Quartzite Anthracite (coal)

49 Marble Parent Rock Limestone or Dolostone Reacts to Acid

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51 Quartzite Parent Rock Sandstone Moderate to high metamorphism Very Hard

52 Anthracite (coal) Parent material Plant matter High metamorphism Shinny and hard

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GEOL GENERAL GEOLOGY - LABORATORY OUTLINE SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS LAB

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