Earth s Crust and Interior

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Earth s Crust and Interior"

Transcription

1 Student: Date received: Handout 6 of 14 (Topic 2.1) Earth s Crust and Interior Seafloor topography around Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean ( Iceland has formed above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, on the boundary between the North America and Eurasian plates. Iceland is located above a plume of anomalously hot rock near the core-mantle boundary.

2 Global Patterns The Earth s Crust and the Earth s Interior The Earth s Crust Key Ideas Continental crust is different from oceanic crust. Continental crust consists of shields, orogenic belts, and sedimentary basins. Intended Student Learning With the aid of maps and sectional diagrams, compare continental crust and oceanic crust in terms of their: global distribution; thickness; composition and density; topographical features; age. Describe the typical ages, processes of formation, and topographic features of, and the rock types associated with, shields, orogenic belts, and sedimentary basins. On a map of Australia, mark the locations of the Western Australian, Gawler, Adelaide, Tasman, and Eromanga crustal elements. State the ages of each of the crustal elements listed above. List the distinguishing rock types in each crustal element listed above. Identify the tectonic crustal type in each crustal element listed above. Use the information above to explain how the Australian continent has developed. The Earth s Interior Evidence for the nature of the Earth s interior can be obtained from seismic waves. Explain the meaning of the terms focus and epicentre as they apply to an earthquake. Describe the properties of P-waves and S-waves. State the relative arrival times of P-waves and S- waves as shown by a typical seismogram. Explain how the different arrival times of P-waves and S-waves can be used to find the epicentre of an earthquake. Explain how the presence of shadow zones provides information about the layered structure of the Earth. Using a diagram, describe the structure of the Earth s interior, showing the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. Describe the relative thickness, composition, and state of each layer. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 2 of 28

3 2.1 - Global Patterns EARTH S CRUST The crust is Earth s outermost layer. It is a thin skin of relatively cool, brittle rock on which we live. Continental and Oceanic Crust Continental crust and oceanic crust are very different in nature. Continental crust has a very complicated structure and variable composition, whereas oceanic crust has a simple layered structure and uniform composition. Differences between continental and oceanic crust are summarised in the table below. COMPARISON BETWEEN CONTINENTAL & OCEANIC CRUST Feature Continental Crust Oceanic crust Global distribution 35% of Earth s surface - mainly in the northern hemisphere. Average thickness 35 km 5 km 65% of Earth s surface - mainly in the southern hemisphere. Maximum thickness 70 km 12 km Topographical features Fold mountain ranges, extensive areas of low relief Mid-ocean ridges, abyssal plains, trenches Composition Sial (Silicon and aluminium) Sima (Silicon and magnesium) Average density (gcm -3 ) Age Up to 3800 Ma Up to 250 Ma NB: The terms sima and sial are generic terms which describe the overall composition of continental and oceanic crust. Sima - Silicon and magnesium - is the material of the oceanic crust and upper mantle. Sial - Silicon and aluminium - is the material of the continental crust. Global Distribution The map of Earth s landmasses on the left shows that oceanic crust occupies the majority of Earth s surface, and that most of the continental crust lies in the northern hemisphere Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 3 of 28

4 The diagram below shows the relationship between oceanic and continental crust. The following points should be noted: Continental crust (sial) is much thicker under mountain ranges than beneath flat areas High mountains have deep roots! Oceanic crust (sima) is thought to lie beneath the continents as well as forming the ocean floors. Continental Shelves All continents are surrounded by continental shelves - regions of submerged continental crust where the water is comparatively shallow. Continental shelves extend seawards from the shoreline to the upper edge of the continental slope, where the depth of the water is usually about 200 metres. The shelf usually has a seaward slope of less than 1. At the outer edge of the continental shelf there is an increase in slope which marks the beginning of the continental slope. The continent-ocean boundary is half-way down the continental slope. Structural Units of Continental Crust Earth s continents consist essentially of three structural units - shields, orogenic belts and sedimentary basins. Shields Shields are the oldest regions of continents. They are stable areas of thick continental crust - landmasses which have been severely folded and metamorphosed, and have eroded for hundreds of millions, even thousands of millions of years. At least two thirds of Australia became a shield area by 1000 Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 4 of 28

5 Ma. The oldest rocks in Australia are in the Pilbara and Yilgarn Blocks of Western Australia where there are sedimentary strata as old as 3800 Ma. In contrast to the mountainous nature of orogenic belts, shields are areas of low relief (essentially flat by world standards), possessing a thin surface cover of unfolded sediments of terrestrial or marine origin. The western part of Western Australia (i.e. Pilbara and Yilgarn Blocks), and the Eyre Peninsula area of South Australia (Gawler Craton) are examples of shields. Predominant rock types in shields are schists, gneisses and granites. Orogenic Belts (also called Fold Belts, or Geosynclines) An orogenic belt is a long linear area of Earth's crust which is undergoing, or has undergone, intense deformation (i.e. folding) accompanied by seismic and volcanic activity. These are areas of fold mountain ranges, which may include both intrusive and extrusive igneous activity. Such an orogenic belt may be formed when two continents collide and very high fold mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas, are formed. The Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges in South Australia, and the Great Dividing Range of eastern Australia are examples of linear orogenic belts, although they are much older and more eroded than the fold mountain ranges found on other continents. Other orogenic belts include the Himalayas, the Alps of Europe and the Andes of South America. Ages of orogenic belts vary considerably from late Proterozoic, such as the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges; to Cainozoic such as the Himalayas, Alps and Andes (Earth s highest mountain ranges are its youngest!). A wide variety of rock types may be found in orogenic belts, including: sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, shale, and limestone. rocks produced by regional metamorphism - slate, schist, and gneiss. igneous rocks - granite and basalt. Sedimentary Basins Sedimentary basins are regions where thick layers of sediments have been deposited on an older, eroded, 'basement' and where there has been no significant orogenic activity. Most of the Australian continent consists of sedimentary basins, which vary in age from late Proterozoic to Cainozoic. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 5 of 28

6 All the rocks are sedimentary and include varieties of sandstone, shale and limestone. The map below shows the approximate locations of some of the most important crustal elements of the Australian continent. Important Crustal Elements of the Australian Continent The table below summarises the significant features of the crustal elements shown on the map: Crustal element Age Distinguishing rock types Eromanga (Basin) Tasman (Fold Belt) Adelaide (Geosyncline) Late Proterozoic to Cainozoic Palaeozoic Late Proterozoic Sandstone, limestone, shale sandstone, shale limestone, slate, schist, gneiss granite, basalt. Gawler (Craton) Early Proterozoic schist, gneiss Western Australian (Shield) Archaean granites Tectonic crustal type Sedimentary basin Orogenic belt Shield Development of the Australian Continent 1. The Australian continent is one of Earth's oldest and most stable land masses - the most recent, significant orogenic activity ended by the beginning of the Mesozoic era (i.e. at 250 Ma). 2. For most of its history, the Australian continent was part of a much larger land mass. At around 200 Ma the supercontinent Pangaea began to Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 6 of 28

7 break apart into Laurasia and Gondwana. The shape of the present-day Australian continent did not finally come into existence until around 60 Ma, when Australia and Antarctica began to move apart. 3. (The western and central parts of) Australia once formed part of landmasses which existed even before the formation of Pangaea. 4. There is evidence that Australia moved extensively across the surface of the globe since 3800 Ma. Palaeomagnetic studies show that some rocks were formed when the continent was near the North Pole, others when it was in the tropics and others when it was near the South Pole. 5. There is evidence that, during the Permian period, much of what is now southern Australia was covered by a huge ice sheet, like the one that covers the Antarctic continent today. 6. In the Cretaceous Period and again during the Palaeogene and Neogene Periods (formerly known as the Tertiary Period), the sea invaded large areas of inland Australia, resulting in the deposition of marine sedimentary strata and the formation of sedimentary basins. Processes in the Growth of the Continent The land which makes up the present-day Australian continent has been accreted (built-up) from the west. At the same time a series of orogenic belts has been eroded to form shields, and sediments were deposited in long narrow troughs (sometimes referred to geosynclines, e.g. the Adelaide Geosyncline). Eventually orogenesis turned these sediments into fold mountain ranges which were 'welded' onto the older continental nucleus in the west. In turn, these mountain ranges have been eroded to form younger shields (e.g. the Gawler Craton). The oldest rocks on the continent are found in the Pilbara and Yilgarn Blocks, which together comprise the Western Australian Shield, the nucleus of the Australian continent. The diagrams on the next page show the sequence of events by which the Australian continent has, since 3800 Ma, 'grown' (accreted) progressively from the west by means of a succession of mountain ranges eroding to shields. The most recent orogenic activity began early in the Palaeozoic Era (~ 530 Ma) and continued until the end of the Triassic Period (~ 180 Ma). It resulted in the formation of the Great Dividing Range from sediments deposited in the Tasman Geosyncline. Essentially, there has been no orogenic activity within the Australian continent for since 180 Ma (i.e. the landmass has been tectonically stable), and consequently it has gradually eroding to form a relatively flat topography. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 7 of 28

8 Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 8 of 28

9 EARTH S INTERIOR The Nature of Earth's Interior We know more about outer space than we do about the interior of our own planet. All our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from indirect evidence, such as seismic waves and the composition of meteorites. The adjacent diagram shows that Earth consists of four major layers. The diagram below shows the internal structure of the Earth in more detail, including the approximate depths of the boundaries between the layers. The following table summarises the essential properties for each of Earth's layers. Name of Layer Thickness (km) Physical state Composition Crust: Continental solid granitic (sial) Oceanic Average 12 solid basaltic (sima) Mantle 2900 solid peridotite Outer core 2100 liquid alloy of Fe & Ni Inner core 1400 solid same as outer core. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 9 of 28

10 Earthquakes The passage of earthquake waves through Earth provides valuable information about the nature of its interior. Earthquakes occur in areas where rocks are subject to directed pressure, which causes stress in the rocks. The lithosphere (Earth s solid outer layer) may bend until the stress exceeds the strength of the rocks. The lithosphere then breaks, or 'snaps' into a new position. In the breaking process, vibrations generated at the fracture travel through the rocks as earthquakes. The focus of an earthquake is the location inside Earth of the fracture or faulting which caused the earthquake. The epicentre of the earthquake is the point on the surface of Earth situated directly above the focus. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 10 of 28

11 Earthquake Waves The waves produced by earthquakes may be divided into two groups. They are: 1. Body waves travel through Earth s interior. There are two types of body waves: a. Primary, or push-pull waves (P-waves). b. Secondary, or shear waves (S-waves). 2. Surface waves or L-waves, which travel around Earth s surface. These are the waves which cause earthquake damage. Primary Waves These are the fastest waves produced by the earthquake. They travel through Earth's interior, and reach recording stations first. They are longitudinal waves, in which the particles of the medium (the material through which the wave is travelling) vibrate backwards and forwards along the line of propagation of the wave forming a series of compressions and rarefactions. Compressions are regions of the wave in which the particles of the medium are close together. Rarefactions are regions of the wave in which the particles of the medium are further apart. The diagram below shows the behaviour of the particles of a medium as a P- wave passes through the medium. Secondary Waves Secondary waves also travel through Earth s interior. These are transverse waves in which the particles of the medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. A transverse wave consists of a series of crests and troughs, as shown in the diagram below. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 12 of 28

12 Refraction of Earthquake Waves The speed at which a wave travels depends on the medium through which it is travelling. As a wave passes from one medium to another its speed changes, and the direction in which it travels also changes. All kinds of waves undergo a change in direction, or refraction, as they pass from one medium to another. For example water waves are refracted as they pass from deep water into shallow water, since their speed is less in shallow water. Light waves are refracted as they pass from water into glass. The density of Earth's mantle increases with depth, so that earthquake waves are gradually refracted towards Earth's surface as they travel through the mantle. Shadow Zones Wherever an earthquake occurs, there are always some seismic stations around the world which receive no waves at all from that earthquake. There are also stations which receive only P-waves. This is because of the behaviour of the waves as they pass from one of Earth's layers to the next one. The P-Wave Shadow Zone As well as being gradually refracted as they pass through the mantle, P-waves undergo refraction at the boundary between the mantle and the outer core. For this reason, no P-waves are received by seismic stations in a band around Earth extending between 103 and 145 from the earthquake's epicentre. This region is known as the P-wave shadow zone. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 13 of 28

13 The diagram below shows how P-waves are refracted at boundaries between Earth's layers to produce the P-wave shadow zone. The adjacent diagram shows the P-wave shadow zone produced by an earthquake which occurred at the North Pole. The extent of the P-wave shadow zone - between 103 and 145 from the earthquake's epicentre - enables the depth of the boundary between the mantle and the outer core to be calculated. The S-Wave Shadow Zone The S-wave shadow zone is much more extensive than the corresponding P- wave zone. This is because S-waves are unable to travel through liquids and are therefore absorbed by the liquid outer core. The S-wave shadow zone therefore extends from 103 on one side of the earthquake to 103 on the other. Existence of the S-wave shadow zone provides evidence that Earth's outer core is liquid. The diagram below shows the paths of the S-waves through Earth's interior, and hence the S-wave shadow zone. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 14 of 28

14 The adjacent diagram shows the S-wave shadow zone produced by an earthquake which occurred at the North Pole. It is much larger than the P- wave shadow zone produced by the same earthquake. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 15 of 28

15 EXERCISES EARTH S CRUST Continental and Oceanic Crust 1. Compare the essential features of continental and oceanic crust by completing the table below. Feature Continental crust Oceanic crust Global distribution Average thickness Maximum thickness Topographical features Composition Average density (gcm -3 ) Age (Ma) 2. Explain the meanings of the terms sima and sial. 3. The diagram below shows the relationship between oceanic and continental crust. On the diagram, label the following features: continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal plain, continental crust, oceanic crust. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 16 of 28

16 4. Describe the essential features of a continental shelf. Structural Units of Continental Crust 1. In the table below, summarise the essential features of the principal structural units of continental crust. STRUCTURAL UNIT TYPICAL AGES PROCESS OF FORMATION TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES PREDOMINANT ROCK TYPES 2. On the map of the Australian continent shown below: a. Identify the tectonic crustal types indicated in the key. b. Name the five crustal elements which make up the continent. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 17 of 28

17 3. The diagram below contains a blank stratigraphic column. Complete this stratigraphic column to show the periods of rock formation on the Australian continent, and name the features which were formed. Ma Era Period FEATURES OF AUSTRALIAN CONTINENT Cainozoic Mesozoic Palaeozoic Proterozoic Neogene Palaeogene Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Ediacaran 2500 Archaean STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN CRUSTAL ELEMENTS FORMED Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 19 of 28

18 4. In the space provided below, write the names of the crustal elements in order of their ages. YOUNGEST OLDEST 5. Use the table below summarises the significant features of the crustal elements shown on the map: Crustal element Age (Ma) Distinguishing rock types Tectonic crustal type Development of the Australian Continent 1. When did the most recent major orogenic activity on the Australian continent end? 2. Explain why the Australian continent is one of Earth's most stable land masses. 3. Name the super-continent which once encompassed all of Earth's land masses. 4. When did this super-continent begin to break up? 5. Name the two land masses which were formed. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 20 of 28

19 6. When and how did the present-day Australian continent come into existence? 7. Is it true to say that Pangaea represents the distribution of land and sea on Earth's surface from the formation of Earth until about 200 Ma? Explain your answer: 8. Has Australia always occupied its present position on Earth's surface? Explain your answer. 9. What are palaeomagnetic studies? 10. During which period did a large ice sheet cover much of southern Australia? 11. Name some South Australian locations where there is evidence of glaciation. 12. Name two periods in which the sea invaded large areas of inland Australia. 13. What features are the results of these incursions? 14. Describe, in general terms, the processes by which the Australian continent has developed since 3800 Ma. Use diagrams to illustrate your answer. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 21 of 28

20 15. Give the geological and geographic names of the feature which is a result of the most recent orogenic activity on the Australian continent. 16. Name the periods during which this activity began and ended. 17. The adjacent diagram shows the structural features of an imaginary continent Walfordaria. It comprises a fold mountain range and an eroded region of low relief, where the rocks are mainly schists and gneisses. In the space below, draw a series of diagrams showing the geological history of Walfordaria. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 22 of 28

21 18. Connect the appropriate pairs of words or phrases from the two lists below. A range of fold mountains Pilbara and Yilgarn Blocks Pangaea Great Dividing Range A very long period of erosion Show no signs of orogenic activity Provides evidence for the 'wandering' of the continent The Tasman crustal element When much of inland Australia was under the sea The most recent orogenic activity in Australia The 'nucleus' of the Australian continent Late in the Triassic Period Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods The 'ancestor' of a shield Sedimentary basins Leads to formation of shields Palaeomagnetic studies Formed by all the continents joined together The Nature of Earth's Interior 1. The diagram below shows a section through Earth. Give the names of the layers numbered 1 to 4. 1: 2: 3: 4: Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 23 of 28

22 2. The diagram below shows a section through Earth's interior. Draw the boundaries between the major layers in the appropriate places, and name the material of which each layer is made. 3. Use the following table to summarise the essential properties of each of Earth's layers. Name of layer Thickness (km) Physical state Composition Crust: Continental Oceanic Mantle Outer core Inner core Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 24 of 28

23 Earthquakes 1. The adjacent diagram shows an area of Earth s surface where rocks are being subjected to directed pressure causing stress to build-up. a. In what way are rocks reacting to the applied pressure? b. Explain, with the aid of a second diagram, what happens when the applied force exceeds the strength of the rocks. 2. Explain, with the aid of a diagram, the difference between the focus and the epicentre of an earthquake. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 25 of 28

24 2. Use the table below to summarise the properties of P and S-waves. TYPE OF WAVE MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES DIAGRAM P-waves S-waves 3. The diagram below shows a typical seismogram. Label it to show the arrivals of the different types of earthquake wave, and give the arrival time of each wave type. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 26 of 28

25 4. Explain why earthquake waves are refracted as they pass through Earth s mantle. 5. Use the diagram of a part of Earth s interior below to indicate the paths of some of the body waves produced by an earthquake as they travel through the mantle. 6. Show on the diagram below the refraction of an earthquake wave passing from one of Earth s layers to another. Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 27 of 28

26 7. Use the two diagrams of Earth's interior provided below to show how the P and S-wave shadow zones are formed. P-wave shadow zone S-wave shadow zone 5. On the diagrams below, indicate the extent of the P and S wave shadow zones associated with an earthquake which occurred at the North Pole. P-wave shadow zone S-wave shadow zone 6. What information is provided by the P-wave shadow zone? 7. What do we learn from the S-wave shadow zone? Topic 2.1 Earth s Crust and Interior Page 28 of 28

Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21. Probing Earth s interior. Probing Earth s interior. Does not include complete lecture notes.

Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21. Probing Earth s interior. Probing Earth s interior. Does not include complete lecture notes. Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21 Does not include complete lecture notes. Probing Earth s interior Most of our knowledge of Earth s interior comes from the study of earthquake waves Travel times

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L04 1. Metamorphic Rocks. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Chapter 20 Lecture

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L04 1. Metamorphic Rocks. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Lecture Metamorphic Rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Coal: Different from other rocks, because it is composed of organic material. Stages in coal formation (in order): Plant material Peat Lignite

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? 298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

More information

Features of Plate Tectonics

Features of Plate Tectonics Features of Plate Tectonics Section 12.2 Summary Textbook pages 518 537 Before You Read Earthquakes frequently occur in British Columbia. State what you already know about earthquakes in the lines below.

More information

Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes

Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes Leaving Cert Geography Revision Notes Contents PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CORE UNIT 1... 4 INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH... 4 CONTINENTAL DRIFT... 8 PLATE BOUNDARIES... 9 OCEANIC-CONTINENTAL CONVERGENCE... 12

More information

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

More information

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

More information

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur?

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur? 2 Tectonic processes In this chapter you will study: how the Earth s crust is broken into different types of tectonic s what type of tectonic activity occurs at the boundaries what can happen during earthquakes

More information

Agents for Development of Earth s Surface. Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface

Agents for Development of Earth s Surface. Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface The Face of the Earth Agents for Development of Earth s Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface Roles of the atmosphere (gases, winds, climate), ocean (rivers, waves, currents) and biology

More information

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

More information

The Layered Earth. Unit B Plate Tectonics. Unit D Shaping the Earth. Unit A The Solid Earth. Unit C Minerals and Rocks. Unit E Earthquakes

The Layered Earth. Unit B Plate Tectonics. Unit D Shaping the Earth. Unit A The Solid Earth. Unit C Minerals and Rocks. Unit E Earthquakes The Layered Earth: Content Overview The Layered Earth Unit A The Solid Earth Unit B Plate Tectonics Unit C Minerals and Rocks Unit D Shaping the Earth Unit E Earthquakes Unit F Volcanoes Unit G Geologic

More information

Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior

Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior San Francisco 1906 Magnitude 7.8 Charleston 1886 California s Notorious San Andreas Fault fault trace Earthquakes are the release of energy stored in rocks. Most earthquakes

More information

Name: Date: Period: 1. The Grand Canyon was formed by. It was carved by the. 6. Landmasses that were once separated by oceans, have collided to form

Name: Date: Period: 1. The Grand Canyon was formed by. It was carved by the. 6. Landmasses that were once separated by oceans, have collided to form Name: Date: Period: By Jack Erickson and Sylvia Lewandowski Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for The Theory of Plate Tectonics CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progplate.html 1. The Grand Canyon

More information

Plate Tectonics Review

Plate Tectonics Review 1. Recent volcanic activity in different parts of the world supports the inference that volcanoes are located mainly in 1) the centers of landscape regions 2) the central regions of the continents 3) zones

More information

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

More information

California Geologic History

California Geologic History California Geologic History Why do Sierra Nevada look this way? Alabama Hills Introduction California s geologic history is very complex, most of the state did not exist as a coherent piece of the earth

More information

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

More information

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Review Introduction Main contents Quiz Unless otherwise noted, all pictures are taken from wikipedia.org Review 1 Which is not included

More information

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics

Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Earth s Layered Structure, Earth s Internal Structure, Plate Tectonics Chs.1&2 Earth s Layered Structure High-velocity impact of debris + radioactive decay => increase in T => Fe & Ni melt & sink => Inner

More information

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING EARTH, SIXTH EDITION GROTZINGER JORDAN GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics The Unifying Theory 2010 W.H. Freeman and Company Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction

More information

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Earth is a restless planet. Heat in the Earth s interior causes giant plates of crust to move around on the surface. The crashing and smashing of these plates leads to

More information

THE EARTH S RELIEF UNIT 2:

THE EARTH S RELIEF UNIT 2: UNIT 2: THE EARTH S RELIEF Summary 1. Inside Earth The Earth is made of many different and distinct layers. The deeper layers are composed of heavier materials, they are hotter, denser and under much greater

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

More information

Introducing Physical Geography

Introducing Physical Geography Introducing Physical Geography Alan Strahler Chapter 11 Earth Materials and Plate Tectonics Copyright 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Earth Materials and Plate Tectonics Chapter 11 2 Chapter Outline 1.

More information

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries. Fig. 9.11 Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries Fig. 9.11 OBJECTIVES Identify the physical and chemical divisions in Earth s outer layers. Understand that the lithospheric plates are buoyant and that this buoyancy

More information

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 15 The Earth Monday, February 12 The Earth: Physical characteristics Mass = 5.97 10 24 kg Mean radius = 6,373 km Polar radius = 6,357 km Density

More information

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time

Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time Alfred Wegener (1880 1930) Continental drift hypothesis: The world's continents are in motion and have been drifting apart into different configurations over

More information

Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE. Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting)

Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE. Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting) Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Digging Deeper BUILDING FEATURES ON EARTH S SURFACE Divergent Boundaries and Breaks in Earth s Crust (Rifting) In the Investigate, you examined a diagram showing a cross section

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

More information

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics

Introduction to Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics Quizlet Magnetic stripes along the seafloor are evidence for a) Earth s magnetic reversals b) Seafloor spreading c) Convection currents in the mantle d) Magnetite's ability to orient with a magnetic field

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

More information

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics 12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics Earth is over 1200 km thick and has four distinct layers. These layers are the crust, mantle (upper and lower), outer core, and inner core. Crust outer solid rock layer

More information

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition Solid-earth geology: Plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes Explain shape and structure of the ocean basins Explain cycle of oceanic opening and closing Explain many aspects of basic marine geology

More information

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth Plate Tectonics Journey to the center of the Earth Use pages 124 129 to answer the following questions. Exploring Inside Earth (p. 125-126) 1. What are the two main types of evidence that Geologist use

More information

Mountain Building at a Convergent Plate Tectonic Boundary: The Southern Adelaide Fold Belt

Mountain Building at a Convergent Plate Tectonic Boundary: The Southern Adelaide Fold Belt CASE STUDY 1.005 Mountain Building at a Convergent Plate Tectonic Boundary: The Southern Adelaide Fold Belt Introduction Author: Steve Abbott* Mountain belts are zones of lithosphere thickening along the

More information

Mountains Short Study Guide

Mountains Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Mountains Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A good model for isostasy is. a. a collision

More information

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

Post Assessment. Concept(s)

Post Assessment. Concept(s) Post Assessment Concept(s) Addressed Time Materials Advance preparation The Earth has different layers with different densities, composition and temperatures. Direct and indirect evidence are used to explain

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

What is this section called? Credits

What is this section called? Credits Station 1: Age of ocean floor Seafloor spreading is a process of plate tectonics. New oceanic crust is created as large slabs of the Earth's crust split apart from each other and magma moves up to fill

More information

Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest

Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest Select the best answer to each question. 1. Earth can be divided into layers based on chemical composition. The three compositional layers of Earth are the core, the mantle,

More information

Composition. Physical Properties

Composition. Physical Properties Composition Physical Properties Summary The Earth is a layered planet The layers represent changes in composition and physical properties The compositional layers are the Crust, Mantle and Core The physical

More information

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on:

Continental Drift. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines

More information

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean

More information

Section 1: Continental Drift

Section 1: Continental Drift Section 1: Continental Drift Preview Objectives Wegener s s Hypothesis Mid-Ocean Ridges Sea-Floor Spreading Paleomagnetism Wegener Redeemed Continental Drift (Pangaea) Objectives Summarize Wegener s hypothesis

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences.

Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas. Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics. The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,

More information

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II

Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic

More information

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer...

Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer... Name that Layer... 1 Which layers make up the lithosphere? Multiple answer A B C D crust mantle inner core outer core Why wouldn t the fossil of an ocean fish found on two different continents be good

More information

Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks

Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Continental crust made of sial rocks containing silicon and aluminum e.g., granite Oceanic crust made of sima rocks Plate Tectonics and the Earth s Interior Chapter 5 Earth s Internal Structure Crust Mantle Core Thin ocean basins ~ 3 miles Crust mountain ranges ~ 30 miles Deepest hole drilled About 7 miles Russia Crust

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes What are earthquakes? Imagine bending a stick until it breaks. When the stick snaps, it vibrates, releasing energy. Earthquakes release energy in a similar way. Earthquakes

More information

Geologic History Review

Geologic History Review 1. The climate that existed in an area during the early Paleozoic Era can best be determined by studying (1) the present climate of the area (2) recorded climate data of the area since 1700 (3) present

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: Geology: Inside the Earth (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part.

Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Multiple Choice Mark only one answer for each question. 1) On a global map of earthquakes, the locations of the earthquakes

More information

Name Period. Earth Science Regents

Name Period. Earth Science Regents Earth Science Regents Name Period THE DYNAMIC CRUST There are 4 major sub-divisions to the Earth s interior: 1. The Crust a. it s thickness varies from 5 to 60 kilometers b. continental crust is thicker,

More information

HARTAI ÉVA, GEOLOGY 9

HARTAI ÉVA, GEOLOGY 9 HARTAI ÉVA, GEOLOgY 9 IX. CONVERgENT AND TRANSFORM FAULT PLATE MARgINS 1. CONVERgENT PLATE MARgINS Convergent (in other terms destructive) plate margins are formed when two lithosphere plates move toward

More information

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth

There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth Questions and Topics 1. What are the theories of Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift? 2. What is the evidence

More information

Section 1 Earth: A Unique Planet. Section 2 Energy in the Earth System

Section 1 Earth: A Unique Planet. Section 2 Energy in the Earth System Earth as a System Section 2 Energy in the Earth System Section 3 Ecology Describe the size and shape of Earth. Describe the compositional and structural layers of Earth s interior. Identify the possible

More information

MEMORANDUM OF ASSESSMENT Module 1: The Earth s Structure. 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure:

MEMORANDUM OF ASSESSMENT Module 1: The Earth s Structure. 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure: 1. The diagram below shows a section of the earth s structure: a. According to the sketch above give the name of each of the layers, which we have described. 1. The Crust 2. The mantle 3. The outer core

More information

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

More information

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: Core Mantle Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core Crust The Crust This is where we live! The Earth

More information

Geography Chapter 2 A Living Planet

Geography Chapter 2 A Living Planet Geography Chapter 2 A Living Planet The Earth Inside and Out pp.27 47 Bodies of Water and Land Forms pp. 32-36 Internal Forces Shaping the Earth pp.37-41 External Forces Shaping the Earth pp. 42-45 1.

More information

Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure

Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure Earth s Interior EARTHQUAKES Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure Abrupt changes in seismic-wave velocities that occur at particular depths helped seismologists conclude that Earth must be composed of distinct

More information

Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism

Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism I. Earth s Surface Relief II. Orogenesis III. Earthquakes A. What is an earthquake B. Anatomy of an Earthquake C. Measuring Earthquakes D. Tsunamis Earth s Hypsometry

More information

Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Key words: lithosphere, continental and oceanic plates, convective movements, plate boundary

Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Key words: lithosphere, continental and oceanic plates, convective movements, plate boundary S c i e n c e s Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Key words: lithosphere, continental and oceanic plates, convective movements, plate boundary The Structure of the Earth The Earth s engine: Convective

More information

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface.

11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. 11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. Moving plates Three types of boundaries Imagine a single plate, moving

More information

Forces Within. Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics

Forces Within. Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics Forces Within Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics I have a QUESTION for YOU! How does an apple compare to Earth? Earth s Internal Structure Objectives At the end of this

More information

Earth Science Chapter 14 Section 2 Review

Earth Science Chapter 14 Section 2 Review Name: Class: Date: Earth Science Chapter 14 Section Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the three

More information

Plate Tectonics. An outgrowth of the old theory of "continental drift," supported by much data from many areas of geology.

Plate Tectonics. An outgrowth of the old theory of continental drift, supported by much data from many areas of geology. Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonic theory was proposed in late 1960s and early 1970s. It is a unifying theory showing how a large number of diverse, seemingly-unrelated geologic facts are interrelated. An

More information

Changes in Earth s Surface

Changes in Earth s Surface Changes in Earth s Surface Vocabulary For two-column notes, underlines titles are main ideas Scientific Theory of Plate Tectonics Based on Wegener s Hypothesis Sea-floor spreading Continents drifted to

More information

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH The Ancient Greeks knew that the Earth was about 12,750 kilometres in diameter, but it was only in the 20 th century that geophysical studies showed that the Earth has several distinct

More information

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY Orange GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY YEAR 1, PART 1 www.vicensvives.es Contents 01 Our planet Earth 02 The representation of the Earth: maps 03 The Earth s relief 04 Rivers and seas 05 Weather and climate 06 Climates

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics PLATE TECTONICS The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics The lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to one another, and relative to the earth s asthenosphere. Movement occurs at very slow (cm/yr)

More information

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains

Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Sea Floor Spreading Where is it located? How does it form? How does it change the Earth s surface? Earthquakes Where are earthquakes located? Most earthquakes happen around

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. "Tectonics" - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust.

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. Tectonics - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust. PLATE TECTONICS I. Introduction A. General 1. The theory of plate tectonics is a recent development in the geological sciences, really accepted by scientific community since the early 1960's. 2. Earlier

More information

Convergent Boundaries

Convergent Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Zones where lithospheric plates collide Three major types Ocean - Ocean Ocean - Continent Continent Continent Convergent Boundaries Convergent boundaries may form subduction zones

More information

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener

INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS. Alfred Wegener INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS Alfred Wegener 12-1 CONTINENTAL DRIFT AN IDEA BEFORE ITS TIME Alfred Wegener first proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 when he published The Origin of Continents

More information

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern

Fresh water Land dwelling Land dwelling (i) Fern I Plate Tectonic Theory (This is a 2 day outline) A Continental Drift 1 Proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1915 2 Continents are a giant jigsaw puzzle 3 Put together get Pangea ( all land ) a supercontinent

More information

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift

Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. Continental Drift Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. The outer portion of the Earth is made up of about 20 distinct plates (~ 100 km thick), which move relative to each other This motion is what

More information

Geologic Setting and Evolution of Latin America

Geologic Setting and Evolution of Latin America Geologic Setting and Evolution of Latin America Important events in the Geologic Evolution of Latin America Formation of the Continental Crust (3.5-0.5Ga) Formation of Gondwana (~600 Ma) Break-up of Pangea

More information

What causes Earth s surface to change?

What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 1 Earth s Landforms Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics Lesson 3 Volcanoes Lesson 4 Earthquakes What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 5 Shaping Earth s Surface landform relief map topographical map

More information

Layers of the Earth s Interior

Layers of the Earth s Interior Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior.

More information

Chapter 3 Earth Structure

Chapter 3 Earth Structure Chapter 3 Earth Structure Geologic Structure of Earth - The interior of the Earth is layered. Concentric layers: crust, mantle, liquid outer core and solid inner core. Evidence (indirect) for this structure

More information

Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity. Lev Horodyskyj v1.1 - June 2009

Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity. Lev Horodyskyj v1.1 - June 2009 Name: Lab: Exploring Patterns in Regional Seismicity Lev Horodyskyj LevH@psu.edu; v1.1 - June 2009 Content Objectives - By the end of the exercise, students should be able to: - Describe the basic properties

More information

Seismic Waves Practice

Seismic Waves Practice 1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows models of two types of earthquake waves. Model A best represents the motion of earthquake waves called 1) P-waves (compressional

More information