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1 Earth Layers Foldable

2 The Layers of the Earth Copyright M. J. Krech. All rights reserved.

3 The Four Layers The Earth is composed of four different layers. The crust is the layer that you live on, and it is the most widely studied and understood. The mantle is much hotter and has the ability to flow. The outer core and inner core are even hotter with pressures so great you would be squeezed into a ball smaller than a marble if you were able to go to the center of the Earth!

4 The Crust The Earth's Crust is like the skin of an apple. It is very thin in comparison to the other three layers. The crust is only about 3-5 miles (8 kilometers) thick under the oceans (oceanic crust) and about 25 miles (32 kilometers) thick under the continents (continental crust). The crust is composed of two rocks. The continental crust is mostly granite. The oceanic crust is basalt. Basalt is much denser than the granite. Because of this the less dense continents ride on the denser oceanic plates.

5 The Lithosphere The crust and the upper layer of the mantle together make up a zone of rigid, brittle rock called the Lithosphere.

6 The Lithospheric Plates The crust of the Earth is broken into many pieces called plates. The plates "float" on the soft, semi-rigid asthenosphere.

7 The Asthenosphere The asthenosphere is the semi-rigid part of the middle mantle that flows like hot asphalt under a heavy weight.

8 The Mantle The Mantle is the largest layer of the Earth at 2900 km thick. The middle mantle is composed of very hot dense rock that flows like asphalt under a heavy weight. The movement of the middle mantle (asthenosphere) is the reason that the crustal plates of the Earth move.

9 Convection Currents The middle mantle "flows" because of convection currents. Convection currents are caused by the very hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rising, then cooling and sinking again --repeating this cycle over and over.

10 The Outer Core The core of the Earth is like a ball of very hot metals. The outer core is so hot that the metals in it are all in the liquid state. The outer core is composed of the melted metals of nickel and iron.

11 The Inner Core The inner core of the Earth has temperatures and pressures so great that the metals are squeezed together and are not able to move about like a liquid, but are forced to vibrate in place like a solid.

12 The End In your lab group, discuss the following question: Have we ever seen part of the Mantle? Explain. Copyright M. J. Krech. All rights reserved.

13 Question Sheet Use your foldable and the textbook (pages 72-73) to answer the questions. Turn in to basket Pick up the lab sheet

14 Traveling Quiz Your group will need ONE sheet of paper. Write ALL team members names on it and the hour. Person #1 will start, the paper will rotate to #2 and so on. Continue until the quiz is complete. TASK: draw and label the layers of the earth Extra points awarded for additional and correct information

15 Layers of the Earth

16 How far have scientists drilled into the earth? 7.6 miles Only 0.2% of the distance to the earth s core

17 Mystery Boxes In your lab groups, determine what is inside the box How does this activity connect to the layers of the Earth?

18 How do we know so much about what s under Earth s surface? Through INDIRECT EVIDENCE, mostly from seismic waves caused by earthquakes (more on this later this semester...) Sometimes indirect evidence is the only option for scientists to develop a theory Lets give it a try...

19 So...here s what scientists know... Please add the following notes to the notes section of your binder. It is suggested that you write down the underlined notes

20 Earth s 4 main Layers Crust Mantle Outer Core Inner Core

21 The Crust The crust, the outermost layer, is rigid and very thin Oceanic Crust (beneath the ocean) is about 5 km thick Continental Crust (under land) averages about 30 km and 100 km deep. Like the shell of a hardboiled egg

22 Mantle The Mantle is a dense, hot layer of semisolid rock approximately 2,900 km thick. The mantle contains more iron, magnesium, and calcium than the crust is hotter and denser because temperature and pressure inside the Earth increase with depth. As a comparison, the mantle might be thought of as the white of a boiled egg.

23 The Core the core, is nearly twice as dense as the mantle because its composition is metallic (iron-nickel alloy). the Earth's core is made up of two distinct parts: a 2,200 km-thick liquid outer core a 1,250 km-thick solid inner core As the Earth rotates, the liquid outer core spins, creating the Earth's magnetic field.

24 Lithosphere= the crust and the uppermost part of mantle The Lithosphere

25 The Asthenosphere Asthenosphere= the fluid like portion of the mantle that lies just below lithosphere. The lithosphere floats on the asthenosphere

26 Practice Quiz Question Can you label the following layers?

27

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