2 CONTENTS Introduction 1. Forms 2. Position 1.1. When preceding a vowel 1.2. In the imperative 2.1. In the present tense 2.2 In the past tense 2.3. In the imperative 3. In negative sentences 3.1. In the present tense 3.2. In the past compound tense 3.3 In negative imperative
3 INTRODUCTION An indirect object represents a person that receives the action of a verb indirectly. Paul offre des bijoux à Marie. Paul lui offre des bijoux. Paul offers jewellery to Marie. Paul offers her jewellery.
4 INTRODUCTION An indirect object pronoun represents and replaces à + a person. Paul offre des bijoux à Marie. Paul lui offre des bijoux. Paul offers jewellery to Marie. Paul offers her jewellery.
5 INTRODUCTION In the previous examples, Marie is the indirect object and the pronoun that replaces à Marie is lui.
6 1. FORMS Me (m ) Te (t ) Lui Nous Vous Leur To me To you To him/to her To us To you To them
7 1. FORMS 1.1. When preceding a vowel, the forms me and te become m and t respectively. Paul offre des bijoux à moi. Paul offers jewellery to me. Paul m offre des bijoux..paul offers me jewellery. Paul offre des bijoux à toi. Paul offers jewellery to you. Paul t offre des bijoux. Paul offers you jewellery.
8 1. FORMS 1.2. In the imperative, me and te become moi and toi. Offre-moi des bijoux! Offer me jewellery! Offrez-moi des bijoux! Offer me jewellery!
9 2. POSITION 2.1. In the present tense, the indirect pronoun is placed just before the main verb. Paul offre des bijoux à Marie. Paul offers jewellery to Marie. Paul lui offre des bijoux. Paul offers her jewellery.
10 2. POSITION 2.2 In the compound past tense (passé composé), the indirect object pronoun precedes the auxiliary verb. Paul a offert des bijoux à Marie. Paul offered jewellery to Marie. Paul lui a offert des bijoux. Paul offered her jewellery.
11 2. POSITION 2.3 In imperative sentences, the indirect object pronoun is placed after the main verb and is attached to it by a hyphen. Offre-lui des bijoux. Offer her/him jewellery. Offrez-lui des bijoux. Offer her/him jewellery.
12 3. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES 3.1. In negative sentences in the present tense: Ne precedes the object pronoun. Pas is placed after the conjugated verb.
13 3. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES Paul lui offre des bijoux. Paul offers her jewellery. Paul ne lui offre pas de bijoux. Paul does not offer her jewellery.
14 3. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES Remember that the indefinite articles (un, une, des) become de in negative sentences.
15 3. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES 3.2. In negative sentences in the compound past tense: Ne precedes the indirect object pronoun Pas is placed between the auxiliary verb and the past participle of the main verb.
16 3. IN THE NEGATIVE SENTENCES Note : in this case, there is no agreement between the past participle and the indirect object. Paul a offert des bijoux à Marie. Paul has offered jewellery to Marie. Paul ne lui a pas offert de bijoux. Paul hasn t offered jewellery to Marie.
17 3. IN THE NEGATIVE SENTENCES 3.3 In negative imperative: The indirect object pronoun is placed before the verb and is not attached to it by a hyphen. Place ne at the beginning of the sentence and pas after the imperative form.
18 3. IN THE NEGATIVE SENTENCES Ne lui offre pas de bijoux. Don t offer her/him jewellery. Ne lui offrez pas de bijoux. Don t offer her/him jewellery.
19 3. IN THE NEGATIVE SENTENCES Me and te become m' and t', respectively, when preceding a word starting with a vowel. Ne m offre pas de bijoux. Don t offer me jewellery. Ne m offrez pas de bijoux. Don t offer me jewellery.
20 OBSERVE Parler à to talk to: Parler à to talk to Indirect object Indirect object pronoun Indirect object pronoun+negation Present Tu parles à ta sœur. You talk to your sister Tu lui parles. You talk to her. Tu ne lui parles pas. you don t talk to her. Past Tu as parlé à ta sœur. You talked to your sister. Tu lui as parlé. You talked to her. Tu ne lui as pas parlé. You didn t talk to her. Imp. Parle à ta sœur! Talk to your sister! Parle-lui! Talk to her! Ne lui parles pas! Don t talk to her!
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