Animal Farm. Teacher s Guide. Overview. About the Author. THE EXCHANGE QUESTION Does power always corrupt?

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1 Teacher s Guide Reading Level Lexile 1170 Genre/Length Classic Fiction; 160 pages Language Register Literary, Symbolism, Political Content Load Satire, Farm Life THE EXCHANGE QUESTION Does power always corrupt? Overview Background Published at the onset of the Cold War, is a satire of the Soviet regime s failure to realize a just socialist nation. In contrast to the twists and turns that characterize political language, Orwell s writing style is direct and unambiguous. He believed that people should not costume their ideas in an effort to make them more acceptable or palatable. Instead, he admired those who communicated clearly and in a style that appealed to the common sense of the reader. Book Summary Many readers interpret this story as representing Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin s rise to power and his cruel oppression of the Soviet people. In Orwell s narrative, barnyard animals revolt against their self-appointed leader. They are successful, and for a time, things are pleasant at. Before long, the pigs that took leadership of the farm start to act just like the humans they overthrew. becomes just as oppressive as the original Manor Farm, and the reader is forced to wonder if power always corrupts. About the Author Born on June 25, 1903, as Eric Arthur Blair, George Orwell was sent to an English boarding school when he was only eight years old. Away from his family, Orwell was miserable. He was an outsider at Saint Cyprian, lacking the titles and money that his classmates boasted. Upon graduation, his grades were not high enough to attend a major university. Instead, he became a police officer for the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, only to quit suddenly after returning to England on medical leave. In England, he decided to pursue writing. Orwell published several novels, but these works had yet to show the conviction that was at the foundation of two of his most popular novels, and His writing was best when he focused his energies on the social injustices he witnessed and experienced. Teacher s Guide page 1 of 13 Hampton-Brown

2 Reading the Book There are several options for reading. They include: Student Journal Student Journal, page 1 Name: Whole Class Assign sections of the book and discussion dates using the planner on Student Journal, page 1. After students read a section and respond to the corresponding Student Journal pages, have a class discussion. At the end of the book, the class meets for The Exchange. Small Groups Read the book Introduction with the group. Group members then read an agreed-upon number of pages, complete the corresponding Student Journal pages, and meet to discuss. When they finish the book, they meet again for The Exchange. Use the planner on Student Journal, page 1 to establish meeting times. by George Orwell Reading Schedule Group members: Student Journal Due Date Discussion Date Introduction Pages 2 4 Chapters I IV Pages 5 6 Chapters V VII Pages 7 8 Chapters VIII X Pages 9 10 The Exchange Assessment Independently Students read the book on their own and then meet as a group for The Exchange. Use the planner on Student Journal, page 1 to establish the meeting time. Guided Reading Have students read Student Journal, page 2 and monitor their discussion of the What If? scenario. Read aloud the book Introduction to give students background on the book. As students read, use the Before You Move On questions to guide comprehension. Use the Look Ahead to set a focus for reading the next set of pages. At the end of each section, assign the appropriate Student Journal pages. Discuss the pages before starting the next section. Establish a date for The Exchange and record it on the planner. Getting Started Have students read What If? on Student Journal, page 2 and discuss the scenario. Encourage students to describe the similarities and differences between the scenario and their lives and imagine how the situation would affect them. Have students write their responses to the three questions below the scenario and compare answers with a partner or the group. Have students discuss how the situation might relate to The Exchange question and then write a brief summary of their discussion in the Student Journal. Does power always corrupt? HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 1 9/28/06 10:43:27 AM Getting Started What If? Student Journal, page 2 You and your friend have part-time jobs at a store in the mall. You both love the store, but the manager is unfair and yells at the workers. If you are late even five minutes, he takes money out of your paycheck. You are allowed only one 15-minute break. Then your friend becomes assistant manager. You are both happy because now he can make things better at work. At first, he treats the workers well. However, one day you notice your friend noting your break time. The next day, he asks if you can work a little faster. By the end of the week, he s yelling at you just like the manager did. Make notes about how this would affect you. What could have made your friend change? Would this affect your friendship? Do you think you would change if you became a manager? Connect to The Exchange Question Discuss how this situation could relate to The Exchange Question: Does power always corrupt? Summarize your discussion. HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 2 9/28/06 10:43:31 AM Teacher s Guide page 2 of 13 Hampton-Brown

3 Introduction Have students read the book Introduction. Check their comprehension with the three follow-up questions on Student Journal, page 3. Introduction Read the Introduction on pages 7 9 in. The Introduction will help you understand key concepts in the book. Knowing them will help you discuss and write about the book. Student Journal, page 3 The Introduction includes information about how the author s experiences influenced his writing the historical events of the book s time period reactions to the book After you read the Introduction, answer these questions to check your understanding. 1. How did the author s own experiences influence the plot of the book? At boarding school, Orwell was ridiculed because he did not have an important family name or status. These early experiences inspired him to explore social inequality and the misuse of power. 2. What was happening in the former Soviet Union when this book was published? How does the book address this? Joseph Stalin had risen to power and become the dictator of the Soviet Union. He established an oppressive regime in which the Soviet people suffered from political injustices and a poor economy. Orwell s book satirizes dictators. 3. How did people react to? was very controversial when it was first completed in Many people felt the novel attacked the Soviet Union and its leader too directly. After being in print for a few years the book started to gain popularity. HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 3 9/28/06 10:43:31 AM Introduction: Key Concepts Have students study the first Key Concept with the help of the graphic organizer on Student Journal, page 4. After studying the example, they should create similar graphic organizers to focus their understanding of the remaining Key Concepts. Introduction: Key Concepts Concept Map Study the Concept Map for injustice. Write a sentence using the word injustice. Concept Map Student Journal, page 4 Key Concept injustice Key Concepts democratic dictator inequality injustice revolution Characteristics of concept: wrong violations loss Not characteristic of concept: equality freedom honesty Definition of concept when things are not just or fair Examples of concept discrimination being punished for a crime you did not commit On a separate sheet of paper, create a similar Concept Map for the remaining Key Concept words. Write what the word is like (Characteristics) and what the word is not like. Use a dictionary for a definition of the word and to help you with examples. Then write a sentence for each Key Concept word. HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 4 9/28/06 10:43:32 AM Teacher s Guide page 3 of 13 Hampton-Brown

4 Pages Chapters I IV Answers for Before You Move On PAGE Conflict According to Major, why is Man the enemy? Man is the enemy because he does not give animals freedom to live off what they produce, and he works them until they are no longer useful. 2. Summarize What is the main message Major gives to the other animals on the farm? Animals should rebel against the tyranny of Man and treat all animals as comrades in a unified struggle. PAGE Cause and Effect Reread pages What events trigger the Rebellion? Jones forgets to feed the animals for almost two days. So the animals steal food and get whipped. They decide to fight Jones. 2. Inference Why are the pigs more interested in the Rebellion than other animals? As the more intelligent animals, they see the power it could bring them. PAGE Plot Why do the animals accept the pigs getting all the milk? The pigs convince the animals that they should get the milk because they do all of the brain work and without them Mr. Jones could return. 2. Conclusions Why do the other farmers help Mr. Jones when he tries to reclaim his farm? They see how successful the animal revolution is and are afraid that their animals will do the same. Respond to Chapters I IV Student Journal, page 5 1. Personal Response Old Major inspires the animals to start a revolution against their cruel master, Mr. Jones. Describe a person who inspires you. 2. Opinion Do you think that the Seven Commandments of Animalism make Manor Farm a more democratic place? Why or why not? Use the word democratic in your response. Students may say yes, because the rules establish that all animals are equal, and that is the basis of a democracy. They may say no because the rules dictate who is a friend and who is an enemy, which undemocratically takes away personal choice. 3. Plot The other animals discover that the pigs are keeping the milk and fruit for themselves. What is the significance of this event to the plot? This is the first sign of corruption of power in the pigs. One of the most important rules of Animalism is that all animals are equal. The pigs are disobeying this rule and acting like they are more important than the other animals. 4. Generate Questions Write a question about this section for someone else reading this book. Exchange questions with them. Do you agree with their answer? Student Journal, page 6 HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 5 9/28/06 10:43:32 AM Respond to Chapters I IV, continued 5. Analyze Character In Chapters I IV, Snowball, Squealer, and Napoleon provide leadership to the other animals. List what Snowball, Squealer, and Napoleon do and what this shows about them. Character Description Chart Snowball Squealer Napoleon Character What the Character Does leads the animals revolt; creates plans to build the windmill communicates Napoleon s rules; tells Napoleon about any suspicious behavior makes all the decisions on the farm; gets rid of any animal that objects to him What This Shows About the Character Snowball is a strategist and an inventor. He wants to make the farm better. Squealer is a follower. He serves Napoleon and that gives him power. Napoleon is manipulative and fierce. He is a ruthless dictator. Napoleon is named after a French dictator, so this character name is very appropriate. Based on what you know about Squealer and Snowball, how do their names fit them? His name, Snowball, suggests that he is not a harmful animal. As Squealer s name indicates, he is a squealer. He snitches on animals. He also delivers all of Napoleon s lies. HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 6 9/28/06 10:43:32 AM Teacher s Guide page 4 of 13 Hampton-Brown

5 Pages Chapters V VII Answers for Before You Move On PAGE Character s Motive What makes Mollie go back to working for Man? Mollie does not want to give up enjoying small luxuries. She leaves in exchange for attention from Man. 2. Inference Napoleon debates against all of Snowball s plans for the farm, but has no plans of his own. Why? He is biding his time until the dogs are trained, and he can take over. PAGE Comparisons Napoleon breaks some commandments. How does begin to resemble Manor Farm again? The animals are forced to work for rations, give food to humans, and engage in trade. They are motivated by fear and obedience. Not everyone is equal. 2. Character s Motive Why does Boxer work so hard and repeat his slogans? The only thing he can control is how much he works. He feels that getting things done will solve problems. PAGE Character s Motive The animals are unhappy. What does Napoleon gain by turning Snowball into the enemy? Napoleon unites the animals by creating a common enemy. This allows him to stop complaints about food shortages, cruelty, and overwork. 2. Mood How does the mood of the story change after the executions? The animals are no longer happy and free. They can t believe what the Rebellion has turned into. They will remain faithful but have lost their spirit. Respond to Chapters V VII Student Journal, page 7 1. Personal Response The animals work hard to build the windmill and finish a job they thought was impossible. Tell about a time you successfully completed what you thought was impossible because of help from others. 2. Irony Napoleon announces that working on Sunday afternoon is voluntary. But if animals don t work, Napoleon will reduce their food ration by half. Explain why this is ironic. Use the word dictator in your response. The animals do not have a choice about working on Sunday afternoons. If they choose not to work, they will starve. Napoleon is a dictator because he leaves the animals no freedom to choose. 3. Argument Clover is heartbroken over what has been happening on the farm. Why does she still insist then that the farm is better now than it was under Mr. Jones? Clover does not want to admit that the farm is worse because she would have to acknowledge that she and the other animals have failed to realize Old Major s vision. She still believes in what the farm was originally trying to do. 4. Generate Questions Write a question about this section for someone else reading this book. Exchange questions with them. Do you agree with their answer? Student Journal, page 8 HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 7 9/28/06 10:43:33 AM Respond to Chapters V VII, continued 5. Cause and Effect In Chapters V VII Napoleon takes control of. Write 5 Causes and Effects to show how this happens. Use the Cause and Effect Chart to answer the question. Cause and Effect Chart Causes Napoleon brings in the dogs and they attack Snowball. Squealer explains everything to the animals. Squealer changes the truth about things that Snowball did. The animals fear Jones coming back. Most of the animals cannot read. Effects Napoleon wins the debate over the windmill and instills fear in the animals. Napoleon is able to change the commandments on the farm and the animals accept the changes. The animals believe that Snowball is a traitor, and Napoleon is a hero. The animals allow the pigs to have unfair advantages. They do not know what the original commandments said and if they really have changed. How does the ignorance of the other animals help Napoleon gain power? Most of the animals cannot read so they are forced to trust Napoleon and Squealer. The other animals are too afraid of the dogs to speak up against Napoleon. They believe everything they hear. HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 8 9/28/06 10:43:33 AM Teacher s Guide page 5 of 13 Hampton-Brown

6 Pages Chapters VIII X Answers for Before You Move On PAGE Character s Motive Why does Napoleon rarely appear in public? It makes him seem more powerful and important. He does not mix with the common masses. 2. Inference Reread page 105. Why do the animals barely remember life before the Rebellion? Squealer fills them with so much information and lies that they don t know what really happened. PAGE Character s Motive Why does Benjamin read the side of the van when he refused to read for the animals before? He is now affected by Napoleon because Napoleon hurt someone he was devoted to. 2. Inference Reread pages Why do the pigs insist on more ceremonies and songs in the animals daily routine? Ceremonies and songs offset the hardships of the farm and motivate the animals to continue working. PAGE Irony Reread page 146. What is the irony of the outcome of? The animals are proud that they are the only farm run by animals and not Man, but the animals on are treated worse by the pigs than they were by Man. 2. Paraphrase Reread page 150. What does All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others really mean? The statement implies that all animals are not equal; some are better than others, or at least they think they are. Respond to Chapters VIII X Student Journal, page 9 1. Personal Response Clover and Benjamin prove to be loyal and reliable friends to Boxer. Which animal would you choose for a friend? Explain why the animal s qualities would make them a good friend. 2. Conclusions What is Sugarcandy Mountain? Do you think it is a fair reward for the animals that have experienced injustice and inequality in their lives? Why? Use the words injustice and inequality in your response. Sugarcandy Mountain is not a fair reward for a lifetime of injustice and inequality because it is an imaginary place that doesn t really exist. 3. Author s Purpose At the end of the story the animals notice that they cannot distinguish the pigs from the men. What message do you think the author is trying to convey in this scene? That power can corrupt anyone. The pigs were controlled by Man, and despite the animals revolution, they are now just as corrupt as Man. What If? 4. Connect Look at your notes on Student Journal, page 2. Think about being in a situation where you work for people who are corrupted by power. Compare this to. What happens to the animals when Napoleon takes control of? Student Journal, page 10 HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 9 9/28/06 10:43:33 AM Respond to Chapters VIII X, continued 5. Plot In Chapters VIII X, becomes very different from Old Major s initial vision. How do the dogs and Squealer boost Napoleon s power and allow him to remain in power? Use the T Chart to answer the question. T Chart How the dogs boosted Napoleon s power They scared all of the other animals. They killed for Napoleon. They ran snowball off the farm. How Squealer boosted Napoleon s power He spread lies. He convinced the animals to believe Napoleon. He told Napoleon everything that was happening. Could Napoleon have been a successful dictator if he did not have Squealer and the dogs? Why or why not? No, he would not have been able to rule without the dogs or Squealer. Napoleon did not have a lot of his own innovative ideas. The dogs helped Napoleon intimidate the other animals and they protected him. They instilled fear in the rest of the animals. HSLL.T3.SJ.Animal.indd 10 9/28/06 10:43:33 AM Teacher s Guide page 6 of 13 Hampton-Brown

7 Exchange Discussion, inside back cover THE QUESTION Does power always corrupt? Was everyone in this book corrupted by power? Explain. No. The characters in the book with power are the humans, Napoleon, and Snowball. The humans and Napoleon are corrupted by power because they use their power to gain things for themselves. Snowball is not corrupted by power because he acts for the good of the group. Tell about a time when you had to decide if you should keep quiet or revolt against something you felt was wrong. The animals all react differently to Napoleon and his dictatorship. Which animal do you feel best represents what you would do under these injustices? Explain your reasons. Review the work you did in your Student Journal. Take your book and your Journal with you to The Exchange book discussion. EXCHANGE IDEAS Tell the group why you would recommend or not recommend this book. Compare this book to something it reminded you of, such as another book, a movie, a TV show, or a personal experience. Has this book changed or confirmed the way you think about something in your life? Explain. THE QUESTION Does power always corrupt? Was everyone in this book corrupted by power? Explain. Tell about a time when you had to decide if you should keep quiet or revolt against something you felt was wrong. The animals all react differently to Napoleon and his dictatorship. Which animal do you feel best represents what you would do under these injustices? Explain your reasons. REFLECT Summarize your Exchange. How did this book change the way you see something? What questions do you still have? How will you answer them? Evaluate the Discussion Use the reproducible master from page 8 of this Teacher s Guide to evaluate The Exchange discussion. The form may also be used by students for group assessment. Evaluate the Discussion Discussion Rubric Excellent Good Fair Everyone participated. Most people participated. Only a few people participated. Everyone spoke clearly. Most people spoke clearly. Some people did not speak clearly. Everyone listened carefully. We stayed on the topic throughout the discussion. We responded to each other s thoughts and ideas often. Most people used examples from the book to support their points. Most people gave detailed answers using their experiences and even other texts. Most people listened carefully. We stayed on the topic most of the time. We commented on each other s thoughts and ideas sometimes. Many people used examples from the book to support their points. Many people gave detailed answers using their experiences. Some people did not listen carefully. We did not stay on the topic all the time. We did not make many comments on each other s thoughts and ideas. Only a few people used examples from the book to support their points. Only a few people gave detailed answers. Notes: Teacher s Guide page 7 of 13 Hampton-Brown

8 Book Title Date Evaluate the Discussion Excellent Good Fair Everyone participated. Most people participated. Only a few people participated. Everyone spoke clearly. Most people spoke clearly. Some people did not speak clearly. Everyone listened carefully. Most people listened carefully. Some people did not listen carefully. We stayed on the topic throughout the discussion. We responded to each other s thoughts and ideas often. Most people used examples from the book to support their points. Most people gave detailed answers using their experiences and even other texts. We stayed on the topic most of the time. We commented on each other s thoughts and ideas sometimes. Many people used examples from the book to support their points. Many people gave detailed answers using their experiences. We did not stay on the topic all the time. We did not make many comments on each other s thoughts and ideas. Only a few people used examples from the book to support their points. Only a few people gave detailed answers. Notes: Hampton-Brown

9 Assessment Assess students understanding of by administering the multiple-choice test and essay questions. (Teacher s Guide, pages 10 12) How you administer the Assessment depends on your objective. You may choose to use the test as: an open-book test to allow students to continue practicing reading strategies and/or become familiar with a typical standardized test format a closed-book test to check students comprehension of the book and their abilities in various reading skills a take-home test to allow students to practice reading strategies as well as test-taking skills Suggested point values are as follows: Assessment Part I: 5 points per question for a total of 50 points. Assessment Part II: 40 points possible (see Scoring Guide, page 13) Assessment Part I Circle the best answer. 1. Which of these is the best plot summary? A When the animals successfully revolt, they realize that living by their own rules is better than working under Mr. Jones. B When the animals have an opportunity to rule their own farm, they realize that they can become equally corrupt as human beings when one animal takes over. C After the animals gain control of the farm, the pigs start acting like humans. Boxer works really hard. Mollie goes back to work for Man. D When barnyard animals obtain power to govern their own farm, they build a windmill. When it is destroyed they blame Man. 2. The animals of Manor Farm started a in order to gain control of the farm. A revolution B club C dictatorship D team 3. Napoleon does not give the animals enough food and slaughters anyone who violates the rules. These are examples of. A humanity B injustices C revolutions D rebellions Assessment Part I Name: 4. What can the reader conclude about Mollie? A Mollie leaves because she does not get along with the other animals. B Mollie leaves because she feels she is overworked. C Mollie chooses a different master who provides her with small luxuries that make her happy. D Mollie chooses to leave because she does not value freedom. 5. Why does Benjamin decide against voting for either Snowball s windmill or Napoleon s manger? A He thinks that no matter who is in charge and what changes are made, life will not improve. B He does not think that the animals are capable of building the windmill. C He does not think the animals will survive long without their old master, Mr. Jones. D He cannot determine which will help the animals more, the windmill or a full manger. 6. After Napoleon executes the animals, the author creates a mood of A anger B excitement C happiness D disappointment Assessment Part II Assessment Part I, continued Guidelines for Short Essay Have students write a short essay in response to one of the writing prompts below. Use the Scoring Guide to assist in your evaluation of their essays. A. Old Major states that Man is the enemy and encourages a revolution. What did Old Major fail to foresee? How was his vision of different from Napoleon s? Knowing what you do now, how would you advise the animals on the farm? Responses should address how power, whether in the hands of humans or animals, can corrupt. Old Major s vision failed because he could not foresee that animals, when placed in a position of absolute power, could become just as corrupt and evil as people. Students may write that given what they know now, they would advise the animals to create commandments that would balance the power among different animals. B. How does Napoleon gain and keep control of? How do the animals react to his leadership? What could the animals have done to stop Napoleon? Responses should address how Napoleon gained control by using the dogs to instill fear in the animals and run Snowball out of. He kept control by using the dogs, Squealer, and the sheep to spread his lies and interrupt when there was uneasiness about a decision. The animals let their fear and ignorance control them. They could have questioned Napoleon s rules and joined together to revolt against him. Scoring Guide Description of the response: 4 Interpretation is accurate and thoughtful Explanation is fully developed Support includes specific and relevant text evidence All parts of the question are clearly addressed 3 Interpretation is adequate Explanation is developed but may lack some insight Support includes most specific and relevant text evidence All parts of the question are addressed to some degree 2 Interpretation is literal or limited Explanation is incomplete Support includes some specific and relevant text evidence Only parts of the question are addressed and mostly in a limited way 1 Interpretation is weak Explanation is vague Support includes few, if any, relevant details from the text Only one part of the question is minimally addressed 0 Response is totally incorrect or irrelevant Assessment Part I, continued Circle the best answer. 7. The animals are struggling with the disappointment that life has not become better under Napoleon. Which sentence from the book suggests this? A The animals were not badly off throughout that summer, in spite of the hardness of their work. B As for the others, their life, so far as they knew, was as it had always been. C Once again the animals were conscious of a vague uneasiness. D But if there were hardships to be borne, they were partly offset by the fact that life nowadays had a greater dignity than it had had before. 8. On page 115, why does Squealer use the word readjustment instead of reduction when talking about the animals food ration? A Squealer does not want to admit that there is a food shortage. B Squealer believes that the animals do not need as much food as they demand. C Squealer does not know how to read so he uses the wrong word when talking about the ration. D Napoleon has given Squealer specific instructions about what words to use. Name: 9. In what way does Snowball feel connected to the windmill? A Snowball feels that it is his opportunity to contribute something important to. B Snowball is certain that building the windmill will allow the other animals to see him as their leader. C Snowball feels that a windmill should be on every farm. D Snowball cannot wait to build the windmill because he knows that Napoleon is against it. 10. Near the end of the story, the animals cannot tell the difference between the pigs and men. This helps the reader understand A that conditions on will probably get better B that Man will be in charge of Animal Farm again C that animals and men both have become corrupted by power D that animals and men can never be equals Teacher s Guide page 9 of 13 Hampton-Brown

10 Name: Assessment Part I Circle the best answer. 1. Which of these is the best plot summary? A When the animals successfully revolt, they realize that living by their own rules is better than working under Mr. Jones. B When the animals have an opportunity to rule their own farm, they realize that they can become equally corrupt as human beings when one animal takes over. C After the animals gain control of the farm, the pigs start acting like humans. Boxer works really hard. Mollie goes back to work for Man. D When barnyard animals obtain power to govern their own farm, they build a windmill. When it is destroyed they blame Man. 2. The animals of Manor Farm started a in order to gain control of the farm. A revolution B club C dictatorship D team 3. Napoleon does not give the animals enough food and slaughters anyone who violates the rules. These are examples of. A humanity B injustices C revolutions D rebellions 4. What can the reader conclude about Mollie? A Mollie leaves because she does not get along with the other animals. B Mollie leaves because she feels she is overworked. C Mollie chooses a different master who provides her with small luxuries that make her happy. D Mollie chooses to leave because she does not value freedom. 5. Why does Benjamin decide against voting for either Snowball s windmill or Napoleon s manger? A He thinks that no matter who is in charge and what changes are made, life will not improve. B He does not think that the animals are capable of building the windmill. C He does not think the animals will survive long without their old master, Mr. Jones. D He cannot determine which will help the animals more, the windmill or a full manger. 6. After Napoleon executes the animals, the author creates a mood of A anger B excitement C happiness D disappointment Hampton-Brown

11 Name: Assessment Part I, continued Circle the best answer. 7. The animals are struggling with the disappointment that life has not become better under Napoleon. Which sentence from the book suggests this? A The animals were not badly off throughout that summer, in spite of the hardness of their work. B As for the others, their life, so far as they knew, was as it had always been. C Once again the animals were conscious of a vague uneasiness. D But if there were hardships to be borne, they were partly offset by the fact that life nowadays had a greater dignity than it had had before. 8. On page 115, why does Squealer use the word readjustment instead of reduction when talking about the animals food ration? A Squealer does not want to admit that there is a food shortage. B Squealer believes that the animals do not need as much food as they demand. C Squealer does not know how to read so he uses the wrong word when talking about the ration. 9. In what way does Snowball feel connected to the windmill? A Snowball feels that it is his opportunity to contribute something important to. B Snowball is certain that building the windmill will allow the other animals to see him as their leader. C Snowball feels that a windmill should be on every farm. D Snowball cannot wait to build the windmill because he knows that Napoleon is against it. 10. Near the end of the story, the animals cannot tell the difference between the pigs and men. This helps the reader understand A that conditions on will probably get better B that Man will be in charge of Animal Farm again C that animals and men both have become corrupted by power D that animals and men can never be equals D Napoleon has given Squealer specific instructions about what words to use. Hampton-Brown

12 Name: Assessment Part II Choose one question to answer. Write 3 4 paragraphs. Use 3 examples from the text to support your answer. Continue your essay on a separate sheet of paper if necessary. A. Old Major states that Man is the enemy and encourages a revolution. What did Old Major fail to foresee? How was his vision of different from Napoleon s? Knowing what you do now, how would you advise the animals on the farm? B. How does Napoleon gain and keep control of? How do the animals react to his leadership? What could the animals have done to stop Napoleon? Hampton-Brown

13 Guidelines for Short Essay Have students write a short essay in response to one of the writing prompts below. Use the Scoring Guide to assist in your evaluation of their essays. A. Old Major states that Man is the enemy and encourages a revolution. What did Old Major fail to foresee? How was his vision of different from Napoleon s? Knowing what you do now, how would you advise the animals on the farm? Responses should address how power, whether in the hands of humans or animals, can corrupt. Old Major s vision failed because he could not foresee that animals, when placed in a position of absolute power, could become just as corrupt and evil as people. Students may write that given what they know now, they would advise the animals to create commandments that would balance the power among different animals. B. How does Napoleon gain and keep control of? How do the animals react to his leadership? What could the animals have done to stop Napoleon? Responses should address how Napoleon gained control by using the dogs to instill fear in the animals and run Snowball out of. He kept control by using the dogs, Squealer, and the sheep to spread his lies and interrupt when there was uneasiness about a decision. The animals let their fear and ignorance control them. They could have questioned Napoleon s rules and joined together to revolt against him. Scoring Guide Description of the response: 4 Interpretation is accurate and thoughtful Explanation is fully developed Support includes specific and relevant text evidence All parts of the question are clearly addressed 3 Interpretation is adequate Explanation is developed but may lack some insight Support includes most specific and relevant text evidence All parts of the question are addressed to some degree 2 Interpretation is literal or limited Explanation is incomplete Support includes some specific and relevant text evidence Only parts of the question are addressed and mostly in a limited way 1 Interpretation is weak Explanation is vague Support includes few, if any, relevant details from the text Only one part of the question is minimally addressed 0 Response is totally incorrect or irrelevant Teacher s Guide page 13 of 13 Hampton-Brown

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