Coloured water: pragmatic models and complex realities of communicating water functions in landscapes

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1 Coloured water: pragmatic models and complex realities of communicating water functions in landscapes Jennie Barron Stockholm Environment Institute at University of York (UK) And Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, (Sweden) ICID, London, 22 February, 2013

2 Contributions to todays discussion: -the issue, the concept and some examples of green blue water applications - the challenges at landscapes, with complex water use - conclusions /discussion points

3 Green and blue (grey) water flows and storages Green water flows total evapotranspiration Productive green flow Plant transpiration Non-productive green flow Evaporation flows Green water resource soil moisture generated from direct rainfall infiltration on its way to vaporize Blue water flow surface runoff and base flow Blue water resource groundwater, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands Grey water

4 The issue: CA, 2007 Raising freshwater, - and particular water for agriculture, on the global and local agenda

5 CA (2007): Re instated focus on rainfed crop production, - and outlined various dependencies at regional level 2 options: Increase water for food production CA 2007, Increase water productivity

6 Powerful model from field to national and global INDIA KENYA Rockstrom, Jansson, Barron 1998 SEI, 2005

7 Tot available water (m3/cap/yr) particularly relevant for water quantity Blue water scarcity Uganda Closing in on green water shortage Et hiopia Closing in on blue water shortage Erit rea M orocco Algeria Syria Tunisia China India Egypt Bangladesh Japan Green water scarcity 1000 Iraq Pakist an 500 Jordan Available blue water (m3/cap/yr) Rockstrom et al. 2009

8 The complex reality of use, users and opportunities 1. Trend: smallholder irrigation at landscape scale 2. Trend: recognition of water to provide functions 3. Trend: need for building resilience in short and long term

9 1. Emerging trend : smallholder irrigation development not on the radar? Sustainability & equity concerns AgWater Solution Area under smallholder irrigation (ha) Burkina Faso Ethiopia Ghana Tanzania AQUASTAT Total agr. water mg area (ha) Zambia

10 Example at landscape scale 1: what is blue and green in time space? Jahldaka, West Bengal Water abundance and scarcity Population Poverty Water in politics

11 Example at landscape scale 1: what is blue and green in time space? Jahldaka, West Bengal

12 Example at landscape scale 2: what is blue and green in time space? Nariarle, Burkina Faso Livelihood & environmental cost Reduce outflow during dry season Water quality Management of structures Inequity Unrealised potential: - Improve current low yield rainfed 3-4 times SEI-AgWater Solutions 2012

13 Example at landscape scale 2: what is blue and green in time space? Nariarle, Burkina Faso Agricultural incl. irrigation, area increases Small reservoir volume from 0 to 2% annual rainfall Irrigation 1% of watershed yrs rainfall 900mm 700 mm ETa 77% 88% GW recharge 10% 3% Roff 12% 9% Water balance shifts: implication for green blue estimates?

14 2. Water providing functions Water productivity needs to consider the multiple benefits generated by ecosystem services for human well-being and for nature Water-productivity gains have often been achieved out of balance with landscape ecosystem services Balancing the goals of agro-ecosystems with landscape ecosystem services can produce synergies and improve overall water productivity water productivity improves if move beyond provisioning services..

15 2. Water providing functions Hydrological attribute Quantity Quality Location Timing Principal Ecohydrological process surface & gw storage and flow Sediments Nutrients Salts Pathogens Other substances particles Up/downstream Ground/surface Biotic/abiotic (within vegetation) In/out channel Peak flows, base flows Velocity /rate/intensity? Water providing functions through storage and flow processes Ecosystem services Provisional Regulating Supporting Cultural

16 3. Water for short and longterm resilience building: mounting pressures and uncertainties Steffens et al2011

17 3. Water for short and longterm resilience building : needs for new approaches? The role and functions of water to persist undesired change (droughts, dryspells, disease, flood) The capacity role and to adaption (internal, external social and biophysical change) The capacity to transform (innovation in social and infrastructure/technology)

18 Concluding points for discussion: Colour of water can help identify issues, but may be less useful pointing towards solutions.. We need different tools to engage Trends in agricultural water management development, and needs for technology and infrastructure to address poverty, food security and sustainability, can be further confused by colouring water at landscape scale what are meaningful engagement models fro complex water issues? Considering only provisioning of goods for water appropriation (green or blue) ignores fundamental functions of water, possibly undermining sustainability in management.. Are there approaches to better reflect the benefits of waterflows?

19 Concluding points for discussion: CA, 2007 UNEP-SEI 2012

20 Thank you!!

21 SEI s mission is to support decision-making and induce change towards sustainable development around the world by providing integrative knowledge that bridges science and policy in the field of environment and development. SEI is an independent, international research institute specializing in sustainable development and environment issues for policy and decision making

22 4 themes: Reducing climate risks Collaboration platforms for climate change adaptation ; Economics of climate policy Equitable approaches to mitigation and adaptation; Analytical frameworks on climate change Managing environmental systems Modelling carbon and water cycles; Integrating air pollution and climate change; Sustainable urbanisation; Energy and land-use planning; Sustainable biofuels and bionergy; Food security, health and biodiversity Transforming vulnerable communities Vulnerability approach to livelihood development; Strategic assessments for transformation; Avoiding socio-ecological traps Rethinking development Global assessments; New economics for sustainable development; Partnership in developing countries; Sustainable consumption and production; Analytical tools and scenarios; Planetary boundaries; SEI China Cluster

23 Current and past relevant projects in ecosystems, freshwater and development Water Demand Climate Risk AWM Solutions project ( ): IWMI, FAO, IFPRI, IDE INERA, Univ. Sokoine Challenge Programme Water for Food Volta V1 and Limpopo L1Nile basin N3 ( ): Climate change and economics in Kenya and Tanzania CIFOR work valuing forest & NFTP Climate Change, and water flows in watershed in transition (IPS ) Local livelihoods and reliance on ecosystem services (IPS ) Direct on-going Indirect and/or recent In collaboration with Stockholm Resilience Centre/Stockholm University: SRC Sahel re-greening: transformation in climate change 2009, SRC : EU FP7 Whater: Rainwater harvesting revisited:

24 Modes of operation: From research to policy : strong research and evidence based Partnership : local to global Facilitating and hosting Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC) with Stockholm University and KVA Beijer ECOSANRES Ecological Sanitation Research BIO-EARN East African Regional Programme and Research Network for Biotechnology, Biosafety and Biotechnology Policy Development APINA Air Pollution Information Network in Africa

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