CHEMISTRY. c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is density related to buoyancy? (Why do things float or sink?

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1 OGT questions by topic PHYSICAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY 1. Properties of Matter a. What are mass, volume, and density? b. How are they measured? c. What is the relationship between mass and volume? d. How is density related to buoyancy? (Why do things float or sink?) e. What is the Kinetic Molecular Theory and how is it related to the states of matter? f. Draw a typical heating curve of water from ice to a vapor. Describe the three major sections of the curve. g. What do the following terms mean and how do they relate to metals: malleable, reactive, conduction, and ductile? 2. Nature of Matter a. What are atoms and list the subatomic particles of an atom? b. What are the charges of the three main subatomic particles? c. Describe the Bohr model of an atom. d. What is the atomic number of an atom and how is it determined? e. What is the atomic mass of an atom and how is it determined? f. What are isotopes? g. What is the periodic table of elements and how are the elements arranged? h. How are the elements of a family similar? 3. Bonding of Atoms / Chemical Reactions a. What happens when two or more atoms bond? What is the difference between a covalent and an ionic bond? Describe an example of each. (You can draw a diagram.) b. What is a chemical formula? (What does it tell us about the compound?) c. What is the difference between a coefficient and a subscript?

2 d. What is a chemical equation? e. Name the parts of a chemical equation. f. Why must a chemical equation be balanced? ( Discuss the Law of Conservation of Mass). g. What is the difference between acids and bases? h. What is meant by ph and how does it apply to acids and bases? i. What is nuclear fission and how does it relate to radioactivity? j. What is nuclear fusion? k. What is nuclear decay and how does it impact half-life? l. What is the difference between exothermic and endothermic reactions? PHYSICS 4. Forces and Motion a. What is meant by frame of reference? b. Define force and name three examples of different types of forces acting on an object. c. What is Newton s First Law of Motion and give an example of this law. d. What is Newton s Second Law of Motion and give an example of this law. e. What is Newton s Third Law of Motion and give an example of this law. f. What is meant by inertia and momentum? g. What are the formulas for the following: speed and acceleration? h. What is the force of gravity? 5. Friction a. What causes friction between objects? b. Why heat produced during friction? c. Name three ways of increasing friction. d. Name three ways of decreasing friction. e. Describe friction in relationship to applied force. f. When would one want to increase friction?

3 g. When would one want to decrease friction? h. Name four places friction is found in a moving car and name one way of increasing and decreasing friction in each example. i. Name the best way of decreasing friction. 6. Nature of Energy a. What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy and name one example of each? What is the formula for each? b. Name five forms of energy and explain how one form of energy changes into another form. c. What is the Law of Conservation of Energy and how does it apply to energy transformation? d. What is the difference between conduction, radiation, and convection and name an example of each? e. What is the difference between fission and fusion? f. What is the difference between an exothermic and endothermic reaction? 7. Waves a. What do the following properties of waves mean: wavelength, amplitude, and frequency? b. What is meant by the following behaviors of waves: reflection, refraction, absorption, transmission, and diffraction? c. What is the difference between constructive and destructive interference? d. What is the electromagnetic spectrum and how does it relate to the frequency of waves? e. What are sound waves? f. How does the medium affect the transmission of sound waves? LIFE SCIENCE 8. Characteristics and Structure of Life a. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? b. What are organelles? Name 6 organelles and their functions. c. How does a plant and animal cell differ?

4 d. What is meant by homeostasis? e. What is the difference between osmosis and diffusion? f. What is the function of cilia and the flagella and where are they found? g. What is ATP? Where is it found? What is its function? 9. Heredity a. What is DNA and where is it found? b. What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis? c. What is a gene and what is its function? d. What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? e. What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive gene? f. Describe the alleles for a homozygous and a heterozygous set. g. Write a Punnett square. The genotype for the male is Tt and the genotype for the female is tt. T is dominant for tall and t is recessive for short. Describe the ratio of tall to short for the 4 offspring. h. What are sex-linked traits? i. Draw a Punnett square for color blindness. The mother has a recessive colorblind gene on one of its X chromosomes and the other X chromosome is normal. The male has a normal X and Y chromosome. j. What is a pedigree and how is it used? 10. Important Chemical Reactions in living things a. What is photosynthesis and where does it occur? b. What is the major product of photosynthesis? What is the major reactant? c. Why is this process important? d. Write the equation for photosynthesis. e. What is cellular respiration? f. What is the major product of cellular respiration? What is the major reactant? g. Write the equation for cellular respiration. h. What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration and name an example of each?

5 11. Diversity and Interdependence of Life a. What is meant by biodiversity? b. What is adaptation and why does it occur? c. How does extinction impact biodiversity? d. How does natural selection impact evolution? e. What is meant by taxonomy and how do scientists classify living things? f. What is meant by natural selection? g. What limits populations in ecosystems? 12. Food Webs a. What are the following and how are they related to each other: carnivore, herbivore, producer, and decomposer? b. What is a food web and what is the relationship between the levels in the web? c. How does energy travel through a food web? d. Why are producers at the bottom of a food web? 13. Human s and our Ecosystems a. Name three ways technology can impact our environment. b. How can governments affect our quality of life? EARTH SCIENCE 14. Earth Systems a. What is the rock cycle and how does it influence the three major rock types? b. Describe the external processes that shape the lithosphere: weathering, erosion, and mass wasting. c. What is groundwater and what is the human impact on our groundwater? d. How does the type of soil affect porosity, permeability, and our ground water?

6 15. Plate tectonics/ Geologic Time 16. Universe a. What is plate tectonics and describe 3 effects of this phenomenon? b. What is ocean floor spreading? c. What is continental drift? d. What did Alfred Wegener discover and why is it important? e. Why is the sequence of rocks in a rock cross-section important? f. How do we date rocks? g. What do folding and faulting of rocks mean? h. What are magnetic reversals? i. What is radiometric dating? j. What do the following have to do with plate tectonics: earthquakes, volcanoes, geysers, mountain building, and tsunamis? k. What is the law of superposition? a. What is the Big Bang Theory and which two elements were formed? b. What force was responsible for the formation of stars and galaxies? c. How does one know which elements are found in the universe? d. What are Kepler s first two laws of planetary movement? e. What factors contribute to the gravity of planetary objects? 17. Water Cycle a. What is the water cycle and why is it important? b. Name and define each component of the water cycle? c. What causes water to condense? d. Draw a typical water cycle.

7 18. Biomes/ Climate a. Name the six major biomes. b. How does climate and precipitation affect biomes? c. What is the relationship between biomes and bio-diversity? d. What are the following and how does the geographic locations affect them: tornado alley, tropical hurricanes, and lake effect snow? 19. Human effects on the Ecosystem a. What is the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy resources? b. Name three examples of each type of energy resource. c. What are fossil fuels? d. What are the consequences of using fossil fuels? e. Name three ways of reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. f. Name three ways of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. g. What is the greenhouse effect and why is it an important concept to understand? h. Name the causes and consequences of Global Warming. i. Discuss three new examples of the human impact on the environment. SCIENCE WAYS OF KNOWING/ SCIENCE INQUIRY/SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 20. Controlled experiment a. What is the difference between an independent and a dependent variable? b. Why does one change only one independent variable at a time during a controlled experiment? c. Why must an experiment be repeated? d. Describe a controlled experiment and name 3 variables that must be considered and name the independent variable that is being tested.

8 21. Ethics 22. Safety a. Define: ethics b. What ethical questions must one ask if one does an experiment on animals or humans? c. Name one ethical question in which there are no right or wrong answers. Pick a side and defend it with facts and your opinion. d. Why is it unethical for a scientist to do an experiment and not be exact when collecting data? What are the implications if a scientist changes some data to meet his/her conclusion? Name 5 safety rules that must be followed in a laboratory setting. 23. History of Science a. Why is it important for current scientists to study the discoveries of the past? b. What happens to models and conclusions as new data is collected? c. How do scientists convey new knowledge? 24. Technology a. What is the difference between science and technology? b. Name three examples of modern technology and describe how they have impacted society. c. What are some of the benefits and risks involved with technology? d. Name three current examples of emerging technology.

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