Introduction to Electric Potential


 Aldous Goodman
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1 Univesiti Teknologi MARA Fakulti Sains Gunaan Intoduction to Electic Potential : A Physical Science Activity Name: HP: Lab # 3: The goal of today s activity is fo you to exploe and descibe the electic potential poduced by and aound point chages and a configuation of like and opposite chages. At the end of the activity, students will be able to: 1. Poduce a model fo electical potential poduced by point chages and a chaged plate.. Descibe and obtain the elationship between electical foce, electical field and electical potential o voltage. Backgound Infomation Backgound: The activity befoe today investigated the electical foce acting on chages when those chages wee placed in the electic field of othe chages. We found that the electical field point away fom a positively chaged paticle (the field diveges) and points towads a negatively chaged paticle (the field conveges). It was also found that the stength of the field poduced by a point chage is invesely popotional to the squae of the distance fom the chage poducing the field and diectly popotional to the magnitude of the q q chage poducing that field, E and in equality fom is witten as, E = k. Expeiments by physicists in the past found that the electic (coulomb) constant has a fixed 1 9 N. m value of k = = 8.99x10. A chage placed in this field will expeience a foce. 4πε 0 C How is the foce elated to the field? How much enegy will be equied to move a chage against the electic field? How much wok is done in moving the chage? If a chage is moved along a path pependicula to the field lines, thee is no wok done (W = 0) since thee is no foce component along the path. No wok means no potential diffeence fom point to point. Hence, the potential is constant along paths pependicula to field lines. Such paths ae called equipotentials. Potential diffeence is easily ead by a voltmete, wheeas the measuement of foces would pesent numeous expeimental poblems. Investigation Electic Potential Pediction 1 Student Activity Ceated by D. JJ, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam Page 1 of 5
2 Pedict how the stength of the electic potential changes at adius of 10 cm until 100 cm aound (8 positions fo each distance) the chaged paticle. Note that 1 small box epesents 10 cm. 1 Wite down you pedictions in the cell below Figue 1.1a Figue 1.1b Activity 1: Configue the chages in the PhET simulation (chagesandfield) as in Figue 1a and Figue 1b. Measue the electic field and the electic potential at the distances specified. Use the electic field and the electic potential sensos espectively to measue the electic field and the electic potential at each of the adii 10 cm until 100 cm in incements of 10 cm. Recod the values (you will need to take the aveage eadings) in Table 1.1. In addition, calculate the following quantity: 1/ and the atios of n+1 / n and n / n+1. Table 1.1a: and the atios of and aound a positively chaged paticle cm avg 1/ m 1 1/ m  n+1 / n ( n / n+1 ) Ceated by D. JJ, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam Page of 5
3 Table 1.1b: and the atios of and aound a negatively chaged paticle cm avg 1/ m 1 1/ m  n+1 / n ( n / n+1 ) Pediction : Pedict how the stength of the electic field and the electic potential changes at adius of 10 cm until 190 cm between the chaged paticle in the Figues.a and.b. Note that 1 small box epesents 10 cm. 1 Wite down you pedictions in the cell below Figue.a Figue.b Activity : Configue the chages in the PhET simulation (chagesandfield) as in Figue.a and Figue.b. Measue the electic field and the electic potential at the distances specified. Ceated by D. JJ, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam Page 3 of 5
4 Use the electic field and the electic potential sensos espectively to measue the electic field and the electic potential at each of the adii 10 cm until 190 cm in incements of 10 cm. Recod the values (you will need to take the aveage eadings) in Table.. Table.a: and E between positively chaged paticles., cm, m,volts, volts E, /m E, /m avg, /m E avg, /m Table.b: and E between a positively and negatively chaged paticles., cm, m,volts, volts E, /m E, /m avg, /m E avg, /m Ceated by D. JJ, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam Page 4 of 5
5 Questions 1. How was you pediction compae to the data you collected?. Is thee a elationship between the electic potential and the position fom the chage poducing it? Sketch a gaph of potential vs., vs. 1/, fo all the cases. Explain the elationship epesented. Based on the esults and the gaphs, how would be mathematically modeled as a function of distance measued fom the chage? 3. How would the potential vay if the chage poducing it is inceased o deceased? What is the elationship between potential and the amount of chage? 4. Is thee anywhee along the line between the chages in case 1 and case in activity whee the electic potential is zeo? What would be the electic field at that point? What would happen to a chage placed at this point? Ceated by D. JJ, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam Page 5 of 5
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