Entity-Relationship (ER) Model

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1 ER Design (1)

2 Entity-Relationship (ER) Model Elements in a database: data entries Data entries represent Entities: data objects, e.g., students, courses, and instructors Relationships among entities: students take courses, instructors teach courses ER model: modeling data using entities and relationships CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 2

3 E-R Diagrams Rectangles represent entity sets Diamonds represent relationship sets Lines link attributes to entity sets and entity sets to relationship sets Ellipses represent attributes Double ellipses represent multivalued attributes Dashed ellipses denote derived attributes Underline indicates primary key attributes CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 3

4 Example CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 4

5 Involving One Entity Set Twice Ann and Bob are employees in SmallCompany Two entities in entity set employee Ann is Bob s supervisor (Ann, Bob) supervision Relationship set supervision involves entity set employee twice How can we call the first employee and the second employee in a supervision relationship? CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 5

6 Roles The labels manager and worker are called roles; they specify how employee entities interact via the works_for relationship set Role labels are optional, and are used to clarify semantics of the relationship CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 6

7 Keys and Mapping Cardinality One to one relationship set Use a candidate key in either entity set University-president(university, president) Many to one relationship set Use a candidate key in the one side entity set Teaching (instructor, courses) Many to many relationship set Use a candidate key in each participating entity set Take-course(student, course) How to annotate cardinality constraints in ER diagram? CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 7

8 Cardinality Constraints Drawing either a directed line ( ), signifying one, or an undirected line ( ), signifying many, between the relationship set and the entity set. One-to-one relationship Each customer can have at most one loan Each loan is associated with at most one customer CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 8

9 One-To-Many Relationship In the one-to-many relationship a loan is associated with at most one customer via borrower, a customer is associated with several (including 0) loans via borrower CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 9

10 Many-To-One Relationships In a many-to-one relationship a loan is associated with several (including 0) customers via borrower, a customer is associated with at most one loan via borrower CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 10

11 Many-To-Many Relationship A customer is associated with several (possibly 0) loans via borrower A loan is associated with several (possibly 0) customers via borrower CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 11

12 Participation of an Entity Set Total participation (indicated by double line): every entity in the entity set participates in at least one relationship in the relationship set E.g., participation of loan in borrower is total: every loan must have a customer associated to it via borrower Partial participation: some entities may not participate in any relationship in the relationship set Example: participation of customer in borrower is partial CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 12

13 Entity Sets or Attributes The structure of the enterprise being modeled The semantics associated with the attribute in question CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 13

14 Entity Sets or Relationship Sets Designate a relationship set to describe an action that occurs between entities CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 14

15 A Ternary Relationship CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 15

16 A Cardinality Constraints B C At most one arrow out of a ternary (or greater degree) relationship to indicate a cardinality constraint An arrow from works_on to job indicates each employee works on at most one job at any branch Confusion with more than one arrow Each A entity is associated with a unique entity from B and C (i.e., a combination of B and C), or Each pair of entities from (A, B) is associated with a unique C entity, and each pair (A, C) is associated with a unique B CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 16

17 Binary vs. Non-Binary Relationships Some non-binary relationships may be better represented using binary relationships E.g. A ternary relationship parents, relating a child to his/her father and mother, is best replaced by two binary relationships, father and mother Using two binary relationships allows partial information (e.g. only mother being know) But there are some relationships that are naturally non-binary, e.g., works_on CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 17

18 Converting Non-Binary Relationships A non-binary relationship can be represented using binary relationships by creating an artificial entity set Replace R between entity sets A, B and C by an entity set E, and three relationship sets: CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 18

19 Summary Roles Cardinality constraints Participation Choice of entity sets attributes, or relationship sets Binary and non-binary relationships CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 19

20 To-Do-List Can you think about some situations where the facilities of ER design we have so far are still insufficient to model the application data? CMPT 354: Database I -- ER Design (1) 20

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