POST-CLASSICAL EUROPE. In Focus: Byzantium and the Middle Ages Third Wave Civilizations

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1 POST-CLASSICAL EUROPE In Focus: Byzantium and the Middle Ages Third Wave Civilizations

2 BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION: MODERN CONTEXT Reconciliation of 1964 Represents the path of European Civilization since the fall of Rome

3 ORIGINS OF BYZANTIUM Rome had become too large to govern from a singular administrative district City formed in 330 Geographic advantages?

4 ROMAIOI The Greek and Roman Character of Byzantium Greek in language and culture Roman in organization and politics

5 ROME EAST With the collapse of Rome West the empire continued to the East. Rome s collapse in 476 but occurred over centuries. Rome part 2 and 3?

6 A HODGE PODGE OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Byzantium consisted of: Egypt Greece Syria (Assyria) Anatolia

7 BYZANTIUM BY THEME: POLITICS Caesaropapism Reflection of Caliphates in region Goals and objectives The empire was the source of all authority Surrounded by an elaborate bureaucracy and military organization to carry out his wishes

8 THE PERIL OF AUTOCRACY Byzantine urbanization eis ten polin The blue-green factions and the Nika Revolts. 30,000 dead

9 A NEW WORD BYZANTINE unnecessarily complex Byzantine government and bureaucracy

10 BYZANTIUM: GEOGRAPHY

11 A PEARL OF GEOGRAPHY Cultural Bridge Neighbors Rise of Islam Benefits of geography

12 BYZANTINE CULTURE: THE CHURCH Church and state Orthodox Christianity and its influence on Byzantine life Opposition to Latin Christianity

13 BYZANTINE ORTHODOXY VERSUS LATIN CHRISTIANITY Iconoclasm Pope v. Patriarch Political differences Monasticism Great Schism 1054 Crusades Fourth Crusade

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15 BYZANTIUM AND THE WORLD Characteristic of most Third Wave civilizations Byzantium was very active in interacting with the outside world Conflicts: Persia Islamic Empires Trade Regional Trans-regional (Silk Roads)

16 BYZANTINE CULTURAL INFLUENCE Transmission of Greek learning to the Middle East House of Wisdom Restoration of Greek past to the European world

17 BYZANTINE RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES Kiev and the spread of Orthodoxy Conversion of the Rus and the impact of the conversion. The Third Rome

18 WESTERN EUROPE AFTER THE FALL OF ROME

19 A Case Study POST CLASSICAL EUROPE

20 CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY M.E Hard-won political order, restored out of disruption caused by the fall of the Roman Empire, centuries of destructive invasions, and dramatic depopulation. This order was based on a highly decentralized but flexible system that vested political, military, and judicial authority in local and regional rulers. A long, slow process of economic recovery based first on increased agricultural production within the rural manorial system to be followed by gradually increasing trade, industry, and commerce and the eventual reurbanization of Europe. The cultural unity provided by the Christian church based in Rome. During this period Roman Christianity provided the impetus for cultural continuity and unity in western Europe. The office of the papacy and the monastic movement were two powerful institutions that helped to preserve Roman traditions and develop and consolidate a uniquely European culture.

21 CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH M.E The consolidation and expansion of regional states. These powerful states sometimes were organized by local rulers and based on lord-retainer relationships, as in France. Other times they were direct conquests, as with the Norman invasion of England. At other times, they were supported or encouraged by the Roman church, like the Holy Roman Empire. Economic revitalization. With renewed agricultural surplus, the population expanded and Europe began to reurbanize. Cities grew, and with them grew business, industry, trade, and educational institutions. Long-distance trade networks reappeared, especially in the Mediterranean and Baltic and North Sea regions. Continued presence of the Roman Catholic Christianity in virtually all aspects of high medieval life. Through both traditional church institutions and the mass appeal of popular religious practices, the church prospered during this period. The Roman church's influence was felt in education, philosophy, literature, conquest, and travel

22 POLITICS Largely decentralized, employing Feudalism. Regional centralization, in persons like Alfred the Great, Charles the Great, and Otto I.

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26 POLITICAL SIDENOTE The conflict between Church and State. The only PC state in which secular and religious control clashed.

27 DEMOGRAPHICS Between 200 and 600 Medieval Europe s population plummeted, only to slowly increase. This trend in the Post-Classical World is unique.

28 ECONOMICS Manorialism Agriculture-the plow story Agriculture-slow to evolve Cross cultural trade very slow to evolve Disruption of commerce by invasions Little to no cross cultural interaction. Unique to the Post-Classical World.

29 SOCIAL CLASS Peasantry/Manorialism bound to land, social mobility very limited. Class system of Feudalism. Lords Vassals Clergy Knights Peasants, social diversity limited as specialization is limited. Urbanization slow to evolve Similar to India in that class mobility was rigid.

30 RELIGION Intense cooperation between Franks and Papacy to develop control over Europe Conversion of Clovis Charlemagne spread the faith Monastic orders and rules lead to Monastic expansion St. Benedict and St. Scholastica Unique in the PC World with some similarities to India and China

31 GEOGRAPHY Invasions from three directions. Crusades Vikings from the North, Magyars the East, and the Muslims from Spain and the South. Similar to China and India

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