Employment in Tourism Industries,

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1 Employment in Tourism Industries, Author Name(s): Chris S Payne and Sean White, ONS Abstract This analysis describes how employment within UK tourism industries has changed over the time period 2009 to The analysis focuses on full-time or part-time employment levels, the number of workers who would like to work more hours at their basic rate of pay, self-employment and temporary employment. The article also provides an international comparison using a measure of tourism employment as a share of total employment in selected OECD countries. This is intended to offer a wider context for some of the estimates provided within the report and highlight the relative importance of tourism for each country. Key Points Employment in UK tourism industries increased at nearly double the rate of the rest of the UK labour market between 2009 and 2013 (5.4% increase, rising 143,000 from 2.66 million to 2.81 million) Most of the growth in tourism employment was part-time work between 2009 and 2013 increasing 6.8% or 72,000 from 1.06 million to 1.13 million. The number of workers who would like to work more hours within the food and beverage serving industry group has increased at over double the rate of the rest of the UK labour market between 2009 and 2013 (49% increase, rising 100,000 from 1.14 million to 1.24 million) Self-employment has increased at double the rate of the rest of the UK labour market within the UK cultural, sports, recreation and conference activities industry group between 2009 and 2013 (21.9% increase, rising 41,000 from 188,000 to 229,000) Temporary employment within main jobs in the UK tourism industry has grown cumulatively by 16.6% between 2009 and 2013, in comparison to 12.5% within UK non-tourism industries (rising 29,000 from 231,000 to 260,000) Introduction This paper describes changes in tourism employment within the UK between 2009 and 2013 and this is preceded by an analysis of international changes in tourism employment. The analysis focuses on full-time or part-time employment levels, those who would like to work more hours, selfemployment and temporary employment. Office for National Statistics 1

2 The Annual Population Survey (APS) from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the source of employment data in this paper. The tourism industries in this paper are based on the groupings of tourism characteristic activities set out in the United Nations publication International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008 (IRTS). Such activity is responsible for products that meet either or both of two criteria: 1. Expenditure on the product represent a significant share of total tourism expenditure; 2. The product would cease to exist in meaningful quantities in the absence of visitors. In this analysis the focus is on four groupings of tourism industries: accommodation for visitors; food and beverage serving activities; passenger transport, vehicle hire, travel agencies; and cultural, sports, recreational & conference activities. Figures are presented to the nearest thousand and may not sum within the text due to rounding. Unless stated, the word employment includes those who are self-employed. International changes in tourism employment Figure 1: National tourism employment as a share of total national employment for selected OECD countries in 2012 Notes: 1. Figures may not sum due to rounding 2. Source: OECD and UN World Tourism Organisation Office for National Statistics 2

3 (26 Kb) To give an indication of the importance of tourism industries in 2012 in a range of OECD countries, the size of tourism employment within each country (represented by the number of jobs within tourism industries) as a percentage share of each country s total employment has been calculated. This analysis draws on tourism employment data for selected countries provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO). This is shown in figure 1 which illustrates the relative importance of tourism to the United Kingdom, where 9.1% of all jobs are located within UK tourism industry groups. Of the selected OECD countries, this was the fourth highest proportion behind only Spain, Brazil and Canada. The share of total employment made up by tourism jobs is also higher in the UK than for the majority of G7 countries in the analysis including France, Germany and Japan. Total employment in the UK tourism industry Figure 2: Cumulative growth of employment between 2009 and 2013 within the UK tourism and non-tourism industries (main and second jobs) (25 Kb) Employment growth in UK tourism industries (based on employment in main jobs and second jobs) has grown at nearly double the rate of UK non-tourism industries seeing cumulative growth rates of 5.4% and 2.8% between 2009 and 2013 respectively (See figure 2). Office for National Statistics 3

4 Employment in tourism industries stood at 2.66 million in 2009, but by 2013 this had increased by 142,900, to 2.81 million Employment in non-tourism industries has risen by 759,400 from million in 2009 to million in 2013 Figure 3: Tourism and non-tourism industry proportions in 2013 (25.5 Kb) In 2013, counting employment in both main and second jobs, tourism industries made up 9% of the UK labour market where as non-tourism industries made up the remaining 91% (See figure 3). Office for National Statistics 4

5 Tourism Industry Analysis Table 1: Employment within UK tourism industries and UK non-tourism industries between 2009 and 2013 (main and second jobs) Industry Group Employment 000s Cumulative change between 2009 and Nominal Percent Accommodation for visitors Food and beverage serving activities Passenger transport, vehicle hire, travel agencies etc. Cultural, sports, recreational & conference etc. activities 1,138 1,167 1,179 1,204 1, Subtotal: Tourism industries Subtotal: Non- 2,663 2,729 2,722 2,754 2, ,078 27,035 27,213 27,396 27, Office for National Statistics 5

6 tourism industries Total: all industries 29,741 29,764 29,935 30,150 30, Table source: Office for National Statistics Download table (29 Kb) Table 1 shows the changing employment numbers within the UK tourism industry groups, the UK tourism industry and the UK non-tourism industry. Estimates are presented in nominal and percentage terms. Figure 4: Cumulative employment growth in tourism industry groups between 2009 and 2013 (main and second jobs) (26 Kb) Figure 4 shows that employment in the food and beverage serving industry has grown at the fastest rate out of the four UK tourism industry groups, with a cumulative growth between 2009 and 2013 Office for National Statistics 6

7 of 8.8% or an increase of 99,900 jobs. This represents a rate of growth over three times that of UK non-tourism industries which grew by 2.8%. Other notable points from figure 4 include: Accommodation services for visitors grew at over double the cumulative rate of the UK nontourism industries between 2009 and 2013 seeing 7.1% growth (23,900 jobs) and 2.8% growth respectively. Conversely the UK passenger transport, vehicle hire and travel agencies industry grouping experienced lower cumulative growth in employment between 2009 and 2013 at just 0.6% (one fifth of the 2.8% growth seen in UK non-tourism industries and representing nearly three thousand jobs). Figure 5: Tourism industry group proportions in 2013 (26 Kb) Figure 5 shows that the UK food and beverage serving industry has not only seen the highest cumulative growth in employment between 2009 and 2013 but in 2013 it represented the largest share of the UK tourism industry groups at 44% (1.24 million jobs). Office for National Statistics 7

8 Full-time and part-time employment Figure 6: Full-time and part-time employment cumulative growth within the UK tourism industry between 2009 and 2013 (main and second jobs) (25.5 Kb) UK tourism industry employment cumulative growth was faster than UK non-tourism industry growth in both full-time and part-time employment between 2009 and Within the UK tourism industries: Full-time employment grew cumulatively by 4.2% which was over double the 1.8% growth within UK non-tourism industries between 2009 and Part-time employment grew cumulatively by 6.8%, slightly above UK non-tourism industries where cumulative growth was 5.7% between 2009 and 2013 Office for National Statistics 8

9 Figure 7: Full-time and part-time worker proportions in the UK tourism industry in 2013 (25.5 Kb) Figure 7 shows that even though part-time employment in UK tourism industries has grown at a faster rate than full-time employment between 2009 and 2013, full-time employment continues to represent the majority of UK tourism employment in % of employment was full-time in the UK tourism industries in The remaining 40% of employment was part-time (1.13 million jobs). 22.4% (251,000) of those working part-time in tourism in 2013 reported working part-time because they could not find full-time work. Office for National Statistics 9

10 Workers who would work more hours in their main or second job at their basic rate of pay Figure 8: Cumulative growth of those who would like to work more hours within UK tourism industry groups between 2009 and 2013 (main and second jobs) (26.5 Kb) Workers who report that they would like to work more hours at their basic rate of pay grew cumulatively by 49.3% within the food and beverage serving industry group (See figure 8). Therefore: The cumulative growth in the number of workers in the UK food and beverage serving industry group who report wanting more hours at their basic rate of pay was more than double that seen in the UK non-tourism industries (which grew 17.5% between 2009 and 2013). The cumulative growth in workers who report that they would like to work more hours at their basic rate of pay in the food and beverage serving industry represented a nominal increase of 70,800 between 2009 and Office for National Statistics 10

11 Figure 9: Workers within UK tourism industry groups who would work more hours at their basic rate of pay by proportion in 2013 (26 Kb) In 2013, over half of those who reported wanting more hours at their basic rate of pay within the UK tourism industries were working within the UK food and beverage serving industry. Office for National Statistics 11

12 Self-employment within main and second jobs within the UK tourism industry Figure 10: Cumulative growth of self-employment within UK tourism industry groups between 2009 and 2013 (main and second jobs) (26.5 Kb) Figure 10 shows that self-employment has grown cumulatively at 21.9% within the UK cultural, sports, recreation and conference industry groups between 2009 and 2013, an increase of 41,000. That rate of growth was nearly double the cumulative growth of 11.4% seen in UK non-tourism industries between 2009 and Self-employment cumulative growth within UK tourism industry as a whole was 10.0% which was 1.4% less than the UK non-tourism industries between 2009 and 2013 however. Self-employment within UK passenger transport, travel agencies and vehicle hire industry group fell by 2.3% (4,500) between 2009 and Office for National Statistics 12

13 Figure 11: Self-employment within UK tourism industry by proportion in 2013 (26 Kb) As shown in figure 11, in % of self-employment within the UK tourism industries was located within the UK cultural, sports, recreation and conference industry group and accounted for 229,000 jobs. However a significant proportion of self-employment was also located within the UK passenger transport, travel agencies and vehicle hire industry group despite a fall of 2.3% in cumulative growth terms (See figure 10 and 11). Much of this self employment is accounted for by taxi drivers. Office for National Statistics 13

14 Temporary employment in main jobs within the UK tourism industry Figure 12: Cumulative growth of temporary-employment within UK tourism industry groups between 2009 and 2013 (main jobs only) (26.5 Kb) Figure 12 shows growth in temporary main jobs has grown cumulatively by 16.6% within the UK tourism industry between 2009 and This growth is driven by the food and beverage serving industry group which saw cumulative growth of 41.5% between 2009 and Temporary employment within the UK cultural, sports, recreation and conference industry group fell cumulatively by 13.0% between 2009 and Nominally, temporary employment grew by 29,000 (from 176,000 to 205,000) in the UK tourism industry and by 32,000 (from 77,000 to 108,000) in the UK food and beverage serving industry, between 2009 and Office for National Statistics 14

15 Figure 13: Temporary employment within UK tourism industry by proportion in 2013 (26 Kb) In 2013, 53% of the temporary employment within the UK tourism industry was within the food and beverage serving industry group. Background notes 1. In this article the Annual Population Survey (APS) is used to estimate UK employment levels taking into account both main and second jobs of those workers in the tourism industries over the period between 2009 and 2013 using annual data sets (Jan to Dec). However, only main jobs are used to estimate temporary employment levels and exclude second jobs. This is because most second jobs are likely to be temporary and growth in the number of second jobs may distort changes in temporary employment levels in the analysis. 2. As some employees have more than one job, the number of jobs in the economy exceeds the number of employees within it. ONS produces a number of estimates of employment and jobs, the former referring to the number of people who are employed and the second relating to the numbers of jobs, for instance in the ONS Workforce Jobs estimates. 3. Tourism industries as defined by UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO; according to ISIC Rev.4) are summarised into 4 categories: accommodation for visitors; food and beverage serving activities; passenger transport, vehicle hire, travel agencies; and cultural, sports, recreational & conference. Although this paper focuses specifically on tourism industries it should be noted that the overall volume of tourism-related employment includes some employment in other industries, e.g. many activities in resorts. In addition, some employment in tourism industries is not tourism-related, Office for National Statistics 15

16 for example food and beverage serving in establishments that are usually frequented by local people. Estimates of employment directly resulting from the activities and consumption of tourists are included in the UK Tourism Satellite Accounts which are available separately. 4. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting or from the Media Relations Office Copyright Crown copyright 2014 You may use or re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or This document is also available on our website at Office for National Statistics 16

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