ETEC 430 Database Systems

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1 ETEC 430 Database Systems Chapter 2: Entity-Relationship Data Modeling: Tools and Techniques Copyright 2004 J. B. Gallaher

2 ANSI/SPARC Three Schema Model External Schema User view = how the users view the application and the data within it. Conceptual Schema A model of the application that describes all of the data and the relationships in the database. Internal Schema A representation of the model as it is implemented using a particular set of hardware and database manager program.

3 ANSI/SPARC Three Schema Model (continued) An application (accounting, project management, patient scheduling) has to be translated into a model. Information Theory research has defines several different ways to create a consistent model that has established rules. One of the most popular models is the Entity- Relationship model. (Others include the Semantic Object model and the Object Oriented Model) Each type of data model has its own inherent advantages/disadvantages.

4 The Entity-Relationship Model and Its Variants The Entity-Relationship Model models the real world as a set of trackable things that have definable characteristics. Things in the real world are related to and sometimes dependant on other things. The E-R model defines a consistent way of defining how to categorize these things and how they interact. Graphical symbols are used to define the model of an application so that it can be converted into a database

5 The Entity-Relationship Model and Its Variants (continued) There are variations of the E-R model that attempt to continue to refine the way the data is modeled. The E-R model was first. It defined the way entities were defined and how the relationships were formed. An Extended E-R model evolved which now included the concept of Subtypes. (A programmer, accountant, secretary, engineer, etc. are subtypes of an employee.) IDEFX1 then evolved to include the concept of Domains (allowable values) and a more precise way to graphically depict a model

6 The Extended E-R Model Entities, Attributes, and Identifiers Entity = trackable thing. Sometimes referred to as an entity class Student Student Number First Name Middle Initial Last Name Address City State Zip Major Student Number is an identifier. A characteristic of the entity that is unique to each instance of that thing. (e.g. Student Number, Social Security Number, Invoice Number, etc.) Attributes = Characteristics of all instances of members of this entity class. This is the definition of the entity. (Name and attributes) Instances of a Student thing Irving V Schwartz 1234 Anywhere Rd. Portsmouth Oh Sherman D Tank 666 Mark O Devil Rd. Portsmouth Oh 45662

7 The Extended E-R Model (continued) Relationships Student Student Number First Name Middle Initial Last Name Address City State Zip Major Students take classes This is a has a relationship Class Class ID Name Description Lecture Hours Lab Hours Three types of relationships: 1:1 One-To-One Student -> Truck 1:Many One-To-Many Student -> Classes Many:Many Many-To-Many Student -> Major

8 The Extended E-R Model (continued) Graphical representation of Relationships: Student 1:1 Truck One-To-One Relationship Class 1:N Students One-To-Many Relationship Student M:N Major Many-To-Many Relationship

9 The Extended E-R Model (continued) Cardinality and Requirements = Required entity in the relationship = Optional entity in the relationship Student 1:N Books Student M:N Indicates the many side of the relationship Major M:N = Maximum Cardinality of the relationship Student 1:N Rooms With Recursive Relationship

10 The Extended E-R Model (continued) Weak Entities Weak Entity - Exists only if Employee Exists. Must Logically depend on the required entity Employee Identifier: Employee No. 1:N Non-ID Dependent Relationship Dependent Identifier: Social Security No. Rounded corners indicate weak entity relationship and which is the weak entity. (weak entity does not contain the ID of the strong entity it has its own identifier) Dorm 1:N Room Number Identifier: Building Name ID Dependent Relationship (weak entity contains the identifier of the strong entity) Identifier: Building Name & Apartment Number

11 The Extended E-R Model (continued) Showing Attributes In E-R Diagrams Student Number Major ISBN Title First Name Student 1:N Books Middle Initial Author Last Name Address Edition Attributes are the characteristics that describe each entity. They are the columns in the table that that are qualities common to all of the instances of that entity.

12 The Extended E-R Model (continued) Subtype Entities Last Name Student First Name Student Number Major Є Є Є 1 Indicates that a student can be only one of the subtypes Undergraduate Graduate Doctoral Advisor Thesis Topic Concentration Area Dissertation Topic Indicates a subtype relationship Doctoral Advisor Subtype Entities form an IS-A relationship. (An undergraduate student is a student as is the Graduate Student and the Doctoral Student.

13 The IDEF1X Standard Integrated Definition 1, Extended Extends the E-R Model and clarifies some relationships Adds the idea of Domains (a named set of values that an attribute can have) Tightens the definition of entities, relationships, and attributes to reduce ambiguity. Formalizes the concept of Non-Identifying and Identifying relationships Revised the graphical symbol set Eliminated the diamond Added a symbol for categories (a version of generalization hierarchies and subtypes)

14 The IDEF1X Standard (continued) IDEF1X Components Entities Independent Key Attributes Non-Key Attributes Dependant Key Attributes Non-Key Attributes Category Discriminators Complete In-Complete Relationships Type Many-To-Many Zero, One or Many Zero or One One or More One to Exactly n Identifying Z P n Non-Identifying Z P n Optional Relationship

15 The IDEF1X Standard (continued) IDEF1X Entities Any person, place, thing, event or concept about which information is kept. Attributes: Information about a certain property of an entity Key-Attributes: Information which is used to uniquely identify an instance of an entity. Non-Key-Attributes: Other information about an entity. Independent Entities: An entity which does not depend upon any other entity in a model for its identification. Dependent Entities: Depend both for their existence and their identification upon other entities in the model. Category Entity: A special type of entity which is the subtype of a parent entity.

16 The IDEF1X Standard (continued) IDEF1X Relationships Relationships represent connections, links, or associations between entities. Non-Identifying Connection Relationships Relationship between two non-id-dependent entities These are Has-A relationships Identifying Connection Relationships The identifier of the parent is always part of the identifier of the child. Allows for a distinction between weak relationships (employeedependent) and identifying relationships (student-advisor). Weak entities may not exist without the strong entity but dependent entities may exist on their own. Non-Specific Relationships Many to Many relationships

17 The IDEF1X Standard (continued) Categorization relationships Specialization of generalization/subtype relationships in the E-R model. Complete Discriminator means that these are the only subtypes available. Name Phone Job Code Employee SSN Generic Entity Cardinality Job Code Z Z Z Programmer Quality Engineer Tech Writer Discriminator - tells what kind of employee this is Title Language Operating System Years Experience Language Years Experience Categorization Cluster

18 The IDEF1X Standard (continued) Domains A named set of values that an attribute can have Specific list of values - DOS, Linux, Windows XP, Windows 2000 General definition such as a maximum value. Restricted range such as Domains are part of the metadata of the database Domains Reduce Ambiguity Two types of domains: Base Domain consists of a data type and possibly a value list or range (e.g. State names and their abbreviations). Typed Domain is a subset of a Base Domain or another Typed Domain. (e.g. Frequency is broken into Radio Frequencies and Audio Frequency ranges. Each subset may be further broken down into Typed Domains such as Radio Frequency can be categorized as UHF, VHF, HF, LF)

19 UML-Style Entity-Relationship Diagrams Unified Modeling Language provides techniques for designing object-oriented applications. Using object oriented methods adds new capabilities to a database definition (such as inheritance) Object oriented design is of limited value in today s dbms programs which are prevalent in industry and the business environment. As the development of OODBMS progresses and they become more accepted, a knowledge of UML will become necessary

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