The Short Story: Stories of Self-Discovery

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1 The Short Story: Stories of Self-Discovery Farmington Public Schools Grade 9 English James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 1

2 Table of Contents Unit Summary....page 3 Stage One: Standards Stage One identifies the desired results of the unit including the broad understandings, the unit outcome statement and essential questions that focus the unit, and the necessary knowledge and skills. The Understanding by Design Handbook, pages 4-8 Stage Two: Assessment Package Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence that students have acquired the understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One. page 9 Stage Three: Curriculum and Instruction Stage Three helps teachers plan learning experiences and instruction that aligns with Stage One and enables students to be successful in Stage two. Planning and lesson options are given, however teachers are encouraged to customize this stage to their own students, maintaining alignment with Stages One and Two... pages Appendices.... page(s) TBD James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 2

3 Unit Summary The unit on the short story is designed as the first unit in students ninth grade English 100 experience lasting approximately six weeks. Students will revisit elements of the short story genre and will explore the relationship between identifying literary devices and using these devices as tools for interpretation and analysis. Furthermore, students will become familiar with and practice the writing process. James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 3

4 Stage One: Standards Stage One identifies the desired results of the unit including the broad understandings, the unit outcome statement and essential questions that focus the unit, and the necessary knowledge and skills. The Understanding by Design Handbook, 1999 English Essential Understandings and Content Standards Reading Essential Understanding 1 Students will understand that successful readers comprehend texts by reading fluently, strategically, and accurately. Content Standards Students will be able to: Use a variety of comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading Communicate understanding orally and in writing Reading Essential Understanding 2 Students will understand that accomplished readers read a wide range of literature and respond in personal, interpretive, and critical ways. Content Standards Students will be able to: Form an initial understanding by identifying or inferring relationships among characters, setting, events, and conflicts Develop interpretations by examining text evidence, predicting events, inferring characters motives, and generalizing beyond the text Explain how the theme reflects human nature and/or addresses universal ideas Respond to the unique characteristics of a variety of literary forms Writing Essential Understanding 1 Students will understand that a deliberate process prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing is essential to effective writing. Content Standards Students will be able to: Use one or more effective prewriting strategies in planning and drafting written work Use grade level proofreading guides when editing written work James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 4

5 Library and Technology Essential Understanding 2 Technology can be used to create written, visual, and multimedia products to communicate ideas, information, or conclusions to others. Content Standards Students will be able to: Students will use word processing software to compose, edit, and revise ideas for clear communication and purposeful writing in papers, essays, and reports. James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 5

6 Unit Outcome Statement As a result of this unit on short stories, English 100 students will understand that through the effective use of reading strategies and the identification and analysis of literary devices and elements, fiction provides meaningful commentary on universal human experience. After reading, discussing, and understanding the elements and functions of short fiction, students will utilize the writing process to synthesize a critical/analytical essay demonstrating their understandings. Essential Questions Why read fiction? What can short stories teach about self-discovery? How do authors use literary devices to create meaning? James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 6

7 Knowledge and Skills The Knowledge and Skills section includes the key facts, concepts, principles, skills, and processes called for by the content standards and needed by students to reach desired understandings. The Understanding by Design Handbook, 1999 Knowledge Directions: Elements of narrative fiction (Setting, characterization, plot, theme, conflict, exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution) Applicable literary terms and devices (protagonist, antagonist, irony, symbolism, imagery, foreshadowing, narrative point of view) Knowledge of writing process Skills/Processes Apply word recognition strategies including context clues, decoding, and structural analysis to determine unknown or multiple meaning words Increase reading vocabulary Use a variety of comprehension skills during reading to monitor for understanding (visualizing, retelling, clarifying, predicting) Set a purpose for reading Connect prior knowledge with text to enhance understanding Make text-based predictions using title, headings, pictures and introductory information, and confirm/adjust predictions while reading Ask and answer questions before, during, and after reading Use strategies to expand comprehension during and after reading (inferring, summarizing, synthesizing) Use connections (text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-world) to enhance understanding of text Demonstrate comprehension orally and in writing Discuss the role of the protagonist(s) and antagonist(s) Relate turning points to character change Describe a character as either dynamic, static Describe the stages of plot development (exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, denouement) Analyze internal and external conflicts and their resolution Describe the unique characteristics of short stories Recognize and critique the author s use of literary devices including symbolism, imagery, irony Explain the effect of point of view Define and explain the concept of human nature (universal traits such as love, kindness, greed, envy etc.) as it relates to the text Develop and support a thematic idea through accurate interpretation and reflective thinking throughout the text Generalize enduring themes to contemporary life and times Select significant quotes that show evidence of understanding of text James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 7

8 Use text evidence to support inferential thinking Take notes, make lists, and/or diagram to generate ideas about a subject or topic Participate in group discussions: acknowledge other points of view, initiate questions, share insights and opinions, and elaborate upon ideas Brainstorm to find a subject/topic and elaborate upon ideas Create outlines, complete a variety of graphic organizers to create an organizing structure appropriate to specific purpose, audience, and context Use a prewriting organizer to write a coherent first draft Confer with a peer on the five traits of good writing: focus, organization, elaboration, and fluency, for the purpose of revision Produce multiple drafts Revise and edit written work to enhance organization and clarity, e.g. selection of form, order, sequence, audience, information, word choice, and sentence variation Analyze a writer s style and how the piece achieves its purpose Thinking Skills Demonstrate empathy Understanding how factors of role, manner, place, time, and amount of information contribute to point of view Demonstrate tolerance for other points of view Understanding values of others Recognizing intended meaning Detecting bias/assumptions Identifying appropriate evidence for a position Inferring from/evaluating ideas-drawing conclusions Identifying the significance of events Sequencing events Understanding consequence Identifying the effects of decision making Formulating three levels of questioning: factual, analytical, evaluative Understanding relationships between questions and answers Making inferences Interpreting and synthesizing Making generalizations James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 8

9 Stage Two: Assessment Package Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence that students have acquired the understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One. Performance Task Students will choose and read one story from a collection of short, narrative fiction. Students will then write a 5-paragraph critical/analytical essay on the theme of self-discovery in which they craft a thesis and demonstrate a functional understanding of literary elements, devices, and language. Students will utilize the writing process, including brainstorming, drafting, peer revision, teacher conferral, and producing an essay for submission. Students will be evaluated using the FHS English Department rubric for critical/analytical essays. Recommended stories for performance task: The Sniper by Liam O Flaherty The Street by Richard Wright Raymond s Run by Toni Cade Bambara Students will also submit a self-assessment reflecting on their own writing process. Tests, Quizzes, and Other Quick and Ongoing Checks for Understanding Reading journals: students will write directed responses to the individual works of short, narrative fiction covered in class. Literary device test: Students will be tested on identification and author s use of literary device to create meaning. Elements of Narrative fiction test: Students will be tested on vocabulary and identification of the basic elements of narrative fiction. Exit cards checking understanding of concepts from daily class activities Reading quizzes: students will take quizzes that assess multi-level comprehension of texts, for example, theme analysis, plot development, characterization, and author uses of literary devices. James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 9

10 Stage Three: Learning Experiences and Instruction Guiding Questions Instructional Strategies Checking for Understanding Introduction to Reading Fiction What is the best thing you ever read? What made it good? Hook: Quick Write on guiding question. Teacher facilitated discussion on students favorite readings. Teacher led generation of list of reasons why students enjoy fiction. Students take notes. Introduction to the Short Story Form What makes a short story different from other forms of literature? Hook: Quick Write: List as many forms of fiction as you can. Explain how each is unique? Class creates list based on QW. Teacher led introduction to narrative plot sequence and plot chart. Students view ½ hour sitcom episode and identify elements of plot sequence. Plot sequencing from viewing Vocabulary of Fiction and making inferences about character What is the basic vocabulary for discussing short stories? Teacher introduction to elements of fiction vocabulary (setting, plot, characterization, conflict, protagonist, antagonist, theme, narrative point of view). Students take notes. Teacher introduction to annotating (marking-up) a text. Begin reading Thank You, M am by Langston Hughes. Teacher modeling of annotation focused on characterization on overhead for first page of story with a read-aloud, think-aloud approach. Students finish reading and annotating individually. Introduction and application of characterization chart in Thank You, M am. Students complete plot sequence chart. Annotations of Thank You, M am Characterization charts Plot sequence chart Theme of Self-Discovery What does self-discovery mean to you? Is self-discovery limited by age? Hook: Quick Write on guiding questions; discussion based on student responses. Class formulates a working definition of self-discovery. Using the ideas from the class Letter to Mrs. L.B.W.J. Journal write James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 10

11 generated definition, students write response letter from Roger to Mrs. L.B.W.J. Journal write: Choose one of following: How has Mrs. L.B.W.J. acted as an antagonist to help in Roger s self-discovery?, or How has Mrs. L.B.W.J. undergone a process of self-discovery? Student Think-Pair-Share of journal writes. Applying Narrative Point of View to Reading Short Fiction How is the way a story is told important to its meaning? Hook: Quick Write: Write about a conflict that you have had with a friend or family member, BUT write it as if you were the other person. Teacher led introduction of narrative points of view (1 st, 2 nd, etc.) and types of conflict (internal/external, man vs. man, society, nature, self). Students take notes. Students read and annotate The Lesson by Toni Cade Bambara. Annotations should be focused on how the conflict develops in the story. Reading quiz to measure comprehension Students work in pairs to compile a list of questions based on exploring the conflict from their reading of the story. Teacher led introduction to the three levels of questions. Students return to pairs and revise their questions making sure to create examples of each level of questioning. Journal Write: How would the Lesson be different if told from another narrative point of view? Reading quiz Student questions addressing both conflict in the story and three levels of questioning Journal write Identifying and Analyzing Irony in Short Fiction How do author play on our expectations in order to make a point? Hook: Quick Write: Make a prediction for the story First Confession based on the title. Teacher introduction to making inferences and predictions as reading strategies. Students read partial version of Frank O Connor s First Confession and make inferences about character and conflict in margins. In pairs, students share inferences from previous step. Quick writes Student generated predictions Journal writes James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 11

12 Students continue reading and annotating next segment of First Confession. Students write the next seven lines of the story based on inferences and predictions. Student small groups: share and compare. Students read conclusion of First Confession. Journal Write: How does your continuation compare with Frank O Connor s? Teacher facilitated discussion based on how students expectation matched up with the conclusion of the story. Teacher introduces irony and provides definition. Quick Write: How does the author use irony to convey Jackie s selfdiscovery? Identifying and Analyzing Symbolism in Short Fiction How do authors use symbolism to support theme? Students read and annotate The Scarlet Ibis. Reading quiz for comprehension of plot and character. Hook: Teacher shows pictures of various objects. Students write down single word associations to images. Students generate list of associations and identify similarities. Students collectively generate definition of symbolism. Teacher provides biological information on the Scarlet Ibis bird, including reactions to living in captivity. Students view picture of Scarlet Ibis and do word association. Chart on board. Students do word association for Doodle character. Chart on board and compare to Scarlet Ibis words. Teacher-facilitated discussion on similarities between Scarlet Ibis and Doodle and why authors use symbolism, including definition of foreshadowing. Students support connections with examples from the text. Exit Card: How is Doodle s death foreshadowed? How might the Scarlet Ibis and/or Doodle s death be symbolic of the war going on in Reading Quiz Selection of textual evidence for support Exit Cards Thematic Statements James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 12

13 Using Fiction to Shape the Way We Think Europe at the time? Based on previous exit cards, teacher creates a list of topics that students have identified. Teacher facilitated discussion of forming thematic statements by connecting two or more topics in a meaningful way. Students practice writing thematic statements for the Scarlet Ibis How might fiction help us to think about the world differently? Hook: Quick Write: What would it take for all people to be truly equal? Teacher facilitates discussion based on ideas from quick write and introducing the questions: Does freedom limit equality? Is there a difference between having a freedom from and a freedom to? Students read Harrison Bergeron by Kurt Vonnegut and annotate specifically for character, conflict and symbolism. Reading quiz for comprehension Students complete symbolism worksheet for Harrison Bergeron In small groups, students discuss worksheets and create a list of topics brought up in Harrison Bergeron Teacher introduces and demonstrates Inspiration software as a tool for organizing and connecting ideas graphically. Students practice using Inspiration software to organize topics and symbols as a step towards forming thematic statements. Reading Quiz Symbolism worksheet Inspiration printouts and thematic statements Applying knowledge to new literature What steps should we take when reading a new piece of short fiction? The Writing Process What are the stages of the writing process? Hook: Quick Write: Make a checklist of steps that a good reader, like you, will take when reading a new piece of short fiction? Rehearse: Teacher led discussion of quick write as a tool to review elements of narrative fiction, reading strategies, and literary devices. Students revise checklists based on discussion. Hook: Give students clay with the instructions Build an animal that is able to stand on its own feet. Student generated checklists Students selfassessments of the process of creating James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 13

14 Have students write a detailed list of the steps that they had to go through in order to make their animal and what they would need to make their animal better. Teacher facilitated discussion on the concept of process and how it relates to writing an essay. Students take notes on the steps of the writing process as presented by teacher. Teacher emphasizes that writing is never final. clay animals Applying the writing process to a performance task: Writing an Essay How do we show, through writing, the unique ideas and perspectives that we have as readers? Additional Suggested Stories Teacher introduces performance assessment and the selection of short fiction from which students must select a story. Rehearsal: Students read stories, using their reading checklists to practice reading strategies and revisit elements of short fiction. Students select a story for the assessment and use Inspiration software to organize ideas and craft thematic statements and thesis statements. Students, following the writing process, map out an outline for the organization of their essay (introduction, body paragraphs, conclusion). Students draft introduction paragraphs. In small groups, students peer edit introduction paragraphs based on specific criteria in peer edit worksheet. Revision: Students revise introduction paragraphs. Teacher presents documentation requirements for all essays (MLA format) and alignment of concepts with thesis statement. Students draft body paragraphs and conclusion, referring to provided rubric. Teacher presents models to illustrate differences between proofreading and revision. Students complete self-evaluation rubric based on first draft essay. Self-evaluate: Students conference with teachers on first draft essays. Revision: Students revise and submit essay to be graded. Reading checklist Inspiration graphs Thematic and thesis statements Introductory paragraphs Peer edit worksheets Draft of essays Self evaluation Submission of essay James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 14

15 All Summer in a Day by Ray Bradbury (setting, characterization, symbolism, foreshadowing) Antaeus (setting, characterization, symbolism, foreshadowing) Silver Water by Amy Bloom (characterization, plot, foreshadowing) Through the Tunnel by Doris Lessing (plot, characterization, symbolism, conflict) Appendices Performance Assessment Reading Comprehension quizzes Plot sequence charts Characterization charts Sitcom clip Three levels of questioning handout Symbolism Worksheet Inspiration handbook Peer edit worksheets Performance Assessment Rubric Self-evaluation worksheet James Carter, Kristen Kawecki 30 June 2005 Farmington Public Schools 15

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