# 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

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1 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was the first to comprehensively investigate and compile laws governing Force and Motion. We will study Dynamics with Newton s Three Laws of Motion. Newton s First Law is also called the Law of Inertia: An object at rest will stay at rest, and a moving object will maintain the same velocity (vector), if and only if the net force acting on it is zero. Or, Thing keep moving as they are until an unbalanced force acts on them. Inertia is a tendency for an object to resist change. Types of Forces: Thrust: F source of thrust Force intended to cause motion Subscript is label of the cause of the force Force is due to a contact between the object of the thrust and the cause of the thrust. Stops when contact stops. Tension: F T or T Force exerted by a string, cable, rope Force in same direction as string from the point the string is attached (contact). Force away from object. Spring: F sp Force to return a spring (or mass with it) to its rest position. Force proportional to displacement. Normal Force: F N Force perpendicular to a surface. Even a perfectly smooth surface will have a normal force. Can increase until the surface breaks. Contact force between object and surface. Force is away from the surface. 1

2 Friction Force (surfaces): F f Force parallel to a surface. Contact force between surfaces that can increase to a maximum. Direction is opposite to motion or potential motion. Other forms of friction are air resistance, water resistance Force of gravity: F g Force due to a field (no contact necessary) Near the earth, the direction of the force is towards the center of the earth. Near the surface of the earth the field is a uniform strength. Near usually means within 10 s of kilometers. A Free Body Diagram FBD is a diagram that shows all the forces acting on an object. Forces are shown as vectors Each vector is labeled Larger forces have longer vectors (arrows) The position the force acts is shown on the diagram. Example 1: Show the FBD for the following: a) A student sitting in his/her chair. b) A ball being thrown horizontally c) A book being pushed along a desk. d) A car driving at constant velocity. e) A car slowing down f) A parachutist floating down to earth. g) A helium balloon floating into the sky. 2

3 To find the force acting on an object, we must learn to add the forces as vectors. Vectors can be added geometrically, or algebraically. Geometrically, vectors are added tip to tail. The result (resultant) is from the original start to the final endpoint. Algebraically, in one dimension, vectors are written as a positive or negative based on a frame of reference. They are then added as real numbers. Ex. 2: A = 20 N west; B = 15 N west, C = 5 N east; D = 10 N east. Find these graphically and algebraically: a) A + C b) B + D c) B + C + D d) A + B + C + D Newton s First Law is algebraically expressed as Newton s Second law: F net = ma This formula relates the net force required to accelerate a mass at a specific acceleration. Ex 3: A 1200 kg car is accelerated at 1.25 m/s2. What is the net force required to do this? The same car is uniformly accelerated from zero to 97 km/h is 7.0 s. What is the net force required to accelerate this car? pp , # 1-8 pp , 41, 43, 44, 53,

4 2.2 Newton s Second Law F net = ma Solving dynamics problems with Newton s Second Law should follow these principles: Draw a diagram with a frame of reference Create a Free Body Diagram Clearly determine the Force(s) contributing to the net force. Follow formula and substitution patterns as with kinematics. Example 1: A car with a mass of 850 kg is accelerated at 2.2 m/s 2. The engine generates a thrust of 2800 N. What is the total resistive force (friction) acting on this car? What force is required to accelerate the 85 kg driver? Example 2: A ball rolling at 1.8 m/s comes to a stop in 16 m. What is the frictional force acting on the ball? 4

5 On the earth s surface, gravity causes an acceleration of 9.8 m/s 2 The force of gravity acting on an object is F g = mg, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. F g = F net mg = ma a = g This is called the gravitational field strength. The force of gravity is the weight of an object. Example 3: A 56 kg student is standing on a scale. Draw the FBD and show the reading on the scale. What is the scale reading? Example 4: The gravitational field strength on Vulcan is 1.4 x that of earth. How long will it take a 12 kg brick to fall 1.00 m on Vulcan? Example 5: A 4600 kg airplane must accelerate to 120 m/s on a 785 m runway. Its engine can generate 35,000 N of thrust. What additional thrust is required for it to take off on this runway? pp , # pp , # 63, 64, 67, 68, 72, 73, 74, 82 5

6 2.3 Vertical Acceleration Considering objects near the earth, all experience the Force of gravity from the earth. The force of gravity is the weight of an object. On the earth: weight = F g = mg There is no place in the universe where you can be weightless. There is a force of gravity acting at every place in the universe. As you are sitting in your chair, you are experiencing the force of gravity, but the force you feel is the normal force of the chair pushing up against you. Our minds have become so used to this normal force, that we expect it. This normal force is called our apparent weight. Example 1: An elevator is designed to accelerate its passengers at 1.5 m/s2. What is a 75 kg riders apparent weight when the elevator is: a) Stationary at floor 1. b) Accelerating from floor 1 upwards. c) Moving at constant velocity upwards. d) Decelerating to stop at floor 3. e) Stationary at floor 3. 6

7 Example 2: The drop zone ride is designed to have people feel weightless for 1.5 s, and then accelerate them uniformly to a stop at the ground level. The riders are dropped from a height of 35 m. What is the apparent weight and normal force acting on a 65 kg rider in the two parts of this ride. Example 3: A distraught Physics 11 student wishes to escape from the second floor window. The drop is 6.0 m to the ground. The rope that the student makes from their own hair can only withstand a 350 N force before breaking. What is the slowest speed that the student falling when they hit the ground? p. 100, # 20 pp , # 69, 70, 71, 88, 89, 7

8 2.4 Friction Friction is a general term for a retarding force that acts in the opposite direction of motion. We will first examine friction between two surfaces. Friction between two surfaces is modeled with a very simple equation: F f =!F N F f = frictional force.! = coefficient of friction F N = Normal force between the surfaces. A slippery surface will have a small coefficient of friction. A rough (not slippery) surface will have a higher coefficient of friction. The size of the surface area that is in contact is not a factor in the size of the frictional force. Note: The formula does not give any directional information. You must provide that. There are two sub-sets of this frictional model: kinetic and static. Kinetic friction is used in the surfaces are sliding past each other: F f, kinetic =! k F N This force will be in the opposite direction of motion of the object. Ex 1: A worker is pushing a 250 kg crate along level ground with a force of 1800 N. What is the coefficient of friction between the crate and the ground? If the worker is pushing the crate at 3.5m/s, and stops pushing, how far will the crate slide before it comes to a stop? Ex 2: A student is pushing her 1.2 kg text along the ground with an acceleration of 2.0 m/s 2. If! k = 0.48 what force is required to push the text if it is already moving? 8

9 If the surfaces in contact are not sliding, the model is a static friction model. F f,static "! s F N This formula will only calculate a maximum value that the frictional force can attain. The actual magnitude and direction of the force will depend on the situation. The static frictional force will only become large enough to keep the system static. If the applied force becomes large than the maximum static frictional force, the not force will no longer be zero, and the object will accelerate. The friction will now be in a kinetic situation, and the value of! may change. Ex 3: A car can break with more force if the tires are turning than when the tires are sliding. Why? (see table 5-1, p. 129) Ex 4: Two people are pushing opposite directions on a 75.0 kg box with! s = The magnitudes of the two pushing forces are 835 N and 685 N. Will the box start to move? Ex 5: A person can just push hard enough to get a wooden chair to slide on a wooden floor. How fast will the chair accelerate if the force remains constant after the chair starts to slide? pp , 17, 19, 21, 23 p. 140, 56, 57 p. 142,

10 2.5 Hooke s Law Many forces are exerted through a spring. A Spring is anything that will exert a force to return to its original position if it is stressed out of its natural position. We will determine the relationship between the force and distance for an elastic band through graphing. Obtain the following: meter stick, elastic band, newton meter. With the elastic band on the end of the meter stick, stretch the elastic to eight different lengths. For each length, record the distance on the meter stick, and the force on the spring scale. Also record three measurements (three different forces) after the elastic does not stretch further. Graph these. Distance Force 10

11 For the elastic part of the graph, the slope is called the spring constant, k. The slope of the line gives us this relationship: Hooke s Law: F = - kx The negative sign indicates that the force is in the opposite direction as the displacement of the spring. x is the amount the spring has been displaced. Ex 1: A spring is used in a scale to weigh people. The scale surface will move up to 1.5 cm. What spring constant should the spring have to weigh people with a mass of up to 130 kg? An object falling towards the earth will accelerate until it reaches a steady velocity. This velocity is called the terminal velocity. Terminal velocity accounts for air friction, a factor that we often ignore in solving our problems. If the air friction becomes large relative to the mass (inertia) involved, air friction (drag) becomes important. Air drag increases with velocity and the surface area that is pushing through the air. An object just released has no drag acting on it: a = 9.8m/s 2 As the object speed up, the drag increases, and the acceleration decreases. At the terminal velocity, the drag equals the force of gravity: a = 0, and velocity is constant. Ex 2: Predict, then explain the different terminal velocities for the following: One coffee filter dropped Two filters (placed one inside the other) dropped Three filters (placed inside of one) dropped. pp , 36, 69, 70, 73a p. 112, 45, 56 11

12 2.6 Newton s 3rd Law Newton s third law states that forces are applied in pairs. If A applies a force on B, then B applies the opposite force on A. F A on B = F B on A Explain how runners at the start of a race accelerate, if the force they are exerting with their legs is exerted backwards. In most of our problems, we only consider one of this pair of forces. If we are in a boat, and throw a ball with a 100 N force, the ball is pushing back on us with a 100 N force. Solving a problem for the ball, we ignore the force acting on us. Ex 1: You are sitting in a boat. Your and the boats combined mass is 550 kg. You throw a 0.35 kg ball with an acceleration of 12.0 m/s 2. What is your (with the boat) acceleration? Ex 2: Draw the FBD for each part of the following system: A 12 kg box is resting on a 5.0 kg chair that is on the floor. Remember that the net force on each part of the system must be zero because the acceleration is zero. 12

13 Ex 3: A 150 kg mass is dropped in a pile-driver. What is the acceleration of the earth? Why is this effect on the earth ignored? Newton s third law can also been seen in examples that have forces acting through a rope, tension forces. The tension in a rope is constant throughout, and acts in both directions. (We assume that we use perfect, massless ropes) Ex 4: Draw the FBD for the following: A person pulling on a rope with 30 N against anther person. Neither person is moving. A person pulling on a rope with 30 N and the rope is attached to a wall. Which situation puts a greater tension in the rope? p. 104, 29, 31 pp , 47, 51, 75, 77, 79, 80 13

14 2.7 Universal Gravitation All objects with mass exert a gravitational pull on all other objects that have mass. This force extends throughout the universe. Often the force is so small it can be ignored. Newton found that this gravitational force was proportional to the masses involved, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. 2.7 Universal Gravitation G = 6.67 x N m 2 kg -2 F = Gm 1 m 2 r 2 Gravity is an attractive force, so the force is acting to pull the objects together, following Newton s third Law. Ex 1: What is the gravitational attraction between two people (m = 55 kg) sitting 1.6 m apart? Objects can often be treated as if all of there mass is focused at one point. This point is called the center of mass or center of gravity. For a uniform object this point is the middle of the object. (Provided you do not go inside a planet or object, this assumption is valid.) Ex 2: What is the gravitational force between a 120 kg person and the earth. Calculate this with g = 9.8 m/s 2, and using universal gravitation. 14

15 In the kinematics section we used the acceleration of gravity as 9.8m/s 2. This is called the gravitational field strength. To find g we can use Newton s second law. F g = mg g = F g m If we take a known mass, measure the force on it, we can calculate the gravitational field strength. Ex 3: On the moon, a 2.7 kg object experiences a gravitational force of 4.4 N. What is the gravitational field strength on the surface of the moon? Using the formula for Universal gravitation, we can calculate Fg. Combining this with the gravitational field strength: F g = Gm 1 m 2 r 2 g = F g m g = Gm r 2 Ex 4: Calculate the gravitational field strength on the surface of the earth, at the altitude of Mt. Everest (altitude = 8848 m), and at the distance of the orbit of the moon. pp , 28, 37, 41, 42, 46, 47, 53, 54, 56, 72, 73, 81,

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