INTRODUCTION TO ROME

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1 INTRODUCTION TO ROME Many people find the Romans less interesting than the Greeks. The Greeks were brilliant, witty, daring, resourceful, constantly exploring new frontiers. The Romans, by contrast, seem to many people dull, imitative, conservative & never doing anything new & exciting. Socrates Plato Aristotle e Athenian orator, Demosthenes Themistocles Alcibiades

2 True, no Roman ever conquered an empire such as Alexander's in such a short time.

3 However, no Greek ever built an empire as lasting as Rome's. A map of the Roman Empire superimposed on the boundaries of the modern countries whose lands it ruled.

4 The Greeks gave us ideas of democracy & were nothing if not individualistic. The Romans valued the group more, & in times of crisis no people ever showed a firmer group solidarity than the Romans who stuck together in the worst of situations. Greek heroes might be compared to some noble beast like a lion, such as Leonidas at Thermopylae Pass or Alexander on the plains of Gaugemela.

5 By contrast, the Romans were like a pack of wolves, constantly hounding their enemies until, worn out by Roman persistence & organization, they gave in. No surprise the wolf was the symbol of Rome.

6 The Greeks gave us ideas of democracy & were nothing if not individualistic. The Romans valued the group more, & in times of crisis no people ever showed a firmer group solidarity than the Romans who stuck together in the worst of situations. If Greek heroes could be compared to some noble beast like a lion, the Romans were like a pack of wolves, constantly hounding their enemies until, worn out by Roman persistence & organization, they gave in. No surprise the wolf was the symbol of Rome.

7 The Greeks were certainly masters of battle.

8 The Greeks were certainly masters of battle. But the Romans were masters of war.

9 The Greeks were certainly masters of battle. But the Romans were masters of war. Not only did they rule the battlefield, they were also experts at siege warfare. Their enemies knew that once they had settled down to a siege, they would pursue it with a dogged perseverance and expertise that doomed them all once the ram had hit the wall.

10 However, it was the Romans who also proved themselves masters of peace, giving the Mediterranean 200 years of peace: keeping their subjects at home happy & their enemies abroad at bay. No one we have studied has matched that record.

11 The Greeks gave us ideas, but the Romans gave those ideas substance. Across the Mediterrenean, the Romans founded, organized, & built lasting cities that are the basis for many modern European cities. The modern French city of Arles (left) and a model of how the city looked during the Pax Romana

12 The Greeks may have contributed great ideas in the realm of engineering and created spectacular monuments such as the lighthouse of Pharos or Colossus or Rhodes.

13 The Romans used those ideas to connect their cities with over 50,000 miles of paved roads & supplied them with water from massive aqueducts to make the lives of their subjects more comfortable & livable.

14 Roman civilization was certainly based on Greek civilization, but the Romans gave it a lasting substance that enabled it to survive and be passed on. Together, the Greek & Roman civilizations are the solid foundation on which our own civilization is built.

15 Roman civilization was certainly based on Greek civilization, but the Romans gave it a lasting substance that enabled it to survive and be passed on. Together, the Greek & Roman civilizations are the solid foundation on which our own civilization is built. To people of the Middle Ages Roman civilization seemed like a monolithic achievement shining forth as a Golden Age, incomparable in its achievement, having reached heights no one else could reach.

16 Roman civilization was certainly based on Greek civilization, but the Romans gave it a lasting substance that enabled it to survive and be passed on. Together, the Greek & Roman civilizations are the solid foundation on which our own civilization is built. To people of the Middle Ages Roman civilization seemed like a monolithic achievement shining forth as a Golden Age, incomparable in its achievement, having reached heights no one else could reach. Humanist scholars during the early Renaissance, one of our high points in Western civilization, were content just to recover Greek & Roman civilizations and emulate them.

17 Roman civilization was certainly based on Greek civilization, but the Romans gave it a lasting substance that enabled it to survive and be passed on. Together, the Greek & Roman civilizations are the solid foundation on which our own civilization is built. To people of the Middle Ages Roman civilization seemed like a monolithic achievement shining forth as a Golden Age, incomparable in its achievement, having reached heights no one else could reach. Humanist scholars during the early Renaissance, one or our high points in Western civilization, were content just to recover Greek & Roman civilizations and emulate them. One danger of looking at a civilization like that is it seems to stand beyond the human touch. But the Romans were very human like ourselves, & we should never forget that about any civilization we study.

18 Their men sweated & strained in the fields, often getting hurt or even breaking bones that would never heal.

19 Their men sweated & strained in the fields, often getting hurt or even breaking bones that would never heal. They argued & fought over politics and marched off to wars from which many of them would never return.

20 Their men sweated & strained in the fields, often getting hurt or even breaking bones that would never heal. They argued & fought over politics and marched off to wars from which many of them would never return. Their women felt the pains of childbirth and many never survived it. They knew the joy of new children. But they also knew the grief of seeing half of their children die young, their men march off to war and never come home, or their daughters die bringing new life into this world. or legends, but to them they were history.

21 Their men sweated & strained in the fields, often getting hurt or even breaking bones that would never heal. They argued & fought over politics and marched off to wars from which many of them would never return. Their women felt the pains of childbirth and many never survived it. They knew the joy of new children. But they also knew the grief of seeing half of their children die young, their men march off to war and never come home, or their daughters die bringing new life into this world. They also told stories. We call them myths or legends, but to them they were history.

22

23 Aeneas carrying his old father & leading his young son from the ruins of Troy

24 Aeneas cast ashore at Carthage

25 Aeneas meets Dido, the Queen of Carthage with whom he had a torrid love affair.

26 The heartbroken Dido commits suicide after Aeneas left her to fulfill his destiny.

27 Like Odysseus, Aeneas takes a trip to the underworld & consults with the Sibyl (prophetess) to find directions to his new home.

28

29 Romulus kills his brother Remus in a fight over where to found their new city, Rome

30 The Sabine women throw themselves between their Sabine kinsmen and their Roman husbands to stop the fighting.

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32

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34 The Etruscan king, Lars Porsenna, moves to retake Rome after it has won its independence.

35 The legend of Horatius, who single-handedly held off a surprise Etruscan attack while the Romans destroyed the bridge leading to Rome, reflects continuing Etruscan power over and/or pressure upon Rome at this time.

36 After infiltrating the Etruscan camp but getting caught trying to murder the Etruscan king, Mucius Scaevola thrusts his right hand into a fire to show he had no fear of pain or death.

37 A

38 The Senate offers the dictatorship to Cincinnatus in order to rescue a trapped Roman army. After performing his duty, Cincinnatus gave up his powers and returned to the simple life of a farmer, showing the selfless patriotism that Romans idealized and expected of their citizens.

39 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME a

40 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME a Few resources but more than

41 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. a

42 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a

43 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia)

44 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Heavy Greek influence on Rome

45 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy

46 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented

47 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented

48 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Alps help protect Italy from invasions Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented

49 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Alps help protect Italy from invasions Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented Hills & mts., but fewer than

50 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Alps help protect Italy from invasions Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented Hills & mts., but fewer than Italy divided by mts., but less than Greece

51 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Alps help protect Italy from invasions Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented Hills & mts., but fewer than Italy divided by mts., but less than Greece Rome able to unite Italy under its rule

52 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Alps help protect Italy from invasions Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented Hills & mts., but fewer than Italy divided by mts., but less than Greece Location in middle of Mediterranean Rome able to unite Italy under its rule Location in middle of Mediterranean

53 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Alps help protect Italy from invasions Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented Hills & mts., but fewer than Italy divided by mts., but less than Greece Location in middle of Mediterranean Rome able to unite Italy under its rule Location in middle of Mediterranean Away from interference by other civ s in East Away from interference by other civ s in East

54 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY & ITS IMPACT ON THE RISE OF ROME Few resources but more than Most of Italy s good harbors are in S. & W. Better farmland than a Most Greek colonies in S. Italy (a.k.a. Magna Graecia) Hills & mts., but fewer than Alps help protect Italy from invasions Heavy Greek influence on Rome More farmers & fewer traders in Italy Persevering & group oriented Hills & mts., but fewer than Italy divided by mts., but less than Greece Location in middle of Mediterranean Rome able to unite Italy under its rule Location in middle of Mediterranean Away from interference by other civ s in East Away from interference by other civ s in East Rome able to conquer the Mediterranean

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