Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core

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1 Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core

2 mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic but stronger chemical layers crust: low density silicate mantle: medium density silicate core: iron-nickel metal

3 Mineral Rock

4 Minerals

5 Mineral

6 Rocks

7 Rock

8 What is a mineral?

9 What is a mineral? A component of a rock. What is a rock? An aggregate of minerals.

10 What is a mineral? A NATURALLY OCCURRING INORGANIC CRYSTALLINE SOLID SUBSTANCE WITH A DEFINABLE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SPECIFIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

11 A NATURALLY OCCURRING INORGANIC CRYSTALLINE SOLID SUBSTANCE WITH A DEFINABLE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SPECIFIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

12 CRYSTALLINE SOLID

13 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

14 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

15 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

16 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

17 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER SIX ATOM IN THE CRUST sodium (Na) 2.8% 1.32% THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

18 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER FIVE ATOM IN THE CRUST calcium (Ca) 3.6% 1.03% THE NUMBER SIX ATOM IN THE CRUST sodium (Na) 2.8% 1.32% THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

19 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER FOUR ATOM IN THE CRUST iron (Fe) 5.0% 0.42% THE NUMBER FIVE ATOM IN THE CRUST calcium (Ca) 3.6% 1.03% THE NUMBER SIX ATOM IN THE CRUST sodium (Na) 2.8% 1.32% THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

20 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER THREE ATOM IN THE CRUST aluminum (Al) 8.1% 0.47% THE NUMBER FOUR ATOM IN THE CRUST iron (Fe) 5.0% 0.42% THE NUMBER FIVE ATOM IN THE CRUST calcium (Ca) 3.6% 1.03% THE NUMBER SIX ATOM IN THE CRUST sodium (Na) 2.8% 1.32% THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

21 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER TWO ATOM IN THE CRUST silicon (Si) 27.7 % 0.86% THE NUMBER THREE ATOM IN THE CRUST aluminum (Al) 8.1% 0.47% THE NUMBER FOUR ATOM IN THE CRUST iron (Fe) 5.0% 0.42% THE NUMBER FIVE ATOM IN THE CRUST calcium (Ca) 3.6% 1.03% THE NUMBER SIX ATOM IN THE CRUST sodium (Na) 2.8% 1.32% THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

22 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER ONE ATOM IN THE CRUST oxygen (O) 46.6% 93.6% THE NUMBER TWO ATOM IN THE CRUST silicon (Si) 27.7 % 0.86% THE NUMBER THREE ATOM IN THE CRUST aluminum (Al) 8.1% 0.47% THE NUMBER FOUR ATOM IN THE CRUST iron (Fe) 5.0% 0.42% THE NUMBER FIVE ATOM IN THE CRUST calcium (Ca) 3.6% 1.03% THE NUMBER SIX ATOM IN THE CRUST sodium (Na) 2.8% 1.32% THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

23 THE TOP TEN ATOMS AVAILABLE IN CRUST by by weight volume THE NUMBER ONE ATOM IN THE CRUST oxygen (O) 46.6% 93.6% THE NUMBER TWO ATOM IN THE CRUST silicon (Si) 27.7 % 0.86% THE NUMBER THREE ATOM IN THE CRUST aluminum (Al) 8.1% 0.47% THE NUMBER FOUR ATOM IN THE CRUST iron (Fe) 5.0% 0.42% THE NUMBER FIVE ATOM IN THE CRUST calcium (Ca) 3.6% 1.03% THE NUMBER SIX ATOM IN THE CRUST sodium (Na) 2.8% 1.32% THE NUMBER SEVEN ATOM IN THE CRUST potassium (K) 2.6% 1.83% THE NUMBER EIGHT ATOM IN THE CRUST magnesium (Mg) 2.1% 0.29% THE NUMBER NINE ATOM IN THE CRUST titanium (Ti) 0.4% 0.03% THE NUMBER TEN ATOM IN THE CRUST hydrogen (H) 0.1% 0.16%

24 THE TOP TWO ATOMS IN THE CRUST by volume NUMBER ONE oxygen (O) 93.6% NUMBER TWO silicon (Si) 0.86% THE TOP TWO ATOMS IN THE ATMOSPHERE by volume NUMBER ONE nitrogen (N) 78% NUMBER TWO oxygen (O) 21%

25 Silicate mineral O -2 Si +4 silica tetrahedron composed of silicon and oxygen

26 Silica tetrahedron O -2 SiO 4-4 Si +4 Each oxygen can bond to another atom

27 island silicate: all O s bond to other atoms Each oxygen bonds to a magnesium atom

28 olivine

29 chain silicates Si tetrahedra link to form chains

30 bridging oxygen link Si tetrahedra

31 apical oxygen bonds to other elements

32 island silicate all oxygens are apical oxygens

33 chain silicates apical oxygens link chains to other elements

34 pyroxene

35 amphibole

36 sheet silicates Si tetrahedra link to form sheets

37 apical oxygen bridging oxygen

38 sheet silicates apical oxygens link sheets to other elements

39 mica

40 clay

41 framework silicates Si tetrahedra link to form 3d framework

42 all oxygens are bridging oxygens

43 quartz

44 feldspar

45 Igneous rocks form from the crystallization of magma: on the surface as lava flows or beneath the earth in magma chambers Igneous rocks are composed of interlocking mineral grains

46 igneous rocks

47 Sedimentary rocks form from sediment weathered from pre-existing rocks

48 Sedimentary rocks are well layered

49 Metamorphic rocks form from pre-existing igneous or sedimentary rocks Flow and recrystallization in the solid state

50

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