Modeling tree - grass balance in savanna ecosystems: the importance of different factors

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Modeling tree - grass balance in savanna ecosystems: the importance of different factors"

Transcription

1 Modeling tree - grass balance in savanna ecosystems: the importance of different factors Veiko Lehsten Almut Arneth Lund University Sweden

2 Savanna ecosystems co-dominance of trees and grasses cover one eighth of global land surface Mechanisms permitting a co-existence and factors determining relative proportions are not well understood. Competition based models vs. demographic bottleneck models Several mechanisms (factors) are proposed of which I am assessing two in a simulation model approach. Sankaran M, Ratnam J, Hanan NP (2004) Tree-grass coexistence in savannas revisited - insights from an examination of assumptions and mechanisms invoked in existing models. Ecology Letters 7,

3 Difference in the rooting niche Rooting Niche : trees and grasses have different abilities to utilize water (Walter 1971, classic equilibrium model) Grasses are superior competitor for water in upper layer, trees persist because of access to lower layers of soil Competition based model limiting factor of tree cover is water supply

4 Demographic-bottleneck Impacts of climate variability, and disturbances such as grazing and fires differs between life-history stages of trees. Demographic model: limiting factor is tree recruitment rate.

5 Other proposed explanations Phenological Niche Model : Different phenologies of trees and grasses allows trees to extend their season by storing of water. Balanced competition model: Trees are the superior competitor,become self-limited at a biomass insufficient to exclude grasses. More proposed mechanisms in Sankaran et al. (2005) application often in combination with each other

6 LPJ-GUESS (Lund Potsdam Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) Dynamic vegetation model LpJ Intro Simulates vegetation depending on: Precipitation Temperature Radiation Soil Vegetation simulated in age cohorts of plant functional types e.g. tropical broad-leafed raingreen tree or C4 grass of patches of ca. 1000m 2 Stochastic effects (disturbance, senescence) covered by repeated simulation of single patches and averaging Smith B et al. (2001) Global Ecology and Biogeography 10,

7 SPITFIRE (SPread and InTensity of FIRE) Simulates wildfires and their influence of vegetation Dynamic mode: Burned area depends on Fuel availability Climate Population density Sociological parameters Prescribed mode Burned area prescribed e.g. from remote sensing data Thonicke K, et al. (in review) The influence of vegetation, fire spread and fire behaviour on global biomass burning and trace gas emissions. Global Change Biology in review.

8 Leads to cambial damage and thereby to post fire mortality (if trees are not adapted) Fire effects: Vegetation SPITFIRE Intro Or to crown scorching if flames can reach the crown (post fire mortality) Fire intensity depends on fuel availability, fuel bulk density and environmental conditions (dryness) Both effects are size selective leading to a age related mortality

9 Sensitivity analysis of two factors: Transect from 1500 mm till 200 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP) 2000 mean annual precipitation Range used 1500 mm a degree north Along the precipitation gradient, (1) the root-distribution is varied between trees and grasses (no fire) (2) the fire frequency is varied with standard root distribution Climate data from the CarboAfrica Model Intercomparison: Weber et al. Biogeosciences (in review)

10 Sensitivity analysis of two factors: Design Rooting Niche : Trees and grasses have different abilities to utilize water (Walter 1971, classic equilibrium model) LPJ-GUESS simulates two soil layer (50 cm each) 100% 500mm 500mm Standard settings C4 Grasses Trees Grass roots in first layer 90% roots in 1. layer 10% roots in 2. layer 70% roots in 1. layer 30% roots in 2. layer 50% Tree roots in first layer Rooting gradient Simulation with 1000 years spinup, 100 patches, no fire SPITFIRE meeting 10-11/07/08

11 Demographic-Bottleneck Sensitivity analysis of two factors: Design Fire frequency gradient: Prescribed fire return interval ranging from annual fire to no fire Foliar Projective Foliar Cover Cover Trees Grasses Fire effects depend on fuel load and climate, low fuel low burned biomass, low effect on trees and vice versa Burned biomass in kg years Time series single patch of gridcell 20.5 E; 8.5 N SPITFIRE meeting 10-11/07/08

12 Sensitivity analysis of two factors: Results Rooting Niche : Trees and grasses have different abilities to utilize water (Walter 1971, classic equilibrium model) Grass FPC Tree FPC Latitude Rooting gradient Rooting gradient Latitude Rooting gradient in diagram Grass roots in first layer Tree roots first layer Simulation with 1000 years spinup, 100 patches, no fire Tree and Grass FPC is mainly governed by latitude (precipitation) Trees occur at sites with precipitation. Deeper roots give trees some advantage at low precipitation. Grasses occur at moderate precipitation. Shallow roots give some disadvantage.

13 Sensitivity analysis of fire effects: Results Grass FPC Tree FPC no no Fire return interval [years] Latitude Fire return interval [years] Fire determines vegetation mixture between trees and grass to a stronger degree than differences in root distribution. Trees occur at sites with high precipitation or moderate precipitation and low fire frequency. Latitude Grasses occur at moderate precipitation, their occurrence towards higher precipitation is strongly increased by fire. Simulation with 1000 years spinup, 100 patches

14 Better understanding of mechanisms can lead to increased performance in the simulation of vegetation types Simulation of vegetation at continental scale Fire: Prescribing MODIS burned area MCD45 transformed to fire frequencies per 1 degree grid cell Burn Frequency Average MCD45 Rooting: LPJ Standard

15 Continental vegetation simulation: First results Sim. without Fire Potential vegetation (RS-Data) Desert Open Shrubland Dense Shrubland Grassland Savanna Tropical Evergr. Forest. Ramankutty et al. (1999) Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13, Sim. with Fire

16 Pot. vegetation Sim. with Fire Sim. without Fire Kappa statistic agreement classes: 0.05 No 0.20 Very Poor 0.40 Poor 0.55 Fair 0.70 Good 0.85 Very Good 0.99 Excellent 1 Perfect Comparison of vegetation maps with Kappa statistic Simulation without fire Desert Rainforest Grassland Open shrub Dense shrub Total Simulation with fire Monserud et al. Comparing global vegetation maps with the Kappa statistic Ecological Modelling 62 (1992)

17 Thanks

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models doi:10.5194/bg1218332015 Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models M. Baudena 1, S.

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

The savanna problem from a statistical physics point of view

The savanna problem from a statistical physics point of view Fises 09, Huelva, 10-12th September 2009 The savanna problem from a statistical physics point of view Federico Vázquez, Cristóbal López, Maxi San Miguel Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas

More information

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological

More information

Chapter 3: Fire Regimes

Chapter 3: Fire Regimes Chapter 3: Fire Regimes Fire regimes are a critical foundation for understanding and describing effects of changing climate on fire patterns and characterizing their combined impacts on vegetation and

More information

Will climate changedisturbance. interactions perturb northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems past the point of no return?

Will climate changedisturbance. interactions perturb northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems past the point of no return? Photo: Craig Allen, USGS Will climate changedisturbance interactions perturb northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems past the point of no return? Rachel Loehman Research Landscape Ecologist USGS Alaska Science

More information

Projections, Predictions, or Trends?

Projections, Predictions, or Trends? Projections, Predictions, or Trends? The challenges of projecting changes to fire regimes under climate change Bec Harris 9-11 th October, 2013 What are we looking for? Aims differ, and are more or less

More information

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome:

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome: Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rain forests are home to more species than all other land biomes combined. The leafy tops of tall trees extending up to 70 meters above the forest floor form a dense covering

More information

Fire and The Tasmanian Forest Environment

Fire and The Tasmanian Forest Environment The present - day patterning of Tasmania s forest and plant communities is the result of changes in climate, soil fertility and the interplays between humans, fire and vegetation over many thousands of

More information

Tropical rainforests

Tropical rainforests Tropical rainforests 12/2/09 1 Tropical rainforest formations American formation about 50% of total tropical land area (neotropics) Amazon and Central America Equatorial Africa (20%) Congo Basin lower

More information

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what

More information

POND SUCCESSION

POND SUCCESSION Name period date assigned date due date returned Directions: Carefully cut out the cards for each example of succession. Only cut out the six to eight cards for each type at one time. Match the picture

More information

Ecosystems and Communities practice test

Ecosystems and Communities practice test Name: answers Score: 0 / 37 (0%) [14 subjective questions not graded] Ecosystems and Communities practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers

More information

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

More information

6. NATURAL AREAS FIRE MANAGEMENT

6. NATURAL AREAS FIRE MANAGEMENT 6. NATURAL AREAS FIRE MANAGEMENT 6-1 Wildfire management is an important component of managing and maintaining County natural areas. The natural areas are woven into the community fabric and are a part

More information

National 5. Unit 3. Life on earth. Ink exercise 1. Biodiversity and the distribution of life.

National 5. Unit 3. Life on earth. Ink exercise 1. Biodiversity and the distribution of life. National 5 Unit 3 Life on earth Ink exercise 1 Biodiversity and the distribution of life. Once completed and marked- Think about and list below the areas I need to work on: Multiple choice Tick one answer

More information

EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK

EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK OVERVIEW EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK This activity complements the Click and Learn Gorongosa National Park Interactive Map (http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/gorongosa-national-park-interactive-map)

More information

Climate Change and Biomes

Climate Change and Biomes Climate Change and Biomes Key Concepts: Greenhouse Gas WHAT YOU WILL LEARN Biome Climate zone Greenhouse gases 1. You will learn the difference between weather and climate. 2. You will analyze the effect

More information

defined largely by regional variations in climate

defined largely by regional variations in climate 1 Physical Environment: Climate and Biomes EVPP 110 Lecture Instructor: Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 Climate and Biomes Ecosystem concept physical and biological components of environment are considered as single,

More information

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.1 ) Energy Flow 1) Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George Date:

More information

The Biosphere Study Guide

The Biosphere Study Guide ANSWER KEY Name The Biosphere Study Guide Period Directions: Read pg. 572-588 in Science Explorer. Answer the following questions. Land Biomes 1. What is a biome? a group of ecosystems with similar organisms

More information

Energy flow & Biomes. Pay particular attention to the diagrams

Energy flow & Biomes. Pay particular attention to the diagrams Energy flow & Biomes Pay particular attention to the diagrams Bacteria feed at EVERY trophic level! Energy Movement Remember that organisms store energy to be used Stored energy is then taken by an organism

More information

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products?

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? Science S Theory Lesson Lesson information Level: Junior secondary school Year 10 Duration: Summary: Approximately 3 lessons Sustainably managed forests

More information

The Effect of Aspect on Air and Ground Temperature in Microenvironments of the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California

The Effect of Aspect on Air and Ground Temperature in Microenvironments of the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California The Effect of Aspect on Air and Ground Temperature in Microenvironments of the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California Henry Ortiz Institute Director Santa Monica Mountains Institute Hot Summer

More information

Regents Biology LAB. STUDY OF POPULATION DENSITY ON A SUBURBAN LAWN

Regents Biology LAB. STUDY OF POPULATION DENSITY ON A SUBURBAN LAWN Period Date LAB. STUDY OF POPULATION DENSITY ON A SUBURBAN LAWN Ecological communities are built on the interactions between the creatures (both plants and animals) that live there and the physical environment

More information

Life Cycle Of A Plant Population

Life Cycle Of A Plant Population Life Cycle Of A Plant Population Seed Rain n=3 Growth And Mortality n=7 Seedling Cohort n=22 Environmental Sieve Seed Bank n=5 Copyright G. Bonan 22 Suvivorship Of Seedlings In A Northern Hardwood Forest

More information

Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients

Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients 1 2 3 4 World Biomes Tropical Rainforest Abiotic factors high biodiversity and biomass both hot and moist; ideal for bacteria and other microorganisms; they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor

More information

Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies. Chien Wang (MIT)

Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies. Chien Wang (MIT) Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies Chien Wang (MIT) 1. A large-scale installation of windmills Desired Energy Output: supply 10% of the estimated world

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts, Grasslands, and Forests

Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts, Grasslands, and Forests Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts, Grasslands, and Forests Name Period Teacher 1. Biomes are best described as: a. Regions that support animal life. b. Regions of characteristic vegetation. c. Regions with climates

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 x 1 mark) (i) climate the average weather of an area over a 25 30 year period (ii) maritime

More information

Rangeland Management Plan Workbook

Rangeland Management Plan Workbook Rangeland Management Plan Workbook Directions and Tips for Developing a Management Plan High Desert Youth Range Camp 1. You can work with the land manager/ land owner (counselor) for the site your team

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work Ecosystem Ecology Read Chps 18-19 (know N, P, C cycles) Ecosystem: A community of organisms plus its nonlinving (=abiotic) environment At the individual level, the abiotic environment affects organisms

More information

1. the orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the replacement of one community by another untii a stable climax is established

1. the orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the replacement of one community by another untii a stable climax is established 1/11/2016 Quizlet 5 Written questions 1. the orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the replacement of one community by another untii a stable climax is established 2. A stable, mature

More information

Experimental Products. Current Conditions. Forecast. Image Archive. Data Archive. Growing Season Index US48. US48 Regional Subsets

Experimental Products. Current Conditions. Forecast. Image Archive. Data Archive. Growing Season Index US48. US48 Regional Subsets Experimental Products Current Conditions Forecast Image Archive Data Archive US48 US48 Regional Subsets 1/5 The (GSI) The is a simple metric of plant physiological limits to photosynthesis. It is highly

More information

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

3 Temperate and Polar Zones Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

More information

Factors That Influence Ecosystems

Factors That Influence Ecosystems Name Class Date Skills Practice Lab MATH/GRAPHING Factors That Influence Ecosystems Ecosystems are communities of plants, animals, and other organisms that live and interact with each other and with nonliving

More information

FIRE RECURRENCE IN E SPAIN FORESTS Natural dynamics and restoration approach

FIRE RECURRENCE IN E SPAIN FORESTS Natural dynamics and restoration approach FIRE RECURRENCE IN E SPAIN FORESTS Natural dynamics and restoration approach A CASCADE Project case study in Ayora, Spain by Alejandro Valdecantos (CEAM), V. Ramón Vallejo (UB), David Fuentes (UB), Nichola

More information

Department of Forest and

Department of Forest and Colorado State University 1 Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship Office in Forestry Building, Room 123 (970) 491-6911 warnercnr.colostate.edu/frs-home (http://warnercnr.colostate.edu/ frws-home)

More information

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other.

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other. Lungs of the Planet Name: Date: Why do people call rain forests the lungs of the planet? Usually it is because people think that the rain forests produce most of the oxygen we breathe. But do they? To

More information

E: too cold for trees. C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes. General location of major climate types. GEO 101, April 1, 2014.

E: too cold for trees. C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes. General location of major climate types. GEO 101, April 1, 2014. GEO 101, April 1, 2014 General location of major climate types Finish climates A: Tropical climates E: too cold for trees Treeline D: long winter H : arid C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes Hypothetical

More information

Tropical Rain Forests. Tropical Biomes of the World. Tropical Rain Forests: Climate. Tropical Rain Forests: Tropical Biomes in North America

Tropical Rain Forests. Tropical Biomes of the World. Tropical Rain Forests: Climate. Tropical Rain Forests: Tropical Biomes in North America Tropical Biomes of the World Tropical Evergreen Forests (rain forests) Tropical Deciduous Forests (seasonal forests or monsoon forests) Tropical Scrub Forests Tropical Grasslands Tropical Rain Forests

More information

MONITORING OF DROUGHT ON THE CHMI WEBSITE

MONITORING OF DROUGHT ON THE CHMI WEBSITE MONITORING OF DROUGHT ON THE CHMI WEBSITE Richterová D. 1, 2, Kohut M. 3 1 Department of Applied and Land scape Ecology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech

More information

Tropical Rainforest. Abiotic Factors Amount of Water, Sunlight, Soil, Precipitation

Tropical Rainforest. Abiotic Factors Amount of Water, Sunlight, Soil, Precipitation World Biomes A biome is an area of land that shares similar temperatures and precipitation. The observation of the temperature and precipitation over a period time make up a biome s climate. Each biome

More information

Climatic conditions. Cold desert vegetation varies with moisture, elevation, and salinity. Cold (Temperate) Desert Shrublands

Climatic conditions. Cold desert vegetation varies with moisture, elevation, and salinity. Cold (Temperate) Desert Shrublands Cold (Temperate) Desert Shrublands Reading: Knight, Ch. 6 and p. 133-140 10/10/07 1 Climatic conditions Warm deserts grade up into cold deserts, with some overlap in species Cold desert shrublands may

More information

Climates Climate Zones

Climates Climate Zones Climates Climate Zones Climates Climate Zones The Earth s surface is made up of many different climates. To help them organize it all, climatologists (scientists who study climates) have grouped climates

More information

6.1 Climates and Biomes

6.1 Climates and Biomes CHAPTER 6 BIOMES 6.1 Climates and Biomes Imagine someone gave you an airplane ticket to travel to Africa to see Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. If you like adventures, you might say Great! When do

More information

What is an Ecosystem?

What is an Ecosystem? ECOSYSTEMS What is an Ecosystem? Ecosystem- a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. There are many types of ecosystems and they can be small or large in size. Example

More information

Ponds bog marsh meadow What To Do:

Ponds bog marsh meadow What To Do: 83 Name: Date: Ecological Succession A community is all the different organisms that live together in an area. A community in an ecosystem is in equilibrium, or state of balance, when the number and species

More information

National Hazard and Risk Model (No-HARM) Wildfire

National Hazard and Risk Model (No-HARM) Wildfire National Hazard and Risk Model (No-HARM) Wildfire A Briefing Paper Anchor Point Group LLC 2131 Upland Ave. Boulder, CO 80304 (303) 665-3473 www.anchorpointgroup.com Summary The potential for wildfire-caused

More information

FIRE EFFECTS MONITOR (FEMO)

FIRE EFFECTS MONITOR (FEMO) A Publication of the National Wildfire Coordinating Group Sponsored by United States Department of Agriculture United States Department of the Interior National Association of State Foresters NATIONAL

More information

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Weather - the short term properties of the troposphere at a given place and time. Climate - the average long-term weather of an area. averaged over a long

More information

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species Science Unit 6: Vocabulary List One tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species The coldest of the biomes, located at the top

More information

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS Period Date REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. All of the following are density-dependent factors

More information

Detection of Selective Logging for Estimating and Monitoring Forest Degradation: methodologies and experiences in Brazil

Detection of Selective Logging for Estimating and Monitoring Forest Degradation: methodologies and experiences in Brazil Detection of Selective Logging for Estimating and Monitoring Forest Degradation: methodologies and experiences in Brazil Thelma Krug National Institute for Space Research INPE Ministry of Science and Technology

More information

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5.

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. North arolina Testing Program EO iology Sample Items Goal 4 Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. coyotes 3. If these organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which organism

More information

Pre- and Post-Wildfire Forest Management for Ecological Restoration and Fire Resiliency

Pre- and Post-Wildfire Forest Management for Ecological Restoration and Fire Resiliency Pre- and Post-Wildfire Forest Management for Ecological Restoration and Fire Resiliency Richard B. Standiford UC Berkeley, Center for Forestry standifo@berkeley.edu Review of Day One: Background Setting

More information

FORESTED VEGETATION. forests by restoring forests at lower. Prevent invasive plants from establishing after disturbances

FORESTED VEGETATION. forests by restoring forests at lower. Prevent invasive plants from establishing after disturbances FORESTED VEGETATION Type of strategy Protect General cold adaptation upland and approach subalpine forests by restoring forests at lower Specific adaptation action Thin dry forests to densities low enough

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 55 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

Warm- Up: Page 7 Illustrate primary succession over >me in 4 pictures. Below explain why succession is important.

Warm- Up: Page 7 Illustrate primary succession over >me in 4 pictures. Below explain why succession is important. Learning Target: Today I will assess the depth of my knowledge of succession and biomes, so that I can evaluate how to organize my >me in class. January 11, 2016 Warm- Up: Page 7 Illustrate primary succession

More information

Desertification Vocabulary Chart

Desertification Vocabulary Chart Desertification Vocabulary Chart Vocabulary Word What I think it means. What it means Picture Desert Desertification Drought Overgraze Vocabulary Word What I think it means. ELL ADAPTATION What it means

More information

Detecting desertification in savanna systems

Detecting desertification in savanna systems Detecting desertification in savanna systems RJ (Bob) Scholes Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Natural Resources and Environment Pretoria, South Africa bscholes@csir.co.za What is desertification?

More information

Rangeland Management Concept Note

Rangeland Management Concept Note Rangeland Management Concept Note Richard Forsman, USFS-Retired I Introduction This paper introduces key definitions, concepts and issues that will be explored and collectively addressed during the USFS

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

Lesson 10 Succession. Overview. Students will: Content Background. Ti m e : 2 Cl a s s Pe r i o d s

Lesson 10 Succession. Overview. Students will: Content Background. Ti m e : 2 Cl a s s Pe r i o d s Lesson 10 Succession Overview Now that students have learned about the diversity of life and the complexity and differences in ecosystems and biomes, they will observe what happens when an ecosystem is

More information

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. 2. A Hierarchy of interactions: cells tissues organs

More information

Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer in regional scale climate modeling. R.A. Feddes, K. Metselaar, l.wipfler and J.C. van Dam

Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer in regional scale climate modeling. R.A. Feddes, K. Metselaar, l.wipfler and J.C. van Dam Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer in regional scale climate modeling R.A. Feddes, K. Metselaar, l.wipfler and J.C. van Dam Water balance components P E R D root q p Global circulation Atmosphere Processes

More information

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREE DENSITY AND GRASS DRY MATTER YIELD IN A SOUTHERN AFRICAN SAVANNA. G.N. Smit

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREE DENSITY AND GRASS DRY MATTER YIELD IN A SOUTHERN AFRICAN SAVANNA. G.N. Smit ID#05-01 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREE DENSITY AND GRASS DRY MATTER YIELD IN A SOUTHERN AFRICAN SAVANNA G.N. Smit Department of Grassland Science, University of the Orange Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein

More information

Ecological Succession. 10C: observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

Ecological Succession. 10C: observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds. Ecological Succession 10C: observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds. 10C Vocabulary 1) Equilibrium (in reference to ecosystems):

More information

AGRICULTURAL LAND CLASSIFICATION GATESHEAD WESTERN (A69) BYPASS TYNE AND WEAR CORRIDORS OF INTEREST

AGRICULTURAL LAND CLASSIFICATION GATESHEAD WESTERN (A69) BYPASS TYNE AND WEAR CORRIDORS OF INTEREST AGRICULTURAL LAND CLASSIFICATION GATESHEAD WESTERN (A69) BYPASS TYNE AND WEAR CORRIDORS OF INTEREST MAFF Leeds Regional Office June 1992 File Ref: 2FCS 5905 Project No: 33/92 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION AND

More information

Integrated Global Carbon Observations. Beverly Law Prof. Global Change Forest Science Science Chair, AmeriFlux Network Oregon State University

Integrated Global Carbon Observations. Beverly Law Prof. Global Change Forest Science Science Chair, AmeriFlux Network Oregon State University Integrated Global Carbon Observations Beverly Law Prof. Global Change Forest Science Science Chair, AmeriFlux Network Oregon State University Total Anthropogenic Emissions 2008 Total Anthropogenic CO 2

More information

Sagebrush steppe post-fire rehabilitation projects: Using the past to guide the future

Sagebrush steppe post-fire rehabilitation projects: Using the past to guide the future Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center Sagebrush steppe post-fire rehabilitation projects: Using the past to guide the future David A. Pyke, U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

More information

Stages of Stand Development

Stages of Stand Development Stages of Stand Development Stand Initiation Stage Stem Exclusion Stage Understory Reinitiation Stage Complex or Old Growth Stage Stand Development Stages Each phase is accompanied by changes in stand

More information

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem?

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem? I. What is an ecosystem? Ecosystems An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things that work together. Ecosystems have no particular size. An ecosystem can be as large as a desert or as small

More information

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment.

More information

About Soils By: Sue Peterson

About Soils By: Sue Peterson www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (nutrient, ground down, finer grains, deposit, geology, climate, topography, biology); concepts (bacteria, algae, fungi, chlorophyll, organic matter, simple/complex

More information

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1.

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Land Biomes A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Climate is described by a climatograph. Two of the

More information

The KING S Medium Term Plan Geography

The KING S Medium Term Plan Geography Year 9 Senior Programme Learning Cycle One The KING S Medium Term Plan Geography Module Ecosystems (rainforests, deserts, types of plants/animals etc.) Building on Prior Learning Overarching Subject Challenging

More information

Brochure Introducing HVDC

Brochure Introducing HVDC Brochure Introducing HVDC ABB and HVDC The world s first commercial high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link, situated between the Swedish mainland and the island Gotland, was delivered by ABB already in

More information

Climate Change in the Laguna Watershed: Addressing Hydrologic and Ecologic Impacts. Lorrie Flint and Alan Flint U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento, CA

Climate Change in the Laguna Watershed: Addressing Hydrologic and Ecologic Impacts. Lorrie Flint and Alan Flint U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento, CA Climate Change in the Laguna Watershed: Addressing Hydrologic and Ecologic Impacts Lorrie Flint and Alan Flint U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento, CA Global Warming The increase in the earth s temperature

More information

Testimony of Diane Vosick, Director of Policy and Partnerships

Testimony of Diane Vosick, Director of Policy and Partnerships Testimony of Diane Vosick, Director of Policy and Partnerships The Ecological Restoration Institute, Northern Arizona University http://www.eri.nau.edu/ Before the House Federal Lands Subcommittee April

More information

Primary succession Glacial retreat, Glacier Bay, Alaska. Community Change. Succession

Primary succession Glacial retreat, Glacier Bay, Alaska. Community Change. Succession Community Change Another community property -- change over time Species turnover Succession Replacement of one type of community by another Nonseasonal directional pattern of colonization & extinction

More information

Elmarie Kotzé, Alexandra Sandhage-Hofmann, Chris du Preez, Wulf Amelung University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Elmarie Kotzé, Alexandra Sandhage-Hofmann, Chris du Preez, Wulf Amelung University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa INFLUENCE OF RANGELAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ORGANIC MATTER CONTENTS AND AGGREGATION DYNAMICS OF CLAYEY SOILS IN THE SEMI-ARID GRASSLAND BIOME, SOUTH AFRICA by Elmarie Kotzé, Alexandra Sandhage-Hofmann,

More information

The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage

The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage Ian Thompson, Canadian Forest Service Brendan Mackey, Australian National University Alex Mosseler, Canadian Forest

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Zoo and Botanical Gardens Biome Contract Overview Students will investigate biotic and abiotic factors of different biomes by preparing a

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected

More information

Tree and forest restoration following wildfire

Tree and forest restoration following wildfire Peter F. Kolb (PhD) MSU Extension Forestry Specialist Adj. Assistant Professor Forest Ecology School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59808 Tel. (406) 243-4705, e-mail: efpfk@forestry.umt.edu

More information

BOTTLE BIOLOGY-EXPLORING ECOSYSTEMS

BOTTLE BIOLOGY-EXPLORING ECOSYSTEMS BOTTLE BIOLOGY-EXPLORING ECOSYSTEMS ECOSYSTEM AND HABITAT ECOCOLUMN DESIGN Experiment Objective: Students will design and construct an EcoColumn from a 2L pop bottle with two different types of ecosystems

More information

Tropical Rainforest Biome

Tropical Rainforest Biome "The land is one great, wild, untidy luxuriant hothouse, made by Nature for herself... How great would be the desire in every admirer of Nature to behold, if such were possible, the scenery of another

More information

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once.

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once. Use with textbook pages 8 28. Biomes and ecosystems Vocabulary abiotic adaptations behavioural biome biotic climatograph elevation latitude ocean currents physiological precipitation structural temperature

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Reconstructing late Pliocene global vegetation with a new BIOME4- based Data/Model Hybrid

Reconstructing late Pliocene global vegetation with a new BIOME4- based Data/Model Hybrid Reconstructing late Pliocene global vegetation with a new BIOME4- based Data/Model Hybrid Ulrich Salzmann 1,2, Alan Haywood 3 & Dan Lunt 1,4, Dan Hill 1,3 & Harry Dowsett 5 1 British Antarctic Survey,

More information

Climate Change Implications for Fire and Invasive Species across American Deserts

Climate Change Implications for Fire and Invasive Species across American Deserts Climate Change Implications for Fire and Invasive Species across American Deserts John T. Abatzoglou 1,2* Crystal A. Kolden 2 1 San Jose State University, San Jose, California 2 Desert Research Institute,

More information

LAND USE AND SEASONAL GREEN VEGETATION COVER OF THE CONTERMINOUS USA FOR USE IN NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

LAND USE AND SEASONAL GREEN VEGETATION COVER OF THE CONTERMINOUS USA FOR USE IN NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS LAND USE AND SEASONAL GREEN VEGETATION COVER OF THE CONTERMINOUS USA FOR USE IN NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS Kevin Gallo, NOAA/NESDIS/Office of Research & Applications Tim Owen, NOAA/NCDC Brad Reed, SAIC/EROS

More information

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY YEAR 1, PART 1 www.vicensvives.es Contents 01 Our planet Earth 02 The representation of the Earth: maps 03 The Earth s relief 04 Rivers and seas 05 Weather and climate 06 Climates

More information

Restoring Burned Area Fire Regimes at Zion National Park

Restoring Burned Area Fire Regimes at Zion National Park Restoring Burned Area Fire Regimes at Zion National Park Kelly Fuhrmann, Zion National Park, State Route 9, Springdale, UT 84767; kelly_ fuhrmann@nps.gov Introduction The Kolob Fire is the largest wildfire

More information

Plant adaptation to water supply

Plant adaptation to water supply Plant adaptation to water supply Summer School Soil &Water 2015 Supervisors: Dr.Tiina Tosens, Pia Burkhardt Participants: Lucie Pavlíková, Maria Metsaorg, Tamara Wind, Malte Aurich, Corinna Semle 1 Keywords:

More information

Agroforestry and climate change. Emmanuel Torquebiau FAO webinar 5 February 2013

Agroforestry and climate change. Emmanuel Torquebiau FAO webinar 5 February 2013 Agroforestry and climate change Emmanuel Torquebiau FAO webinar 5 February 2013 Agroforestry: well-known buffering and resilience effects Climate variability is well buffered by agroforestry because of

More information

The importance of ESD concept for rangeland monitoring program and rangeland management in Mongolia

The importance of ESD concept for rangeland monitoring program and rangeland management in Mongolia The importance of ESD concept for rangeland monitoring program and rangeland management in Mongolia Bulgamaa Densambuu, Green Gold, SDC Mongolia Bulgamaa@greengold.mn www.greengold.mn State of Mongolian

More information