Roman Roads Tools of an Empire. Aqueducts. Finding Water. SS8 Pathways - Early Mid2 Roman Roads and Aqueducts

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1 - Early Mid2 Roman Roads and Aqueducts Roman Roads Tools of an Empire The Roman system of roads grew steadily to a peak of over 90,000 km. All major roads were built by the army or for the army. They were needed for massive armies to march to war or to defend the Empire. Because of this they often ran outside of the protected Roman World into the hostile lands beyond. However, at the same time the new roads improved communications inside the empire for the government too. The improved roads also improved the shipping of goods for business people. Roman roads, although built with military needs in mind, were of immense benefit to civilian life. A few roads were built just for business purposes. One was the Via Salaria (The Salt Road) which was used to carry salt from the Adriatic Sea to trade with the Romans. Roman roads are famous for their straightness, but even so, today we can see that some zigzagging takes place in long sections. Often there will be a very straight section that changes direction slightly at high points of land, going straight again until the next point. Aqueducts Finding Water Human settlements must always be near a source of fresh water, whether a river or a spring. While Rome was just a small state within Latium, its source was the River Tiber. By the late fourth century B.C., when the Romans were fighting the second Samnite War, an alternative source of water was urgently needed. Perhaps this was because the water supply from the Tiber was not reliable enough for the expanding population of Rome, or perhaps it was because a single source of water could easily be poisoned by an enemy. Consequently, the Romans began building their first aqueduct, the Aqua Appia, in 312 B.C. Most of the later aqueducts were built less urgently to satisfy an amazing and everincreasing demand for cold, clear water. To understand the builders task, we must look first at the geography of Rome and its hinterland. The countryside around tome, know as the Campagna, is surrounded by hills and mountains. Rain and melting snow from this high ground feed many rivers, among them the Tiber and its tributary the Anio. Some of this water, however, percolates through the soil and runs over the surface of the hard rock beneath, emerging from the ground lower down as springs. The many springs in the hills around the Campagna captured the attention of the Romans, and they decided to channel some of this pure water into the city.

2 One might have to dig to find a good source; where should one look? Vitruvius, a retired military engineer, who wrote ten books on architecture and engineering in the reign of Augustus, advised the Romans that; Finding water is easy if there are open, running springs. If not, we must search underground. Just before sunrise, lie faces downwards on the ground, resting your chin in your hands. Take a look over the countryside; where you see vapor curling up from the ground you will find water SS8 Pathways - EarlyMid3 End is Near

3 The End is Near! Like all good things, Rome eventually came to and end. By 117 A.D. the Roman Empire had reached its peak. Beginning in 161 A.D. some of the Empire s neighbors began to cause problems. The Roman s called all those people outside of the Empire Barbarians, meaning people who speak a different language. The Empire as a government or organization was also in trouble. Many different leaders tried to gain control of the Empire for themselves, and the government was running out of money. In 284 A.D. the Roman Emperor Diocletes divided the Empire in two in an attempt to regain control of the Empire s borders and reduce the cost of operating the government. Diolcetes successor Constantine ruled the Eastern Roman Empire and he worked hard to rebuild the old city of Byzantium and renamed in Constantinople.

4 - EarlyMid3 End is Near End Is Near! Directions: Read pages 8-11 in your text Pathways Civilizations through Time 1. On a separate piece of paper, provide definitions for the following terms; Legacy Architecture Philosophy Latin Roman Legions Gladiator 2. On a separate piece of paper, answer the following questions using COMPLETE SENTENCES; a. What was the name given to the Roman s neighbours and what did it mean? (2 mks for quality of answer) b. Explain why the Mediterranean was an ideal location for civilizations to develop. (2 mks for 2 reasons) c. What was it that made the Romans so successful? (2 mks for quality of answer) d. Explain what Pax Romana meant and describe how it was both good and bad. (2 mks for quality of answer) 3. Imagine that you are an emperor of Rome. It is your job to re-define what the Pax Romana will outline. Provide a list of at least 5 rules or laws that you think would help a society run smoothly and successfully. You will be marked out of 5 for the quality and evidence of thought put into your rules. Total: / 19

5 - EarlyMid4 Fall of Rome The Fall of Rome By 400 A.D. the once great Roman Empire was beginning to fade. By now the Empire was divided into Eastern and Western halves. The Western Empire saw the most dramatic decline of knowledge, citizenship and government. The West. Emp. was quickly being overrun by barbarians, and these barbarians eventually invaded and sacked Rome in 410 A.D. By 476 A.D. the last of the West. Roman Emperors was overthrown, officially bringing an end to the great Roman Empire. What replaced the Roman Empire in Europe was a large hodge-podge of kingdoms and tribal organizations that had more of a resemblance to modern day gangs than any real type of formal government. This was the beginning of what is now referred to as the Dark Ages.

6 - earlymid4v2 Fall of Rome The Fall of Rome Worksheet. Directions: 1. Read pages in your text Pathways - Civilizations Through Time 2. Answer the following questions, using COMPLETE sentences, on a separate piece of paper. 3. Complete the attached map assignment. Questions: 1. In what year was Rome conquered and who were the people who managed to defeat them? 2. Describe how Roman civilization has lived on. 3. Complete the following chart and provide the missing reasons for the decline and eventual demise of the Roman Empire. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Cause Explanation 1. Economic a) small businesses suffered when Romans began using slaves to supply goods and services b) 2. Social a) New religions weakened the will of the Roman people to defend their empire, because many chose their new religion over Rome. b) (over)

7 Cause Explanation 3. Political a) (includes military reasons) b) c)

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