1 RECYCLING OF WASTE WOOD IN SLOVAKIA AN ACTUAL SITUATION Maruškov ková A., Ladomerský J., Hroncová E.
3 Department of Environmental Engineering Department guarantees special environment educations in Bc and Ing course in Environmental Engineering as well as PhD - course
4 Research of DoEE Environmental assessment for environment pollution prevention Optimalization of waste wood incineration with regard to emission Waste incineration research in incineration plants and other combustors with utilising the energy potential Chemical processing of furfurol production Composting of specific bio-waste Research for a company sphere: Waste as energy resource / renewable resource
5 Wood production in Slovakia Wood treatment in industry Branch (presump.) Wood industry, thous. m Cell.-paper industry thous. m Sum, thous. m Dendromass for energetic utilization produced by forestry in 2007 Forestry chips Fuel wood Sum thous.t TJ thous.t TJ thous.t TJ
6 Utilizable energetic potential of wood residues Forest biomass: 1,81 mil. t with energetic equivalent 16,9 PJ It is expensive to collect this kind of biomass. Wood biomass from wood treatment industry: 1,41 mil t / yr with energetic equivalent 18,1 PJ. There are 2/3 from mechanic wood treatment and 1/3 from black leachate in chemical treatment.
7 Waste wood A renewable source There is not any market for recovered wood as well as for products made from recovered old wood or post consumer waste wood in chipped form. Recovered wood is not used for particleboard production. Particleboard and fiberboard production is covered only from wood residues arising from sawmills and primary processing of timber. Future prospects do not show any interest of companies in particleboard production to utilize post consumer waste wood. So we can say, there is not any wood recycling industry as the processing of post consumer waste wood into wood chips, and products derived from them, in Slovakia.
8 Waste wood and energy Is it waste an alternative fuel to fossil ones or not? It is still risk business for investors who are interested in waste treatment in energetic way. There is increasing interest in wood incineration even through the waste from particleboards and other wooden materials such as old furniture and moreover co- incineration of wood with sludge and compost, in Slovakia.
9 Balance of wood waste, their recycling and disposal There is production of wood waste in these industry fields besides municipal waste: forest industry, sawn wood industry, wood base panel industry, pulp and paper industry furniture industry wooden buildings industry renewable energy industry. In 2008: t of waste was recycled and reused what means app. 53 % from the whole amount of waste (without MW), taken into market t of waste was disposed in SR what means appr. 41 % from the whole amount of waste (without MW), taken into market Wood waste (tab. 1 and 2) represents only small amount from all kinds of wastes.
10 Waste from wood treatment, production of wooden materials and furniture, cellulose, paper and cardboard except municipal waste Material utilization [t] Energetic utilization [t] Incineration without energetic use [t] Disposal on landfills [t] Other way of treatment [t] Sum [t] * Other waste Waste bark from row wood and production of lumber and furniture (*Number according to Slovak cataloque of waste) *- Hazardous sawdust, shavings, cuttings, waste lumber or particleboard / fibreboard containing hazardous compounds 265 0,9 0, * Other waste sawdust, shavings, chips, waste lumber or particleboard / fibreboard * - Other Waste bark and wood from production and treatment of cellulose, paper and cardboard All category 03*
11 Wood waste from other activities as municipal waste Material utilization [t] Energetic utilization [t] Incineratio n without energetic use [t] Disposal on landfills [t] * Other Packaging of wood * - Hazardous Wood containing hazardous compounds from mechanic treatment waste (f. example selection, graining, pressing...) * - Other Wood from mechanic treatment waste (f. example selection, graining, pressing...) 7,2 Other way of treatment [t] * Other Wood from constraction waste and waste after demolition , ,4 Sum [t] ,
12 Municipal wood waste In 2005 the EU municipal waste was disposed of through landfill (49%), incineration (18%), recycling and composting (33%). In Slovakia, dominant form of waste handling is landfill disposal (76 %). Next ones are: energetic treatment (appr. 9 %), recycling or reusing of organic substances such as composting; and plastic treatment (cca 4 %) and recycling or re-gaining of inorganic substances (cca 2 %). 5% 5% 2,50% 11% 68,50% mixed (with high content of biodegradable compounds) bulky waste small construction waste biodegradable waste paper and cardboard According to Statistical Office of the SR: Waste production in 2008: t of municipal waste (331 kg per head) Amount of separated waste: 7,6 % (25 kg per head)
13 Every municipality needs to separate waste into 5 compounds paper, plastic, glass, metals and biological decomposable waste from 2010 Reliable statistics of non-separated wood from municipal waste, old wood and large-sized wood (from industry, agriculture, furniture,...) not exist for Slovakia. There is only small amount of old wood from communication and traffic nets (telephone post, railroad ties) in Slovakia.
14 REVIEW OF WOOD WASTE RECYCLING IN SLOVAKIA Waste recycling in material or energetic way is one of the basics postulates in waste management in EU as well as in Slovakia. But in the field of waste wood the system solution is missing. Most of residues wood is used for production of cellulose, paper, cardboard and particleboard and insulating fibreboards. Only small amount of wood is used on composting. Collecting of post-consumer old wood (large-sized) is realized by waste companies and municipalities in Slovakia. According to Waste Act, a municipality is due to assign collecting and removing of bulky waste at least twice a year. Collected untreated and treated waste wood in 2 regions of Slovakia is mostly incinerated in regional incinerating plants 2 t.h-1 (Bratislava, Košice) and 1 small incinerating plant 2 t.h-1 (Kysucké Nové Mesto) while making use of their energy content.
15 Review of typical examples of energetic utilization of wood and wood waste in Slovakia SR imported 90 % of energy source (including fuels in traffic) in contrast to EU with only 47 % Total potential of sources was valued on TJ/y; and the bigger portion has biomass (33 %) According to Ministry of Economy is this potential used only on 11 %; in the case of dendromass 25 %. In most cases, raw wood and bark or related wood residues from forestry and sawmills are used in energetic way. Currently, there are at least 30 heat plants in Slovakia running either totally on natural wood or just partially. A project on co-incineration wet chips in small power plants was successfully realized. Original boiler for powder brown coal burning (110 MW) was remade for incineration up to 20 % of heating input by chips. Reconstruction of other big boilers are running.
16 One of the most important sources of biomass in addition to forestry and energy crops - derives from recovered wood at the end of its life (e.g. demolition wood, timber from building sites and the commercial sector). Total using of waste wood (besides municipal one) mainly as a fuel or for generating energy in other way (R1): Hazardous w: t, Other w: t, Sum: t Beside it, waste from agriculture, gardens, forestry are always incinerated and they included also wood with less value without energetic utilization (1600 t/y).
17 Incineration of industry wood waste Current yearly production represents m 3 of particleboards and specific energy consumption in gas and wood dust is approx. 46 kwh per 1 m 3 of particleboards. One dryer by Büttner GmbH, type 5,0 x 24 has input of dried splinters kg a.s./h., max kg.h -1 (atro). Hour input of evaporated kg (for normalized splinter with thickness 0,4 0,8 mm and diameter 0,5 mm from 50 % mixture of coniferous and deciduous tree species). Entrance humid of splinters 120 % and a final 2 % ± 0,5 %. Requirement for heat 87 GJ.h -1. Supposed annually consumption of gas approx. 1 mil. m 3 and approx t of wood dust. Electric input is 445 kw. Wood dust (wood particles < 0,3 mm) rise up in particleboard production during selecting, formating, drying, abrading and so on. The dust is stored in two silos and then it is moved by pressure into combinated burner of splinter drying room. Next, it is incinerated with gas.
18 Amount of wood dust from particleboard production represents 80 kg per 1 m 3 of particleboards. It means, if an operation produces m 3 of particleboards per year, amount of wood dust is t what is relevant to thermic output MWh. 25 % ( t) represents dust from abrading (it contains approx. 8 % of ureaformaldehyde resin hardened by non- chlorates) In the future, could be coincinerated approx t / yr of abraded dust contains urea formaldehyde resin. There is an example of comp ability of air quality standards in energetic utilization of chips and sawdust particles of raw particleboards in boiler with 1 MW output. The boiler was set specially for incineration of 100 % waste from particleboard on bases of emission determination. In a furniture-making factory is also incinerated 100 % waste of particleboard in a boiler with 12 MW output. There is an interest of other producers of chips from particleboards in their incinerating in their own equipment.
19 Co-incineration of waste in wood boilers In spite of great interest in co-incineration of waste, realization is not easy because of demanding legal conditions. There is interest in co-incineration of sludge with wood and on the other hand, co-incineration of wood waste from municipal landfills and recycling yards
20 Other ways of recovering of wood residues and wood waste successful production of wood briquettes and pellets, usually for export stagnation of charcoal production although the production has long tradition in Slovakia. Charcoal production is running in small operations using retorts smaller than 10 m3. there is great interest in research of using energy of pyrolysis gasses for electricity production. various contaminated wood waste is using in alternative fuel production for cement factory. There is one complete line for processing different kinds of waste, such as household, demolition and industrial waste, sludge from paper-making factory, tares, grained pallets, contaminated sawdust particles and similar combustible materials, into high-quality fuel in the Slovakia (e. g. it is possible to substitute almost 50 % of fossil fuel with fuel from waste but average is only 30 %)
21 Authorized company is able to process t of waste a year. Kinds of waste processed as alternative fuels: Unrecyclable waste from packaging Mixed industry waste Mixed plastic municipal waste Unrecyclable waste on base of textile, paper, plastic, wood and composits Old clothes and textile, paper waste, absorbents and so on Conditions for gasification of wood or syngas production are not still created. Similarly, there is not even highdensity production of bio-fuel of second generation. They are made from lignin-cellulose biomass (raw wood, leaves, bark, straw)
22 Conclusion The waste market in Slovakia is small but the wood wastestream is not clear enough. Improvement in knowledge: European, international, national or industry standards Contamination limits How to avoid of non-ferrous contamination in delivered recycled wood? How to remove of non-ferrous contamination by the recycling process?
23 Identifying the total balance of fugitive emissions from the wood recycling industry. Performance requirements of products made from recycled wood Creating new markets, initiating realisation of new heat plants and power stations with whole year consumption in min. 10 regions (e.g. Vranov, Košice, Beňuš, Revúca, B. Bystrica, Martin and Žilina) beside the material recycling of wood waste.
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