# Unit 1/Module I Motions, Forces, and Energy

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1 Timeline: 1 st /2 nd Quarter Big Idea: Motion, Forces, and Energy Unit 1/Module I Motions, Forces, and Energy TRANSFER Students will be able to independently use their learning to Recognize that an object s motion is the result of the combined effect of all forces acting on the object. Apply their knowledge about the interactions between energy and matter and how it produces predicable patterns of change in new situations. Recognize how change is represented on a graph. MEANING Understandings (Non-negotiable) Students will understand that Speed equals distance divided by time. Friction can start, stop, slow down, or change the direction and objects motion. Unbalanced forces change the motion of objects. When forces are balanced the motion of an object will remain constant. Changes in motion are a result of the combined action of applied forces, friction, and mass. Recommended Essential questions: How can one describe physical interactions between objects and within systems of objects? What is the effect of force on any pair of interacting objects? How is the motion of an object determined? How can one describe physical interactions between objects and within systems of objects? What type of interactions occurs between forces? How can energy be transferred from one object or system to another? In what ways can objects move? What makes objects move the way they do? What role do forces play here? What is the role of gravity in the universe? ACQUISITION Students will know Motion of an object Mass of an object What causes changes in the speed or direction of an object s motion Frictional force acting on an object with the use of a physical model. Forces on an object are balanced or unbalanced and justify with observational evidence.

2 Established Goals (Performance Expectations) MS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions MS-PS3 Energy Students who demonstrate understanding can: MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a c ar and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.] MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.] MS-PS2-3. Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment about questions that require quantitative answers is limited to proportional reasoning and algebraic thinking.] MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton s Law of Gravitation or Kepler s Laws.] MS-PS2-5. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. [Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to electric and magnetic fields, and limited to qualitative evidence for the existence of fields.] MS-PS3-1. Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.] MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative amounts of potential energy, not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances could include: the Earth and either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate s hair. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to two objects and electric, magnetic, and gravitational interactions.]

3 Standards Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas DCI s MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.* Apply scientific ideas or principles to design an object, tool, process or system. (MS-PS2-1) PS2.A.1 For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton s third law). (MS-PS2-1) MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim. (MS-PS2-2 PS2.A.2 The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. (MS-PS2-2) PS2.A.3 All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame & arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared. (MS- PS2-2) MS-PS2-3. Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the classroom, outdoor environment, and museums and other public facilities with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on observations and scientific principles. (MS-PS2-3) PS2.B.1 Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects. (MS-PS2-3) MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. Construct and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem. (MS-PS2-4) PS2.B.2 Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass e.g., Earth and the sun. (MS-PS2-4)

4 Crosscutting Concepts Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions such as inputs, processes, and outputs and energy and matter flows within systems. (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-4), (MS-PS3-2) The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-PS2-1) Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and forces at different scales. (MS-PS2-2) Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-5) Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions such as inputs, processes, and outputs and energy and matter flows within systems. (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-4), (MS-PS3-2) Standards MS-PS2-5. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. MS-PS3-1. Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. Science & Engineerin g Practices Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that can meet the goals of the investigation. (MS-PS2-5) Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to identify linear and nonlinear relationships. (MS- PS3-1) Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. (MS-PS3-2)

5 Disciplinary Core Ideas DCI s PS2.B.3 Forces that act at a distance (electric and magnetic) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a ball, a charged object, or a magnet, respectively). (MS-PS2-5) PS3.A.3 Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (MS-PS3-1 PS3.A.4 A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. (MS-PS3-2) PS3.C.1 When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object. (MS- PS3-2) Crosscutting Concepts Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-5) Proportional relationships (e.g. speed as the ratio of distance traveled to time taken) among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes.(ms-ps3-1),(ms-ps3-4) Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions such as inputs, processes, and outputs and energy and matter flows within systems. (MS-PS2 1),(MS-PS2-4), (MS-PS3-2) Materials: Unit 1 PE: MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. DCI: MS-PS2.A.3 SE Print: Mod I U1 L1: Motion and Speed (partial) [pp. 4-17] SE Print: Mod I U1 L2: Acceleration pp PE: MS-PS2-1: Apply Newton s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects. PE: MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

6 DCI: MS-PS2.A.1 and MS-PS2.A.2 SE Print: Mod I U1 L3: Forces (full) [pp ] PE: MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. DCI: MS-PS3.C.1 (more of this is addressed in Unit 2) SE Print: Mod I U1 L3: Forces (partial) [pp ]; PE: MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. DCI: MS-PS2.B.2 SE Print: Mod I U1 L4: Gravity and Motion (full) [pp ] Unit 2 PE: MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. DCI: MS-PS3.C.1 Mod I U2 L1: Work, Energy, and Power (partial) [pp ] Mod I U2 L1: Work, Energy, and Power (partial) Mod I U2 L1: Work, Energy, and Power (partial) [pp ] PE: MS-PS3-1. Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. PE: MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. DCI: MS-PS3.A.3 and MS-PS3.A.4 SE Print: Mod I U2 L2: Kinetic and Potential Energy (full) [pp ] Unit 3 PE: MS-PS2-3. Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

7 PE: MS-PS2-5. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. DCI: MS-PS2.B.1, MS-PS2.B.3 SE Print: Mod I U3 L1: Electric Charge and Static Electricity (full) [pp ] SE Print: Mod I U3 L2: Electric Current pp SE Print: Mod I U3 L4: Magnets and Magnetism (partial) [pp ] SE Print: Mod I U3 L5: Electromagnetism pp (partial), additional information: pp

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