The influenza A virus genome is segmented into linear molecules.

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1 An integrated stable genetic element in a eukaryotic cell A) can occur anywhere in the cellular DNA. B) is called a provirus. C) is analogous to the integration of phage DNA into a bacterial genome. A viroid A) is a small, circular, single-stranded RNA molecule. B) does not include a capsid of any kind. C) contains no protein-encoding genes. Influenza virus proteins are synthesized in the A) nucleus. B) cytoplasm. C) mitochondria. D) endoplasmic reticulum. The influenza A virus genome is segmented into linear molecules. A) four / single-stranded B) four / double-stranded C) eight / single-stranded D) eight / double-stranded What type of energy-yielding metabolism is only found in prokaryotes? A) Chemoorganotrophy B) Phototrophy C) Chemolithotrophy D) Autotrophy Biochemical synthesis of new cell material is called A) metabolism. B) anabolism. C) catabolism. D) synthatabolism. Phosphorus in microorganisms can be found in A) organic compounds. B) inorganic compounds. C) both organic and inorganic compounds. D) in neither organic nor inorganic compounds but in free elemental form in the cell. Chemoorganotrophs use which of the following as an energy source? A) Organic compounds B) Inorganic compounds C) Both organic and inorganic compounds D) Either organic or inorganic compounds, depending on the environment Which statement is not true? A) Most bacteria are capable of using ammonia as their sole nitrogen source. B) Some bacteria are able to use nitrates or nitrogen gas as their nitrogen source. 1

2 C) Most available nitrogen is in organic forms. D) Nitrogen is a major component of proteins and nucleic acids. All organisms require the following macronutrients: A) potassium, magnesium, sodium. B) phosphorus, potassium, sodium. C) calcium, potassium, magnesium. D) phosphorus, potassium, magnesium. Siderophores A) bind iron and transport it into the cell. B) are a key component in the cytochromes. C) help maintain osmotic balance in seawater microbes. D) develop when errors in membrane synthesis occur. Chemical energy is released when organic or inorganic compounds are A) oxidized. B) reduced. C) formed. D) incorporated into larger molecules. The most important high energy phosphate compound in living organisms is A) glucose. B) GTP. C) RNA. D) ATP. The net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose fermented is A) 1. B) 2. C) 4. D) 8. In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is A) hydrogen. B) oxygen. C) water. D) ATP. Chemolithotrophs are A) phototrophs. B) autotrophs. C) heterotrophs. D) organotrophs. The macronutrient which comprises about 50% of the dry weight of a typical bacterial cell is A) nitrogen. B) phosphorus. C) carbon. D) sodium. 2

3 Two specific cellular reactions in a cell which require energy from the proton motive force are A) transport and motility. B) respiration and fermentation. C) biosynthesis and polymerization. D) communication and metabolism. One example of an electron acceptor that can be used in anaerobic respiration is A) oxygen. B) water. C) nitrate. D) pyruvate. The bulk of a cell's energy expenditure goes toward the synthesis of what macromolecule? A) Lipids B) Nucleic acids C) Polysaccharides D) Proteins The term used to refer to all the chemical processes taking place with a cell is.. VERO/FALSO Reverse transcriptase is unique to the retroviruses. Lysogeny is limited to bacteriophages; similar relationships have not been found amongst the animal viruses. The phenomenon of overlapping genes is more common in very small viral genomes. BIOSYNTHESIS IS AN ENERGY REQUIRING PROCESS. A CHEMOTROPH USES CHEMICALS FOR ENERGY, WHILE A PHOTOTROPH USES LIGHT FOR ENERGY. CARBON AND NITROGEN ARE CONSIDERED TO BE MICRONUTRIENTS. ALL PROKARYOTES REQUIRE AN ORGANIC CARBON SOURCE. MOST MICROORGANISMS HAVE THE SAME GENERAL NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS SO MOST MICROORGANISMS CAN GROW ON BASICALLY THE SAME MEDIA. ALL FERMENTATIONS INVOLVE THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. IN ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS, THE ELECTRON CARRIERS ARE MEMBRANE ASSOCIATED. THE NET RESULT OF ELECTRON TRANSPORT IS THE GENERATION OF A PH GRADIENT AND AN ELECTROCHEMICAL POTENTIAL ACROSS THE MEMBRANE. 3

4 Growth is defined as an increase in A) the size of the individual organisms. B) the number of colonies present in a culture. C) the number of cells in a given locale. D) the life span of the individual cells. Which of these environmental factors influences microbial growth? A) ph B) Water availability C) Oxygen D) All of the above Most prokaryotic cellular reproduction is the result of A) conjugation. B) binary fission. C) meiosis. D) mitosis. Proteins involved in prokaryotic cell division are A) Fts proteins. B) MreB proteins. C) divisomes. D) none of these. The time interval required for the formation of two cells from one is called the A) generation time. B) growth time. C) growth rate. When the population doubles during each given unit of time, the growth is said to be A) linear. B) semilogarithmic. C) exponential. D) cartesian. The time between inoculation and the beginning of growth is usually called the A) lag phase. B) log phase. C) dormant phase. D) death phase. In general, compared to prokaryotic microorganisms, eukaryotic microorganisms grow A) more slowly. B) more rapidly. C) usually at about the same rate. D) at rates that are too variable to make an adequate comparison. Population growth is measured by A) changes in the number of cells. 4

5 B) changes in the weight of the cell mass. C) changes in the number of cells and in the weight of the cell mass. D) changes in the amount of nutrient in the culture medium. When doing a colony count A) it is assumed that each colony arose from only one organism. B) only viable cells are counted. C) the medium must be suitable for colonial growth. Serial dilutions are generally made A) to achieve a statistically accurate number of colonies. B) based on powers of 10, although other serial dilution factors are possible. C) when accurate counts cannot be otherwise obtained. The number of colonies obtained in a plate count does not depend on A) inoculum size. B) size of the colonies. C) type of culture medium. D) length of incubation. For most physiological experiments, it is usually most desirable for cells to be in the A) lag phase. B) exponential phase. C) stationary phase. D) death phase. The usual temperature range for most organisms is about A) 10ºC. B) 20ºC. C) 30-40ºC. D) 60ºC. The cytoplasmic membrane must be in a(n) state for proper functioning. A) stable B) fluid C) elastic D) neutral A microbe growing in a functioning refrigerator is probably a A) psychrophile. B) mesophile. C) thermophile. D) hyperthermophile. An organism capable of growth at full oxygen tensions of 21% is A) aerobic. B) microaerophilic. C) aerotolerant. 5

6 D) anaerobic. Which of the following forms of oxygen is generally toxic to living organisms? A) Superoxide anion B) Hydrogen peroxide C) Hydroxyl radical D) All of the above Superoxide dismutase and catalase work together to convert superoxide back to A) peroxide. B) oxygen. C) ozone. D) none of the above. What is the function of bactoprenol? A) It is a lipid carrier molecule that transports peptidoglycan precursors across the cytoplasmic membrane. B) It is the responsible for forming the peptide cross-links between muramic acid residues in adjacent glycan chains. C) It triggers the recruitment of FtsZ and the initiation of the divisome. D) It supplies the energy necessary for transpeptidation to occur. Because two or more cells may clump together, instead of saying "viable cell count" microbiologists often use the term. Genes encoding are widely used as target genes in molecular biodiversity studies. A) ATPases B) DNA polymerase III C) 16S rrna D) RNA polymerase The property of propidium iodide that makes it useful in determining the population of living cells in a culture is that A) It penetrates, and therefore stains only cells with disrupted cell membranes. B) It binds only to proteins on the membranes of living cells. C) It is readily metabolized by most cells. D) It is highly specific in its action, and therefore is very useful in natural samples. In microbial ecology, what does the "IS" stand for in the acronym FISH? A) Image standardization. B) In situ C) In silico D) Insertion sequence To use the FISH technique, one must have A) An antibody that is specific for a protein you wish to study. B) A DNA or RNA oligonucleotide that is homologous to a target sequence in the microbe that you want to study. C) your target organism growing in pure culture. 6

7 VERO/FALSO KNOWLEDGE OF MICROBIAL GROWTH PATTERNS IS USEFUL IN WORKING WITH THE CONTROL OF MICROBIAL GROWTH. AS MANY AS 2000 CHEMICAL REACTIONS MAY GO ON WITHIN AN INDIVIDUAL BACTERIAL CELL. WITH A FEW MINOR EXCEPTIONS, THE TIME REQUIRED FOR A BACTERIAL GROWTH CYCLE IS GENERALLY THE SAME, REGARDLESS OF THE BACTERIAL SPECIES. AN INCREASE IN MICROBIAL MASS WOULD BE SYNONYMOUS WITH GROWTH. AN EXPONENTIAL GROWTH CURVE CAN TYPICALLY BE PLOTTED FOR A MICROBIAL POPULATION IN A BATCH CULTURE. THE LAG PHASE CAN ONLY OCCUR IF ALL THE CELLS IN THE CULTURE ARE VIABLE. IN THE STATIONARY PHASE, THERE IS NO NET INCREASE OR DECREASE IN CELL NUMBER. THE DEATH PHASE APPLIES TO INDIVIDUAL CELLS RATHER THAN TO POPULATIONS. AS A RULE, DIRECT MICROSCOPE COUNT IS AN EASY AND ACCURATE METHOD OF COMPUTING THE EXACT NUMBER OF CELLS IN A SAMPLE. COUNTING CHAMBERS ARE USED FOR ESTIMATING THE NUMBER OF CELLS PRESENT. FOR MOST PURPOSES, VIABLE COUNTING USUALLY GIVES THE BEST AND THE MOST ACCURATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE CELLS PRESENT IN A CULTURE. ONE PROBLEM WITH BATCH CULTURES IS THE CHANGE IN THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE MEDIUM AS GROWTH PROGRESSES. NOT ALL ORGANISMS RESPOND EQUALLY TO A GIVEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR. COLD ENVIRONMENTS ARE USUALLY STERILE. SOME MICROBES CAN GROW IN BOILING WATER. TAQ POLYMERASE WAS ISOLATED FROM A THERMOPHILE AND IS USED IN THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TECHNIQUE. THE OPTIMAL GROWTH PH REPRESENTS THE PH OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. MANY OBLIGATE ANAEROBES ARE KILLED BY OXYGEN. A PURPOSE OF THE ENRICHMENT CULTURE TECHNIQUE IS TO SEPARATE DIFFERENT ORGANISMS FROM THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY ENRICHMENT CULTURES CAN BE ESTABLISHED BY PLACING THE INOCULUM INTO SELECTIVE MEDIA AND INCUBATING UNDER SPECIFIC CONDITIONS. ORGANISMS IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS CAN BE DETECTED BY ASSAYING FOR THE PRESENCE OF THEIR GENES. 7

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